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Kang Youwei

Kang Youwei was a Chinese philosopher and politician. He was a noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty. Through his connections, he became close to the young Guangxu Emperor and fervently encouraged him to promote his friends and soured the relationship between the emperor and his adoptive mother, the powerful Empress Dowager Cixi, his ideas inspired a reformation movement. Although he continued to advocate a constitutional monarchy after the founding of the Republic, Kang's political theory was never put into practice as he was forced to flee China for repeated attempts to assassinate the empress dowager, he was internationalist. Kang was born on 19 March 1858 in Guangdong province. According to his autobiography, his intellectual gifts were recognized in his childhood by his uncle; as a result, from an early age, he was sent by his family to study the Confucian classics to pass the Chinese civil service exams. However, as a teenager, he was dissatisfied with the scholastic system of his time its emphasis on preparing for the eight-legged exams, which were artificial literary exercises required as part of the examinations.

Studying for exams was an extraordinarily rigorous activity so he engaged in Buddhist meditation as a form of relaxation, an unusual leisurely activity for a Chinese scholar of his time. It was during one of these meditations that he had a mystical vision that became the theme for his intellectual pursuits throughout his life. Believing that it was possible to read every book and "become a sage", he embarked on a quasi-messianic pursuit to save humanity. Kang called for an end to property and the family in the interest of an idealized future cosmopolitan utopia and cited Confucius as an example of a reformer and not as a reactionary, as many of his contemporaries did; the latter idea was discussed in great detail in his work Kongzi Gaizhi Kao, or Study of the Reforms of Confucius. He argued, to bolster his claims that the rediscovered versions of the Confucian classics were forged, as he treated in detail in Xinxue weijing kao. Kang was a strong believer in constitutional monarchy and wanted to remodel the country after Meiji Japan.

These ideas angered his colleagues in the scholarly class. Kang and his noted student, Liang Qichao, were important participants in a campaign to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform; the reforms introduced radical change into the stale Chinese government, many of which were being implemented. By most popular historical accounts, the Empress Dowager ended the reforms and ordered Kang executed by slow slicing. Kang organized the Protect the Emperor Society, which claimed that the weak emperor was being unduly locked up for his role in the assassination attempt on his adoptive mother/aunt. Kang relied on his principal American military advisor, General Homer Lea to head the military branch of the Protect the Emperor Society. Kang traveled throughout the Chinese diaspora to promote constitutional monarchy but to promote his own self-interest, he competed with the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen's Revive China Society and Revolutionary Alliance for funds and followers. He visited India twice, first in 1901–1903 and again in October 1909, in part to study India, which he regarded as comparable to China.

Although his information about Indian history was derived from English authors, he observed that India's plight as a colonised country was due to the disunity among the different regions of India. The Xinhai Revolution led to the abdication of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Republic under Sun Yat-sen in 1912; some advocated that a Han be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, the Duke Yansheng, which Kang endorsed before dropping the idea and returning to the idea of a Qing monarch, or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace. Kang remained an advocate of constitutional monarchy and launched a failed coup d'état in 1917. General Zhang Xun and his queue-wearing soldiers occupied Beijing, declaring a restoration of Emperor Puyi on July 1; the incident was a major miscalculation. The nation was anti-monarchist. Kang became suspicious of Zhang's insincere constitutionalism and feared he was using the restoration to become the power behind the throne.

He fled to the American legation. On July 12, Duan Qirui occupied the city. Kang's reputation serves as an important barometer for the political attitudes of his time. In the span of less than twenty years, he went from being regarded as an iconoclastic radical to an anachronistic pariah. In Jung Chang's biography of the Empress Dowager, he is depicted as a self-serving zealot, always seeking personal power above national considerations. Kang's best-known and most controversial work is Da Tong shu; the title of the book derives from the name of a utopian society imagined by Confucius, but it means "The Book of Great Unity". The ideas of this book appeared in his lecture notes from 1884. Encouraged by his students, he worked on this book for the next two decades, but it was not until his exile in India that he finished the first draft; the first two chapters of the book were published in Japan in the 1900s, but the book was not published in its entirety until 1935, about seven years after his death.

Kang proposed a utopian future world free of political boundaries and democratically ruled by one central government. In his scheme, the world would be split into rectangular ad

Crystallin, beta A1

Beta-crystallin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA1 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, ubiquitous; the latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and retained throughout life, making them stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha and gamma families. Alpha and beta families are further divided into basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension. Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins; this gene, a beta acidic group member, encodes two proteins from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 and is generated by use of an alternate translation initiation site.

