Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, chronicling the Cambodian genocide. The site is a former secondary school, used as Security Prison 21 by the Khmer Rouge regime from its rise to power in 1975 to its fall in 1979. From 1976 to 1979, an estimated 20,000 people were imprisoned at Tuol Sleng. Tuol Sleng means "Hill of the Poisonous Trees" or "Strychnine Hill". Tuol Sleng was just one of at least 150 torture and execution centers established by the Khmer Rouge, though other sources put the figure at 196 prison centers. On July 26, 2010, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia convicted the chief of Tuol Sleng Prison, Kang Kek Iew, for crimes against humanity and grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and sentenced him to life imprisonment; the Chao Ponhea Yat High School, named after a royal ancestor of King Norodom Sihanouk, the five buildings of the complex were converted in March/April 1976 into a prison and interrogation center.
Before other buildings in town were used as prison S-21. The Khmer Rouge renamed the complex "Security Prison 21" and construction began to adapt the prison to the inmates: the buildings were enclosed in electrified barbed wire, the classrooms converted into tiny prison and torture chambers, all windows were covered with iron bars and barbed wire to prevent escapes and suicides. From 1976 to 1979, an estimated 20,000 people were imprisoned at Tuol Sleng. At any one time, the prison held between 1,000–1,500 prisoners, they were tortured and coerced into naming family members and close associates, who were in turn arrested and killed. In the early months of S-21's existence, most of the victims were from the previous Lon Nol regime and included soldiers, government officials, as well as academics, teachers, factory workers, engineers, etc; the party leadership's paranoia turned on its own ranks and purges throughout the country saw thousands of party activists and their families brought to Tuol Sleng and murdered.
Those arrested included some of the highest ranking communist politicians such as Khoy Thoun, Vorn Vet and Hu Nim. Although the official reason for their arrest was "espionage", these men may have been viewed by Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot as potential leaders of a coup against him. Prisoners' families were sometimes brought en masse to be interrogated and executed at the Choeung Ek extermination center. In 1979, the prison was uncovered by the invading Vietnamese army. In 1979/80, the prison was reopened by the government of the People's Republic of Kampuchea as a historical museum memorializing the actions of the Khmer Rouge regime. Upon arrival at the prison, prisoners were photographed and required to give detailed autobiographies, beginning with their childhood and ending with their arrest. After that, they were forced to strip to their underwear, their possessions were confiscated; the prisoners were taken to their cells. Those taken to the smaller cells were shackled to the walls or the concrete floor.
Those who were held in the large mass cells were collectively shackled to long pieces of iron bar. The shackles were fixed to alternating bars, they slept on the floor without mats, mosquito nets, or blankets. They were forbidden to talk to each other; the day in the prison began at 4:30 a.m. when prisoners were ordered to strip for inspection. The guards checked to see if the shackles were loose or if the prisoners had hidden objects they could use to commit suicide. Over the years, several prisoners managed to kill themselves, so the guards were careful in checking the shackles and cells; the prisoners received four small spoonfuls of rice porridge and watery soup of leaves twice a day. Drinking water without asking the guards for permission resulted in serious beatings; the inmates were hosed down every four days. The prison had strict regulations, severe beatings were inflicted upon any prisoner who tried to disobey; every action had to be approved by one of the prison's guards. They were sometimes forced to eat human feces and drink human urine.
The unhygienic living conditions in the prison caused skin diseases, rashes and other ailments. The prison's medical staff were untrained and offered treatment only to sustain prisoners' lives after they had been injured during interrogation; when prisoners were taken from one place to another for interrogation, they were blindfolded. Guards and prisoners were not allowed to converse. Moreover, within the prison, people who were in different groups were not allowed to have contact with one another. Most prisoners at S-21 were held there for two to three months. However, several high-ranking Khmer Rouge cadres were held longer. Within two or three days after they were brought to S-21, all prisoners were taken for interrogation; the torture system at Tuol Sleng was designed to make prisoners confess to whatever crimes they were charged with by their captors. Prisoners were beaten and tortured with electric shocks, searing hot metal instruments and hanging, as well as through the use of various other devices.
