In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhishthira was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti and the king of Indraprastha and of Hastinapura. He was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War. At the end of the epic, he ascended to heaven, he was blessed with the spiritual vision of second sight by a celestial Rishi as a boon. The word Yudhishthira means "the one, steady in the war", from the words, yuddha meaning'war', sthira meaning'steady', his other names are- Bharata Vanshi – descendant of Bharata Ajatashatru – one without enemies Dharmanandan - The son of Dharma Dharmaraj - Lord of Dharma Once a Brahmin rishi and his wife were making love in the forest when Yudhishthira's father Pandu accidentally shot at them, mistaking them for deer. Before dying, Kindama cursed the king to die. Due to this curse, Pandu was unable to father children; as an additional penance for the murder, Pandu abdicated the throne of Hastinapura, his blind brother Dhritarashtra took over the reins of the kingdom.
After knowing the curse of Pandu, Kunti told him that he could be the father of child and told her boon of sage Durvasa. Pandu requested Kunti to apply her boon and suggested to call Dharma to get a truthful and justice knowing son who can rule Hastinapur. On the full moon of May first and eldest Pandavas Yudhishthira born. Yudhishthira's four younger brothers were Bhima,. If Karna, the son of Kunti born before her marriage by invoking Surya is counted, Yudhishthira would be the second-eldest of Kunti's children. Yudhishthira was trained in religion, science and military arts by the Kuru preceptors and Drona, he became a master in using the spear and war chariot. It is said that his spear was so strong that it could penetrate a stone wall as though it were a piece of paper, his chariot always flew at a 4 finger distance above the ground due to his piety. Yudhishthira had two wives and Draupadi. Devika was his first wife. Devika married Yudhishthira in her swayamwara; when Yudhishthira was the crown prince of Hastinapur Yudhishthira attained Devika's Swayamvara and Devika chose him.
Devika was the daughter of King Shivi. It said in some tales that Devika used to love Yudhishthira and Devika was his first love. After the Lakshyagriha episode, the Pandavas disguised. Here, they attended the Swayamwara of Draupadi, the princess of Panchala and the daughter of King Drupada. Arjuna, the younger brother of Yudhishthira, participated in her swayamwara and succeeded in winning her hand in marriage. After the swayamvara, Arjuna along with his brothers, treaded towards the hut where their mother Kunti was waiting for them; as soon as they reached the hut, Arjuna called his mother in delight and said, "Look what we have got as alms". Kunti, praying at that moment, without looking what it was, commanded "Whatever Arjuna has received as alms should be distributed amongst the five brothers." Hence Draupadi was married off to all the five brothers. But, Mahabharata indirectly shows the attraction between five Pandavas and Draupadi. Yudhishthira's first love and wife, his empress was Draupadi.
After the coronation at Indraprastha, Yudhishthira set out to perform the Rajasuya yagna. Arjuna, Bhima and Sahadeva led armies across the four corners of the world to obtain tributes from all kingdoms for Yudhishthira's sacrifice; the non-compliant Magadha king, Jarasandha was defeated by Krishna. At his sacrifice, Yudhishthira chose Krishna as his honoured guest. Yudhishthira succumbed to Shakuni's challenge in the Pachisi, he lost his brothers and Draupadi. While playing for second time, he lost all his kingdom in the game and was forced into exile for 13 years, which included one year in anonymity. During their exile, the four other Pandavas happened upon a lake, haunted by a Yaksha; the Yaksha challenged the brothers to answer his moral questions before drinking the water. As a result, they died. Yudhishthira went in last, answered many questions put forth to him by the Yaksha and revived his brothers; this story is cited as an example of Yudhishthira's upright principles. The Yaksha identified himself as Yudhishthira's father and pointed them to the kingdom of Matsya to spend their last year in exile anonymously.
Along with his brothers, Yudhishthira spent his last year of exile in the kingdom of Matsya. He disguised himself as a Brahmin taught the game of dice to the king; when the period of exile was completed, Duryodhana refused to return Yudhishthira's kingdom. Yudhishthira made numerous diplomatic efforts to retrieve his kingdom peacefully but in vain, he was convinced by Krishna to wage war. The flag of Yudhishthira's chariot bore the image of a golden moon with planets around it. Two large and beautiful kettle-drums, called Nanda and Upananda, were tied to it. Before the war started, Yudhisthitra sep down of his chariot to take blessings firm his grand sire Bhishma, teachers Drona and Kripa and uncle Shalya, who all were in his opposite side in the war showing his respect towards his elders. Yudhishthira had to bend numerous rules of Dharma during the course of the war. Krishna made him trick Drona
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Kangra is the most populous district of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Dharamshala is the administrative headquarters of the district, it is the home of the Masrur Temples known as the Himalayan Pyramids. Kangra is known for having the oldest serving Royal Dynasty in the Katoch. In 1758, Raja Ghamand Chand was appointed governor of Jullundur Doab under the Afghans. Ghamand Chand was a strong ruler who restored the prestige of Kangra; as he was unable to capture Kangra fort, he built another fort at Tira Sujanpur on the left bank of the Beas opposite to Alampur on a hill overlooking the town. He died in 1774 and was succeeded by his son, Tegh Chand, who died too soon in 1775. Kangra was annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Sikh Empire in 1810. Kangra became a district of British India in 1846, when it was ceded to British India at the conclusion of the First Anglo-Sikh War; the British district included the present-day districts of Kangra, Hamirpur and Lahul and Spiti. Kangra District was part of the British province of Punjab.
