The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty ordered its compilation in 1710, it used the earlier Zihui system of 214 radicals, today known as 214 Kangxi radicals, was published in 1716. The dictionary is named after the Emperor's era name; the dictionary contains more than 47,000 characters. In addition, there are archaic characters, some of which are attested only once. Fewer than a quarter of the characters it contains are now in common use; the original Kangxi Zidian editors included Zhang Yushu, Chen Tingjing, a staff of thirty. They based it on two Ming Dynasty dictionaries: the 1615 Zihui by Mei Yingzuo, the 1627 Zhengzitong by Zhang Zilie. Since the imperial edict required that the Kangxi Dictionary be compiled within five years, a number of errors were inevitable. Although the emperor's preface to the dictionary said, "each and every definition is given in detail and every single pronunciation is provided", Victor H. Mair describes the first edition as “actually quite sloppy and full of mistakes”.
The scholar-official Wang Xihou criticized the Kangxi Zidian in the preface of his dictionary Ziguan. When the Qianlong Emperor, Kangxi's grandson, was informed of this insult in 1777, Wang's entire family was sentenced to death by the nine familial exterminations, the most extreme form of capital punishment in imperial China; the Daoguang Emperor appointed Wang Yinzhi and a review board to compile an sanctioned supplement to the Kangxi Zidian, their 1831 Zidian kaozheng corrected 2,588 mistakes in quotations and citations. The supplemented dictionary contains 47,035 character entries, plus 1,995 graphic variants, giving a total of 49,030 different characters, they are grouped under the 214 radicals and arranged by the number of additional strokes in the character. Although these 214 radicals were first used in the Zihui, due to the popularity of the Kangxi Dictionary they are known as Kangxi radicals and remain in modern usage as a method to categorize traditional Chinese characters; the character entries give variants, pronunciations in traditional fanqie spelling and in modern reading of a homophone, different meanings, quotations from Chinese books and lexicons.
The dictionary contains rime tables with characters ordered under syllable rime classes and initial syllable onsets. The Kangxi Dictionary title is lexicographically significant. After examining his dictionary, the emperor described it as a "canon of characters", which became the standard Chinese word for "dictionary", used in the title of every dictionary published since the Kangxi; the Kangxi Dictionary is available in many forms, from old Qing Dynasty editions in block printing, to reprints in traditional Chinese bookbinding, to modern revised editions with essays in Western-style hardcover, to the digitized Internet version. In a groundbreaking lexicographical project based on the Kangxi dictionary, Walter Henry Medhurst, an early translator of the Bible into Chinese, compiled a bilingual dictionary "containing all the words in the Chinese imperial dictionary"; the Kangxi Dictionary is one of the Chinese dictionaries used by the Ideographic Rapporteur Group for the Unicode standard. Preface by Kangxi Emperor: pp. 1–6 Notes: pp. 7–12 Phonology: pp. 13–40 Table of contents: pp. 41–49 Index of characters: pp. 50–71 The dictionary proper: pp. 75–1631 Main text: pp. 75–1538 Addendum contents: pp. 1539–1544 Addendum text: pp. 1545–1576 Appendix contents: pp. 1577–1583 Appendix text: pp. 1585–1631 Postscript: pp. 1633–1635 Textual research: pp. 1637–1683 Dai Kan-Wa jiten Han-Han Dae Sajeon Hanyu Da Zidian List of Kangxi radicals Peiwen Yunfu Zhonghua Da Zidian Creamer, Thomas B. I.
"Lexicography and the history of the Chinese language", in History and Lexicographers, ed. by Ladislav Zgusta, Niemeyer, 105-135. Mair, Victor H. "Tzu-shu 字書 or tzu-tien 字典," in The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature, ed. by William H. Nienhauser, Jr. et. al, SMC Publishing, 165-172. Medhurst, Walter Henry, Chinese and English dictionary, containing all the words in the Chinese imperial dictionary. Parapattan. Teng, Ssu-yü and Biggerstaff, Knight. 1971. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works, 3rd ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03851-7 Kangxi Zidian, with dictionary lookup – Chinese Text Project Kangxi. Chinese and English dictionary: containing all the words in the Chinese imperial dictionary. Printed at Parapattan. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 康熙字典網上版 Kangxi Dictionary Online Version Kangxi zidian 康熙字典, brief history of the dictionary, on Chinaknowledge.de 汉典 The Chinese Language Dictionary Homepage Making Friends with the Kangxi zidian 康熙字典 at the Wayback Machine, Occasional paper with translation of Kangxi Emperor's preface 御製康熙字典序 訂正康熙字典 EPUB版 Revised Kangxi Zidian, EPUB Version
Edward Prioleau Warren was a British architect and archaeologist. He was born at Cotham, the fifth son of Algernon William Warren, JP. Sir Thomas Herbert Warren was his elder brother, he was educated at Clifton College in Bristol, subsequently articled to G. F. Bodley, whose biography he wrote, he provided illustrations for the Transactions of the Guild and School of Handicraft in 1890. He joined the Art Workers Guild in 1892 and was Master in 1913, he practised extensively in Oxford, no doubt helped by the fact that his brother was President of Magdalen College. Basil Bramston Hooper an architect in New Zealand, was in his office, c.1901–04. In 1901, he was added to the list of architects authorised to work on the Grosvenor Estate in London, but he never did so. In 1914, he gave evidence on behalf of the Commissioners of Works into a proposed Preservation Order on 75 Dean Street, London. During the First World War he was seconded to the Serbian Army, designed the War Cemetery at Basra. In 1916, he was said to have had considerable experience of hospital construction.