Some prisoners were cut with knives or suffocated with plastic bags. Other methods for generating confessions included pulling out fingernails while pouring alcohol on the wounds, holding prisoners' heads under water, the use of the waterboarding technique. Women were sometimes raped by the interrogators though sexual abuse was against Democratic Kampuchea policy; the perpetrators who were found out were executed. Alth
The Krâvanh Mountains the "Cardamom Mountains", is a mountain range in the south west of Cambodia and Eastern Thailand. The silhouette of the Cardamom Mountains appears in the provincial seal of Trat Province in Thailand; the mountain range extends along a southeast-northwest axis from Koh Kong Province on the Gulf of Thailand to the Veal Veang District in Pursat Province, is extended to the southeast by the Dâmrei Mountains. The northwestern end of the range in Chanthaburi Province, appears as the'Soi Dao Mountains' and as'Chanthaburi Range' in some maps. Dense tropical rainforest prevails on the wet western slopes which annually receive from 3,800 to 5,000 mm of rainfall. By contrast, only 40 to 60 inches fall in places like Kirirom National Park on the wooded eastern slopes in the rain shadow facing the interior Cambodian plain. On the eastern slopes and pepper are still grown commercially; the highest elevation of the Cardamom Mountains is Phnom Aural in the northeast at 1,813 metres. This is Cambodia's highest peak.
Phnom Samkos, Phnom Tumpor and Phnom Kmoch are other important summits. The mountains contain many historic sites from the 15th- to 17th-century, containing 60 cm exotic ceramic jars and rough-hewn log coffins set out on remote, natural rock ledges, scattered around the mountains; the jar burials are a unique feature of this region, forms a unrecorded burial practice in Khmer cultural history. Local legends suggest. A unique rock art cave site known as Kanam depicts ancient elephants, elephant riders and wild cow in red ochre paint; the site is located in the eastern part of the Cardamoms near Kravanh Township. The Cardamoms are home to one of the largest protected wild elephant populations in Southeast Asia; the human riders may represent elephant capture and training activities - a major cultural tradition among various ethnic groups in the area until the 1970s. Traditions and elephant populations were decimated by the Khmer Rouge Regime; the cave and paintings may have played important roles for rituals and magic used to placate ancestors and spirits.
Some of the paintings may be various species of wild buffalo. It is difficult to distinguish the possible cow from the possible deer representations due to the simple silhouette style. However, cowhides are important for lassoes, ropes and riggings related to elephant capture. Local elephant masters claimed there was more ritual and magic associated with these critical items than all others related to elephant capture. Thus, wild cow or buffalo representation might be expected; the large representation of deer may relate to the massive deerskin trade to Japan in the 15th - 17th centuries. Taiwan’s deer populations had been annihilated due to insatiable demands for Samurai armor and Japanese accessories made of deerskin. Deerskin sourcing shifted to Thailand; as deer populations decreased, local hunters may have resorted to more investment in magic and ritual to seek assistance from ancestors and spirits to increase luck. The paintings are thought to date from the late Angkorian period through the post-Angkor period.
The site may date to as early as the Funan period when the practice of capturing and trading live elephants was first noted. Whether or not elephant capture and use for labor and warfare existed prior to the Funan period is unknown, it is possible that the practice and knowledge was obtained through South Asian influence in the early first millennium AD. These paintings help with understanding the ecological history. Local ethnic groups were able to maintain and promote elephant populations through a somewhat symbiotic relation until the 20th century. Deer and wild cow/buffalo, may have been hunted to near extinction by the 15th - 17th centuries. Eld’s deer, sambar, gaur and banteng were far more prevalent in the past; this inaccessible mountain range formed one of the last strongholds of the Khmer Rouge, driven out by Vietnamese forces during the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. The Thai border to the west, acted as a conduit for Chinese support and a sanctuary for fleeing Khmer fighters and refugees.