Deletion of exons 3 and 4 causes the autosomal dominant disease'zonular cataract with sutural opacities'

A Horrible Way to Die

A Horrible Way to Die is a 2010 American horror film directed and edited by Adam Wingard, written by co-producer Simon Barrett, starring AJ Bowen, Amy Seimetz, Joe Swanberg, Brandon Carroll, Lane Hughes. The story follows an escaped serial killer as he chases down his recovering alcoholic ex-girlfriend, responsible for his incarceration; the film had its world premiere at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival Vanguard program where it was picked up for distribution by Anchor Bay Entertainment. It played at Fantastic Fest where it received three major awards: Best Screenplay for Simon Barrett, Best Actor for AJ Bowen and Best Actress for Amy Seimetz. In rural Missouri, serial killer Garrick Turrell escapes from police custody and resumes taking the lives of strangers while searching for his ex-girlfriend, Sarah. Meanwhile, having met at group therapy for recovering alcoholics and Kevin begin to develop a tentative relationship; as the body count builds, Turrell makes his way to Sarah's new location just as she seems to be getting her life in order.

Barrett estimated the budget at $75,000. A Horrible Way to Die debuted on 14 September 2010 at the Toronto International Film Festival and opened in other film festivals on the dates given below; the film has been shown as a special Valentine's Day screening at the independent Showroom cinema in Sheffield, UK. A Horrible Way to Die was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc in the United States on September 6, 2011. Bonus materials include audio commentary with director/editor Adam Wingard and writer/producer Simon Barrett and a Behind The Scenes of A HORRIBLE WAY TO DIE featurette; the review-aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes reports a score of 60%, with an average rating of 6.35 out of 10, based on 10 reviews from critics. On Metacritic the film received "Mixed or average reviews", with an overall weighted average score of 52 out of 100, based on five critics. Dennis Harvey of Variety wrote that the film is "strongly reminiscent of Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer" but lacks that film's impact.

Jeannette Catsoulis of The New York Times called it "a restrained, ripely atmospheric thriller that relies more on mood than on special effects". Official website A Horrible Way to Die at AllMovie A Horrible Way to Die on IMDb

Australia–New Zealand Maritime Treaty

The Australia–New Zealand Maritime Treaty is a 2004 treaty between Australia and New Zealand in which the two countries formally delimited the maritime boundary between the two countries. The treaty was signed in Adelaide on 25 July 2004 by Foreign Minister of Australia Alexander Downer and Foreign Minister of New Zealand Phil Goff, it formalised the ocean borders, de facto recognised by both countries since the early 1980s, when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was created. The treaty defines the boundaries between Australia and New Zealand's exclusive economic zones and continental shelf claims, it defines two separate maritime boundaries, both of which are approximate median points between Australian and New Zealand territory. The two separate boundaries are not connected; the first and more northern boundary separates the North Island and Three Kings Islands of New Zealand from Australia's Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. The northern boundary is composed of 27 individual straight-line segments defined by 28 separate coordinate points.

The second and more southern boundary defined by the treaty separates Australia's Macquarie Island from New Zealand's Auckland Island and Campbell Island. The southern boundary is composed of nine individual straight-line maritime segments defined by ten separate coordinate points; the treaty came into effect on 25 January 2006. The full name of the treaty is Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of New Zealand establishing certain Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf Boundaries. Charney, Jonathan I. David A. Colson, Robert W. Smith.. International Maritime Boundaries, 5 vols. Hotei Publishing: Leiden. ISBN 9780792311874.

The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today

The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today is a novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner first published in 1873. It satirizes greed and political corruption in post-Civil War America. Although not one of Twain's best-known works, it has appeared in more than 100 editions since its original publication. Twain and Warner had planned to issue the novel with illustrations by Thomas Nast; the book is remarkable for two reasons—it is the only novel Twain wrote with a collaborator, its title quickly became synonymous with graft and corruption in public life. The novel gave the era its name: the period of U. S. history from the 1870s to about 1900 is now referred to as the Gilded Age. Charles Dudley Warner, a writer and editor, was a neighbor and good friend of Mark Twain in Hartford, Connecticut. According to Twain's biographer, Albert Bigelow Paine, their wives challenged Twain and Warner at dinner to write a better novel than what they were used to reading. Twain wrote the first 11 chapters, followed by 12 chapters written by Warner.