The administrative headquarters of the district were at Kangra, but were moved to Dharamshala in 1855. According to the 2011 census Kangra district has a population of 1,507,223 equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii; this gives it a ranking of 331st in India. The district has a population density of 263 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 12.56%. Kangra has a sex ratio of 1013 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 86.49%. District Highlights of 2011 Census Kangra district has the highest number of 3,869 villages among the 12 district of the state. Kangra district occupies the 1st rank among the districts in terms of population. Kangra district occupies the 2nd position in terms of sex ratio among the districts of the state with 1,012 females per 1,000 males as compared to 972 females per 1,000 males of state average. Kangra district stands 1st position in terms of its working force having total workers of 675,170 persons against 3,559,422 working persons of the state.
Kangra district stands at 5th positions in terms of decadal population growth of 12.8 per cent persons in comparison to state decadal population growth of 12.9 per cent persons. In terms of density of population per sq.km. Kangra district with 263 persons per sq.km. Stands at 5th rank in the state. Kangra district occupies 1st rank among the districts of the state in terms of literate population, it has a literate population of 1,152,640 persons. Kangra district holds the 2nd rank in terms of scheduled tribe population in the state, it has reported 84,564 persons as scheduled tribe. The economy of Kangra district is depends on agriculture, it has returned 303,007 persons as cultivators and holds the 2nd position among the districts of the state All the inhabited villages of the district enjoy the facility of electricity and potable drinking water. Kangra district is known for its attractive tourist destinations. Dharamsala, Palampur, Baijnath and Masroor are the famous places of tourist interest in the district.
McLeodganj in Dharamsala is a seat of the Dalai Lama has become a place of international fame since 1966. Central University of Himachal Pradesh at Dharamsala in Kangra district was established on March 20th, 2009 under the Central University Act 2009 of Indian Parliament; the native people are the Kangri people and the native language is Kangri, similar to Dogri. The majority of the people are Hindu Brahmin, Chaudhary, Banias and SC/OBC, although many Tibetans and others who follow Buddhism have settled here recently. There are minority populations of Sikhs and Christians. Jhamakda is a folk dance of Kangra, it is performed by women. It features percussion songs. Central University of Himachal Pradesh College for Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarah Government College of Teacher Education Dharamsala Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kangra is located at Paprola. Sacred Heart Sr. Sec. School Sherab Gatsel Lobling School Shanta Kumar - Indian Politician Sudhir Sharma - Indian Politician Chander Kumar - Indian Politician Karnail Rana - Himachali Folk Singer Ajay Saklani - producer, director & DOP Anuj Sharma - singer, second Indian Idol runner-up Shriya Sharma - film actress Shivya Pathania - television actress It is situated in Western Himalayas between latitude 31°2΄-32°5΄ N,longitude 75°-75°45΄ E.
The elevation above the sea level of Kangra district is in the range of 427 to 6,401 meters. The district is spread over 5,739 km2 having about 216643 hectare of land, out of which 195738 hectare is under cultivation. In this district, river Beas flows through distance of 94.00 km. The soil characteristic is both loamy; the climate of district is pleasant around the year except in plains like Nurpur, Fatehpur areas where temperature may raise up to 40° C in the month of May/June. Monsoon continues till mid September. Hutchinson, J. & J. PH Vogel. History of the Panjab Hill States, Vol. I. 1st edition: Govt. Printing, Lahore, 1933. Reprint 2000. Department of Language and Culture, Himachal Pradesh. Chapter V Kangra State, pp. 99–198. Official website - Kangra District Distt Profile Kangra's History Temples of Kangra Kangra Map
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west; the state covers an area of 1.53 % of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most spoken and official language of the state; the main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs forming the demographic majority and Hindus forming a sizable minority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana; the five rivers from which the region took its name were Sutlej, Beas and Jhelum. The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE.
The Punjab was invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya under Chanakya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, the Mongol Empire. Circa 1000, the Punjab was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire; the confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab; the western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab.
Punjab's government has three branches – executive and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab is agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, sewing machines, sports goods, tourism, bicycles and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.