The inaccessibility of the hills has helped to preserve the primeval forest and ecosystems of the area relative intact. In 2002, however, a transborder highway to Thailand was completed south of the Cardamoms, along the coast; the highway has fragmented habitats for large mammals such as big cats and monkeys. The highway has opened up for agricultural slash-and-burn projects and opportunistic poaching for endangered animals, all degrading the natural value and the forests ecosystems. Tourism is new to the Cardamom Mountains. In 2008, Wildlife Alliance launched a community-based ecotourism program in the village of Chi-Phat, marketed as the "gateway to the Cardamoms". Tourist visitors to Chi-Phat continue to grow and the community is regarded as a model for community-based ecotourism, with 3,000 annual visitors generating more than $US 150,000 for the local community. Internatio
Kampong Cham Province
Kampong Cham is a province of Cambodia located on the central lowlands of the Mekong River. It borders the provinces of Kampong Chhnang to the west, Kampong Thom and Kratié to the north, Tbong Khmum to the east, Prey Veng and Kandal to the south. Kampong Cham was divided into two provinces on 31 December 2013 in what was seen by many as a political move by the ruling party. All land west of the Mekong remained Kampong Cham while land east of the river became Tbong Khmum province. Prior to this division, Kampong Cham extended eastward to the international border with Vietnam, was the eleventh largest province in Cambodia, with a population of 1,680,694, was the most populous province in Cambodia, its capital and largest city is Kampong Cham. Kampong Cham means "Port of the Chams" in Khmer. Kampong means port, harbor. Cham refers to the ethnic Cham people living in the province; the word Kampong in Cham is shared in other Austronesian language, the Malaysian and Indonesian, both mean village. A symbol the province is known for is two snakes wrapped around each other, which located at the capital city bridge, Kampong Cham.
Kampong Cham is lowlands. The main river is the Mekong River which forms the eastern border of the province, separating it from Tbong Khmum province. Kampong Cham is subdivided into 9 districts and 1 municipality which in turn are subdivided into communes which are further divided into villages; the province consisted of 16 districts, however a request by Hun Sen's government to split the province in two was made after his ruling Cambodian People's Party lost the province to the opposition in the July 2013 elections. The CPP won only eight of the available 18 National Assembly seats in Hun Sen's home province; the request, ostensibly made in order to improve administrative efficiency in the large province, was approved by King Sihamoni on 31 December 2013. The 10 districts that remain in Khampong Cham province overwhelmingly voted for the opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party, led by Sam Rainsy, while five of the six districts cut out from Kampong Cham to form Tbong Khmum Province were won solidly by the CPP.
The last General elections were held on 28 July 2013, where the Cambodia National Rescue Party won a majority with 51.88% of the popular vote, compared to the CPP with. The CNRP won 10 seats. Kampong Cham was one of the five provinces that supported the opposition CNRP in 2013, despite the province being Hun Sen's birthplace. Bun Rany, President of Cambodian Red Cross Hang Thun Hak, former Prime Minister Hem Heng, diplomat Heng Samrin, Speaker of the National Assembly Hun Manet, son of Hun Sen Hun Neang, father of Hun Sen Hun Sen, Prime Minister In Tam, former Prime Minister Keng Vannsak, author Kong Korm, Senator Say Chhum, President of the Senate Sim Var, former Prime Minister Champa Kampong Cham, the capital of Kampong Cham province. Khmer people Map
Nuon Chea known as Long Bunruot or Rungloet Laodi, is a Cambodian former politician, the chief ideologist of the Khmer Rouge. He served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea, he was known as "Brother Number Two", as he was second-in-command to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, General Secretary of the Party, during the Cambodian Genocide of 1975–1979. In 2014, Nuon Chea received a life sentence for crimes against humanity, alongside another top-tier Khmer Rouge leader, Khieu Samphan, a further trial convicted him with the crime of genocide in 2018. Nuon Chea was born as Lau Kim Lorn at Voat Kor, Battambang in 1926. Nuon's father, Lao Liv, worked as a trader as well as a corn farmer, while his mother, Dos Peanh, was a tailor. An interview by a Japanese researcher in 2003 with Nuon Chea quoted that Liv was Chinese, while Peanh was the daughter of a Chinese immigrant from Shantou and his Khmer wife. In 2011, Chea told the Khmer Rouge Tribunal that he was only a quarter Chinese through his half-Chinese father.