Most of the remaining chapters were written by only one of them, but the concluding chapters were attributed to joint authorship. The entire novel was completed between February and April 1873. Contemporary critics, while praising its humor and satire, did not consider the collaboration a success because the independent stories written by each author did not mesh well. A review published in 1874 compared the novel to a badly mixed salad dressing, in which "the ingredients are capital, the use of them faulty." The term gilded age given to the era, comes from the title of this book. Twain and Warner got the name from Shakespeare's King John: "To gild refined gold, to paint the lily... is wasteful and ridiculous excess." Gilding gold, which would be to put gold on top of gold, is excessive and wasteful, characteristics of the age Twain and Warner wrote about in their novel. Another interpretation of the title, of course, is the contrast between an ideal "Golden Age" and a less worthy "Gilded Age", as gilding is only a thin layer of gold over baser metal, so the title now takes on a pejorative meaning as to the novel's time and people.

The novel concerns the efforts of a poor rural family to become affluent by selling in a timely manner the 75,000 acres of unimproved land acquired by their patriarch, Silas "Si" Hawkins. After several adventures in Tennessee, the family fails to sell the land and Si Hawkins dies; the rest of the Hawkins story line focuses on their beautiful adopted daughter Laura. In the early 1870s, she travels to Washington, D. C. to become a lobbyist. With a senator's help, she enters society and attempts to persuade congressmen to require the federal government to purchase the land. A parallel story written by Warner concerns two young upperclass men, Philip Sterling and Henry Brierly, who seek their fortunes in land in a novel way, they make a journey with a group intent on surveying land in Tennessee in order to acquire it for speculation. Philip is plodding, he is in love with an aspiring physician and feminist. Henry is a born salesman, charming but superficial; the theme of the novel is that the lust for getting rich through land speculation pervades society, illustrated by the Hawkinses as well as Ruth's well-educated father, who cannot resist becoming enmeshed in self-evidently dubious money-making schemes.

The Hawkins sections, including several humorous sketches, were written by Twain. Examples are the steamboat race that leads to a wreck and Laura's toying with a clerk in a Washington bookstore. Notable too is the comic presence throughout the book of the eternally optimistic and eternally broke Colonel Beriah Sellers, a Micawber-like character; the character was named Escol Sellers in the first edition and changed to Beriah when an actual George Escol Sellers of Philadelphia objected. A real Beriah Sellers turned up, causing Twain to use the name Mulberry Sellers in The American Claimant; the Sellers character was modeled after James Lampton, Twain's maternal cousin, the land-purchase plot parallels Twain's father's purchase of a Tennessee parcel whose prospective sale, Twain wrote in his autobiography "kept us hoping and hoping, during 40 years, forsook us at last."The main action of the story takes place in Washington, D. C. and satirizes the corruption of the governing class. Twain satirizes the social pretensions of the newly rich.

Laura's Washington visitors include "Mrs. Patrique Oreille", the wife of "a wealthy Frenchman from Cork", indicating the O'Reilly family has altered their last name to hide their Irish origins; the book does not touch upon other themes now associated with the "Gilded Age", such as industrialization and the corruption of urban political machines. This may be because this book was written at the beginning of the period. In the end, Laura fails to convince Congress to purchase the Hawkins land, she kills her married lover but is found not guilty of the crime, with the help of a sympathetic jury and a clever lawyer. However, after a failed attempt to pursue a career on the lecture circuit, her spirit is broken, she dies regretting her fall from innocence. Washington Hawkins, the eldest son, who has drifted through life on his father's early promise that he would be "one of the richest men in the world" gives up the family's ownership of the still-unimproved land parcel when he cannot afford to pay its $180 of taxes.

He appears ready to overcome his passivity: "The spell is broken, the life-long curse is ended!" Philip, drawing upon his engineering skills, discovers coal on Mr. Bolton's land, wins Ruth Bolton's heart and appears destined to enjoy a prosperous and conventio

Custer Military Trail Historic Archaeological District

The Custer Military Trail Historic Archeological District is a national historic district consisting of 18,149 acres located in Billings and Golden Valley Counties in North Dakota. The district includes five historic sites associated with the Plains Indian War from 1864 to 1876; the historic sites include Initial Rock, a site where George Custer's 7th Cavalry Regiment camped on May 28, 1876, en route to Little Bighorn. Two privates in Custer's regiment, W. C. Williams and F. Neely, carved their initials into a sandstone boulder at the site; the district includes two additional military campsites, the site of the Battle of the Badlands, portions of a military supply trail. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009; the district has five contributing sites