The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words āb. Thus Panjāb means "the land of five rivers"; the five rivers are the Sutlej, Ravi and Jehlum. Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is sometimes spelled as "Panjab"; the Greeks called Punjab an inland delta of five converging rivers. During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings; the Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab; this civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was ruled by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mauryas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis; the furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Scythians and Afghans; this resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Islamic and British influences; the original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab, portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh and Jammu Division. The Punjab is the'Sapta Sindhu' region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are: Saraswati, Satadru/Shutadri, Asikani, Purushni, Vitasta/Vet and Sindhu. Among the classic books that were wholly or composed in this region are the following. Rigveda Grammar of Sakatayana Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini Nirukta of Yaska Charaka Samhita Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita Brihatkatha of Gunadya Bakhshali ManuscriptThe world's oldest university Takshashila flourished here before the Buddha's birth.
The Brahmins of this region
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
History of Punjab
The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent, split between the modern day countries of India and Pakistan. Known as Sapta Sindhu, or the Land of Seven Rivers, only two rivers Sutlej and Beas flow through Punjab state in India; the third river Ravi flows in Punjab along the international boundary of India and Pakistan and enters Pakistan. The other two rivers Chenab and Jhelum flow in the Punjab state in Pakistan. All these five rivers are tributaries of Indus river. All these five rivers merge into Indus river directly or indirectly and the Indus terminates into Arabian Sea near Karachi city in Pakistan; the name Punjab was given by Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. Ancient Punjab region was the primary geographical extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation, notable for advanced technologies and amenities that the people of the region had used; the region was a Hindu-Buddhist region, known for its high activity of scholarship and arts.
Intermittent wars between various kingdoms was characteristic of this time, except in times of temporary unification under centralised Indian Empires or invading powers. After the arrival of Islamic invaders, that had managed to rule throughout a long period of the region's history, much of Western Punjab had become a centre of Islamic culture in the Indian subcontinent. An interlude of Sikh rule under the Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his Sikh Empire had seen a brief resurfacing of traditional culture, until the British had annexed the region into the British Raj. After the British had left, the region was partitioned into a Hindu-Sikh majority area that would go to the secular state of India, a Muslim majority area that would go to the Islamic state of Pakistan to prevent conflict. Punjab in ancient times was known as the land of the seven rivers; the name Punjab was given by Islamic invaders. The aforementioned seven rivers were the Vitsta and Vitamasa, Asikni and Iravati, the Satudri, it is believed by most scholars that the earliest trace of human habitation in India traces to the Soan valley between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers.
This period goes back to the first inter-glacial period in the second Ice Age, from which remnants of stone and flint tools have been found. Punjab and the surrounding areas are the location of the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation known as the Harappan Civilisation. There are ruins of cities, thousands of years old, found in these areas with the most notable being those of Harappa and Rupar. Besides the aforementioned sites, hundreds of ancient settlements have been found throughout the region, spanning an area of about 100 miles; these ancient towns and cities had advanced features such as city-planning, brick-built houses and draining systems, as well as public baths. The people of the Indus Valley developed a writing system, that has to this day not been deciphered. Literary evidence from the Vedic Era suggests a transition from early small janas, or tribes, to many Janapadas and gaṇa sangha societies; the latter are loosely translated to being republics. These political entities were represented from the Rig Veda to the Astadhyayi by Panini.
Archaeologically, the time span of these entities corresponds to phases present in the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Gangetic basin. Some of the early Janas of the Rig Veda can be attributed to Punjab. Although their distribution patterns are not satisfactorily ascertainable, they are associated with the Porusni, Satudri and Saraswati; the rivers of Punjab corresponded to the eastern Janapadas. Rig Vedic Janas such as the Druhyus, Purus, Turvasas and others were associated in Punjab and the Indo-Gangetic plain. Other Rig Vedic Janapadas such as the Pakhthas, Bhalanasas and Sivas were associated with areas in the north and west of Punjab. An important event of the Rig Vedic era was the "Battle of Ten Kings", fought on the banks of the river Parusni between king Sudas of the Trtsu lineage of the Bharata clan on the one hand and a confederation of ten tribes on the other; the ten tribes pitted against Sudas comprised five major tribes: the Purus, the Druhyus, the Anus, the Turvasas and the Yadus.
Sudas was supported by the Vedic Rishi Vasishtha, while his former Purohita, the Rishi Viswamitra, sided with the confederation of ten tribes. Sudas had earlier ousted him from Hastinapur, it was only after the death of Sudas. A second battle, referred to as the Mahabharat in ancient texts, was fought in Punjab on a battlefield known as Kurukshetra; this was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Duryodhana, a descendant of Kuru, had tried to insult the Panchali princess Draupadi in revenge for defeating his ancestor Samvaran. Many Janapadas were mentioned from Vedic texts and are confirmed by Ancient Greek historical sources. Most of the Janapadas that had exerted large territorial influence, or Mahajanapadas, had been raised in the Indo-Gangetic plain with the exception of Gandhara in modern-day Afghanistan. There was a large level of contact between all the Janapadas of ancient India with descriptions being given of trading caravans, movement of students from universities, itineraries of princes.
Pre-Islamic Punjab was a centre of learning for Ancient India, many ashrams and universities. The most notable of the unive