As a child, Nuon Chea was raised in both Khmer customs. The family prayed at a Theravada Buddhist temple, but observed Chinese religious customs during the Lunar New Year and Qingming festival. Nuon Chea started school at seven, was educated in Thai and Khmer. In the 1940s, Nuon Chea studied law at Thammasat University in Bangkok and worked part-time for the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he began his political activities in the Communist Party of Siam in Bangkok. He was elected Deputy General Secretary of the Workers Party of Kampuchea in September 1960. In Democratic Kampuchea, he was known as "Brother Number Two." Unlike most of the leaders of Khmer Rouge, Chea did not study in Paris. As documented in the Soviet archives, Nuon Chea played a major role in negotiating the North Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1970, with the intent of forcing the collapse of Lon Nol's government: "In April–May 1970, many North Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia in response to the call for help addressed to Vietnam not by Pol Pot, but by his deputy Nuon Chea.
Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days." In 1970, in fact, Vietnamese forces occupied a quarter of the territory of Cambodia, the zone of communist control grew several times, as power in the so-called liberated regions was given to the CPK. At that time relations between Pol Pot and the North Vietnamese leaders were warm." The North Vietnamese trusted Nuon Chea more than Pol Pot or Ieng Sary, although Chea "consistently and consciously deceived the Vietnamese principals concerning the real plans of the Khmer leadership." As a result, "Hanoi did not undertake any action to change the power pattern within the top ranks of the Communist Party to their own benefit." As the proclaimed state legislature, the Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly held its first plenary session during 11–13 April 1976, Chea was elected president of its Standing Committee. He held office as acting prime minister when Pol Pot resigned for one month, citing health reasons.
According to Dmitry Mosyakov, "In October 1978, Hanoi still believed that'there were two prominent party figures in Phnom Penh who sympathized with Vietnam—Nuon Chea and the former first secretary of the Eastern Zone, So Phim.... Vietnamese hopes that these figures would head an uprising against Pol Pot turned out to be groundless: So Phim perished during the revolt in June 1978, while Nuon Chea, as it is known, turned out to be one of the most devoted followers of Pol Pot—he did not defect to the Vietnamese side.... It is difficult to understand why until the end of 1978 it was believed in Hanoi that Nuon Chea was'their man' in spite of the fact that all previous experience should have proved quite the contrary. Was Hanoi unaware of his permanent siding with Pol Pot, his demands that'the Vietnamese minority should not be allowed to reside in Kampuchea', his extreme cruelty, as well as of the fact that,'in comparison with Nuon Chea, people considered Pol Pot a paragon of kindness'?" Nuon Chea was forced to abandon his position as president of the Assembly, along with all others as the Vietnamese captured Phnom Penh in January 1979.
In December 1998, Chea surrendered as part of the last remnants of Khmer Rouge resistance, based in Pailin near the Thailand border. The government under Prime Minister Hun Sen, himself a former member of the Khmer Rouge, agreed to forsake attempts to prosecute Chea, a decision, condemned by the international community. On 19 September 2007, 81 year old Chea was arrested at his home in Pailin and flown to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal in Phnom Penh, which charged him with war crimes and crimes against humanity, he has since been held in detention. In February 2008, Chea told the court that his case should be handled according to international standards, he argued that the court should delay proceedings because his Dutch lawyer, Michiel Pestman, had not yet arrived. In May 2013, Chea told the court and the victims' families, "I feel remorseful for the crimes that were committed intentionally or unintentionally, whether or not I had known about it or not known about it." On 7 August 2014, the court convicted Chea of crimes against humanity and sentenced him to imprisonment for the remainder of his life.
His lawyer announced that Chea would appeal against his conviction. Chea faced a separate trial for the crime of genocide in the same court; the court found him and Khieu Samphan guilty of genocide against the Vietnamese people and th
Marshal Lon Nol was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister twice, as well as serving as Defense Minister. He led the military coup of 1970 against Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the self-proclaimed President of the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975. He was the founder and leader of the short-lived Social Republican Party, commander-in-chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces. After the Khmer Rouge took power, Lon Nol fled to the United States, remained there until his death in 1985. Nol was born in Prey Veng Province on November 1913, to a family of mixed Khmer-Chinese descent, his father Lon Hin was the son of a Khmer Krom from Tay Ninh Province who served as a district chief in Siem Reap and Kampong Thom, after making a name for himself'pacifying' bandit groups in Prey Veng. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Fujian province who became the governor of Prey Veng. Nol was educated in the privileged surroundings of the Lycée Chasseloup-Laubat in Saigon, followed by the Cambodian Royal Military Academy.
Nol found employment with the French colonial civil service in 1937. He became a magistrate, soon proved himself as an efficient enforcer of French rule against a series of anti-colonial disturbances in 1939. By 1946, he had risen to the post of Governor of Kratie Province, he became an associate of King Norodom Sihanouk, by the late 1940s, when he set up a right-wing, pro-independence political group, was becoming involved in the developing Cambodian political scene. Joining the army in 1952, he carried out military operations against the Viet Minh. After independence, Nol's nationalist Khmer Renovation party became the core of the Sangkum, the organisation set up by Sihanouk to participate in the 1955 elections. Sangkum won Sihanouk became Prime Minister. Nol was appointed the Army Chief of Staff in 1955, commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 1960, as well as serving as Defence Minister. At the time, he was a trusted supporter of Sihanouk, his police being instrumental in the suppression of the small, clandestine communist movement in Cambodia.
He was appointed deputy Premier in 1963. While Sihanouk – in an attempt to distance his country from the effects of the Vietnam War – was pursuing a foreign policy of "extreme neutrality", which involved association with China and toleration of North Vietnamese activity on the eastern borders, Nol remained friendly towards the United States, indicated that he regretted the ending of US aid after 1963; the 1966 parliamentary elections represented a major shift in the balance of power towards Lon Nol and the rightist elements of the Sangkum, as conservative and right-wing candidates were overwhelmingly elected. Lon Nol became Prime Minister, the following year troops carried out a savage repression of a leftist-inspired revolt, the Samlaut Uprising, in Battambang Province. Nol was injured in a car crash in 1967, temporarily retired from politics. In 1968, however, he returned as Minister of Defence and in 1969 became Prime Minister a second time, appointing the vocally anti-Sihanouk, pro-US politician Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak as his deputy.
Sihanouk claimed that the 1970 coup against him was the result of an alliance between his longstanding enemy, exiled politician Son Ngoc Thanh and Sirik Matak, with CIA support and planning. Although there are indications that Lon Nol approached the US during 1969 to gauge the likelihood of military support for a coup against Sihanouk, there is no concrete evidence of CIA involvement, though it remains possible some military intelligence agents may have had partial responsibility, it seems that in setting in motion the events leading up to the coup, Lon Nol intended to strengthen his position against the North Vietnamese with the ultimate aim of preventing their troops from operating within Cambodian borders, wished to apply pressure on Sihanouk to achieve this. However, events developed far beyond the original plan, with the encouragement of Sirik Matak – who wished to see Sihanouk deposed as Head of State – Lon Nol was to engineer Sihanouk's removal. While Sihanouk was abroad during March 1970, there were anti-Vietnamese riots in Phnom Penh.
On 12 March, Lon Nol and Sirik Matak closed the port of Sihanoukville, through which weapons were being smuggled to the Viet Cong, to the North Vietnamese and issued an ultimatum: all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were to withdraw from Cambodian soil within 72 hours or face military action. Lon Nol refused to countenance Sihanouk being deposed as Head of State. However, the Prime Minister remained uncertain as to whether to instigate a vote in the National Assembly. On the night of 17 March, Sirik Matak, accompanied by three army officers, went to the Prime Minister's residence and compelled a weeping Lon Nol to sign the necessary documents at gunpoint. A vote was taken in the National Assembly on 18 March. General Lon Nol assumed the powers of the Head of State on an emergency basis. On 28 and 29 March there were large-scale popular demonstrations in favour of Sihanouk in several provincial cities, but Lon Nol's forces suppressed them, causing several hundred deaths; the Khmer Republic was formally declared that October, Sihanouk – who had formed a government-in-exile, the GRUNK, incorporating th
American Refugee Committee
The American Refugee Committee is an international nonprofit, nonsectarian organization that has provided humanitarian assistance and training to millions of beneficiaries over the last 30 years. In 2011, ARC helped nearly 2.5 million people get essential services to regain their health and take back control of their lives. ARC works with its partners and constituencies to provide opportunities and expertise to communities of refugees and internally displaced persons in seven countries in Africa and Europe, including Iraq, in the Darfur region of Sudan and is providing for emergency relief and recovery in Haiti. ARC provides shelter, clean water and sanitation, health care, skills training, microcredit education, protection to help survivors of war and natural disasters to rebuild their lives with dignity, health care and self-sufficiency. Moved by the plight of millions of men and children affected by the conflict in Southeast Asia, Chicago businessman Neal Ball founded the American Refugee Committee in 1979.
One of ARC's first programs opened at Khao-I-Dang refugee camp in Thailand in late 1979. ARC provided medical and public health services at Nong Samet Refugee Camp, Phanat Nikhom, Ban Vinai Refugee Camp and Site Two Refugee Camp until 1993, when the camps closed and ARC turned its attention to programs inside Cambodia. ARC provided health and laboratory services at Khao Phlu Refugee Camp from 1997 until 1999. ARC pioneered the treatment of tuberculosis in refugee-camp settings using an innovative program structure that other international agencies had argued was not feasible. Agriculture & Food Security Refugee and IDP Camp Management Capacity building and Training Community Development Community Health Education Community Reconciliation and Reintegration Disaster Preparedness Disease Prevention and Control Emergency Health Care Emergency Obstetrics Gender-based violence Prevention and Response HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Immunizations Income Generation Infectious Disease Prevention Legal Assistance Microenterprise Development Microfinance Maternal-Child Health Care Primary Health Care Protection of Vulnerable Groups Psychosocial Support Rapid Emergency Response Refugee Return and Reintegration Reproductive Health Care Savings and Loans Associations Shelter Construction and Rehabilitation Small Business and Vocational Training Sports and Recreation Programs Through Our Eyes Participatory Video Communication Water supply and Sanitation ServicesARC has humanitarian programs and provides medical care, protection services, clean water, community development support and help for women who have suffered violence, as well as other opportunities to help refugees.
ARC Programs. In Africa, ARC has programs in Liberia, Darfur, Uganda and Sierra Leone. In Asia, ARC programs are concentrated in Thailand. In Pakistan, ARC has been working with to help civilians who have fled fighting between the government and the Taliban in northwest Pakistan. ARC responded to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, providing relief services in Sri Lanka and Indonesia and a Fishing Boat Project in Thailand. On January 12, 2010 a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck just outside Port-au-Prince. The capital city and surrounding towns were destroyed and a million people were left homeless. 50,000 were reported to have died. On January 14, the first ARC emergency response team members arrived in Port-au-Prince, they started planning the response, hiring local staff, coordinating with the United Nations and other partners. In the following days and weeks additional staff with expertise in emergency response, health, water/sanitation and protection arrived in Haiti. ARC distributed food to 2,200 people in the Delmas district of Port-au-Prince, 1,000 hygiene and kitchen kits in the Nazon district.
On January 26, ARC began managing settlement of 5,000 people in Terrain Acra district of Port-au-Prince, working with multiple relief agencies. In the next few months the camp size grew to 25,000 people. Of the 19 most crowded settlements, Terrain Acra was the only one with an organization overseeing and coordinating relief activities. Four cargo planes carrying 90,000 pounds of donated emergency medical and shelter supplies arrived in Port-au-Prince from Minneapolis. In Terraine Acra ARC opened a health clinic, distributed shelter materials, built latrines and sanitation systems. On February 9, the first three child-friendly spaces opened in the Terraine Acra settlement. 300 children were expected and 1,000 showed up. On April 10, United Nations Deputy Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migiro visited ARC's camp in Terrain Acra. ARC is working with the local community and coordinating with international and local NGOs to help people survive and rebuild; the American Refugee Committee team has been responding to the refugee crisis on the border between Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia since December 2010, constructing shelters to house refugees in Nimba County, Liberia.
On Sunday June 20, 2010 ARC's Rapid Response Team arrived in Osh, Kyrgyzstan to assess the situation and the needs of the affected communities. In the fall of 2003, ARC launched a program to assist those, displaced by the Second Liberian Civil War. ARC began providing services to people living in camps at Brown’s Town and Unification Town and continues serving those locations today. Today, there are millions of Afghan refugees living in refugee camps in Pakistan’s Baluchistan Province; some fled the oppression of others the Soviet invasion in the 1980s. For years they have known no way of life other than in the camps. Entire generations have grown up without the right to move about or the possibility to make a living for their families. ARC provides pr
Beijing Foreign Studies University
Beijing Foreign Studies University, popularly known as Běiwài in Mandarin and BFSU in English, is a university located in Beijing, China. BFSU boasts of the oldest language programs in China, offering the largest number of foreign language majors on different educational levels. Located in the Haidian District of Beijing, BFSU is divided into two campuses – the West Campus and the East Campus. BFSU is China's pre-eminent research university specializing in foreign studies according to recent collegiate rankings, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines. Beijing Foreign Studies University ranked the 19th out of 2,879 universities in China according to the statistics conducted on scores of test takers from 2012 to 2018 for Chinese national college entrance examination,“高考”. 10 million high schoolers take Gaokao per annum. This university is well-known as one international studies in China. According to Australian information company uniRank™ world rank, Beijing Foreign Studies University ranked 351th in 2019.
According to QSworld university rankings, Beijing Foreign Studies University ranked the 751-800th in 2019, 651-700th back in 2018. The reason is that Beijing Foreign Studies University is too focused on teaching foreign language and liberal arts. BFSU’s alumni are well-known for Chinese diplomacy circles, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in China. Around 400 ambassadors and over 1,000 counselors graduated from BFSU, in pursuit of high level of foreign language proficiency. BFSU is thus known as “Cradle of Diplomats”. BFSU was affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from its establishment in 1941 to the early 1980s and was classified a key university under the Ministry of Education. BFSU is praised for offering the widest range of language studies in China: as of December 2016, there are 84 foreign languages being taught in this university. BFSU qualified for the first round of the competition in its efforts to enter Project 211, a university development programme launched by the Ministry of Education in 1996.
BFSU is directly under the leadership of the Chinese Ministry of Education. BFSU is one of China’s top universities listed under “Project 985 platform” and “Project 211”. Both government-sponsored campaigns selected BFSU to governmentally support BFSU. International students attending BFSU’s international business school are privileged to attain good proficiency of both English and Chinese through its intensive language training programs during a 4-year of undergraduate program; those of whom in business majors can attend core business classes where all courses are taught in English designed for foreign students. BFSU has more than 1,000 international students from all over more than 100 countries. South Korean, German and Japanese students are the largest ethnic groups on campus; some foreign students study only in Chinese with Chinese students but most of the international foreign students select IBS undergraduate program, taught in English and can take Chinese language courses. More than 70 years, over 90,000 people have graduated from the Beijing Foreign Studies University.
BFSU now serves as an important education base for qualified professionals with language competence which has nurture them to turn their careers to diplomats, translators/interpreters, journalists, bankers, etc. International Business School School of International Relations and Diplomacy School of English and International Studies School of Law School of English for Specific Purposes School of European Languages and Cultures School of International Journalism and Communication School of Asian and African Studies School of Arabic Studies School of Russian School of Marxism School of Chinese Language and Literature School of Art and Research Graduate School for Translation and Interpreting Department of French Department of German Department of Spanish and Portuguese Department of Japanese Department of Computer Science Department of Physical Education National Research Center for Foreign Language EducationThis centre has so-called corpus researchers, they have compiled corpora, such as simple Chinese English learners' corpora, parallel corpora of Chinese-English translation.
They have some corpora on the CQPweb. Center For Central And Eastern European Studies Center For Japanese Studies British Studies Center Canadian Studies Center National Research Center For Development Of Language Aptitude Beijing Cultural Exchanges And World Culture Research Base Joint Innovative Center For Outbound Of Chinese Culture China Language Assessment Institute For Global History Beijing Center For Japanese Studies National Research Center Of Overseas Sinology Research Institute Of Foreign Literature Research Institute Of Foreign Languages Institute Of International Studies World Language And Culture Research Center Center For Public Diplomacy Studies Research Center Of The United Nations And International Organizations Center For Chinese And Foreign Anti-Corruption Legal Research Information Center For Worldwide Asia Research Institute For Higher Education BFSU Center For Education Law African Language And Culture Studies Center Silk Road Research Institute BFSU Center For Intellectual Property Law BFSU Zayed Center For Arabic Language And Islamic Studies Center For Deutsche Culture Russian Language Center Center For International Dispute Settlement Center For American And English Legal Studies BFSU Off-Campus Law Training Base BFSU Canadian Studies Center BFSU Center For Belgian French Stu