At the beginning of his career, he built and altered a number of churches, but he is known principally for domestic buildings in an understated revival of English late 17th century styles: his main works were lodgings for Oxford colleges and minor country houses. Warren married Margaret Morrell, one of their sons, Brigadier-General Christopher Prioleau Warren, became a noted bibliophile and received the Military Cross in the First World War and MBE and Legion of Merit for the second World War. Another son, Peter Warren, succeeded to his father's practice as an architect. Warren himself was a friend and adviser to the American novelist, Henry James, who lived at Lamb House, Sussex. Warren lived the last thirty years of his life at Breach House, Halfpenny Lane, built in 1906, which he designed for himself, he died on 23 November 1937. Barkerend in Bradford: St Clement's Church, 1892–94 Bishopstoke: St. Mary's Church, n.d. Blackwood: Maesruddud, new house, n.d. Brighton: Church of the Good Shepherd, Dyke Road: new church, 1920–22.
Caversham: St. John the Evangelist Church, n.d. Chantmarle, works in the garden, 1919 Chelsea: Shelley House, Chelsea Embankment, 1912 Cholsey: Breach House, new house, for himself, c.1905 Clifton: Clifton College, works, n.d. Epping:: War Memorial, 1921 Falfield: Heneage Court and extension of house and new garden for Russell Thomas, 1913 Fulham: St John's Church, Walham Green, alterations, 1893 Great Milton, Manor House and extensions and new gatepiers, 1908 Headley Court, new house, 1898 Kensington: 1 Campden Hill, new house, 1915 Kensington: 5 Palace Green, new house, 1905 Kensington: Estcort House, Kensington Palace Gardens, 1904 Littleton Pannell: A Becketts, extension of house, 1904 Lowestoft: St. Peter's Church, chancel extension, 1920s Melplash Court, rebuilding of west wing, 1922 and extensions in the 1930s Netherbury: Slape Manor, alterations including decorative plasterwork, 1931 Newark: Church, font cover, 1891 Newlyn: Fishermen's Institute, c1911 Newlyn: War Memorial, 1920 Oxford: Balliol College, north-west range in Garden Quad, 1906 Oxford: Balliol College, range north of Basevi buildings, 1912–15 Oxford: Eastgate Hotel, High Street, c1899-01 Oxford: High Street, college lodgings and shops for Magdalen College, 1901 Oxford: Merton College, works, n.d.
Oxford: Radcliffe Infirmary, outpatients' block, 1911–13. Southampton: St. Michael and All Angels Church, Bassett Avenue, 1897–1910 St John's Wood: Hanover Lodge, High St. block of mansion flats, 1903–04 Steep: Bedales School, works, n.d. Wandsworth: Magdalen Park Estate and design of houses for Magdalen College, Oxford, c.1901–20 Wanstead: St. Columba's Church, n.d. West Lavington: Manor House, alterations, 1905 Westminster: Westminster School, works, n.d. Woking: Gorse Hill, Hook Heath Road, new house, 1910 Wymondham Abbey, triptych behind high altar, c.1904 Architectural Journal, vol. 85, 2 Dec 1937, p. 861 The Builder, vol. 153, 26 Nov 1937, p. 965 RIBA Journal, vol. 45, 1937, pp. 203–04 A. S. Gray, Edwardian architecture: a biographical dictionary, 1988
The Handley Page H. P.39 is a wooden biplane constructed in 1929. The aircraft was intended to compete in a competition proposed by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics - the Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition; the original working name for the aircraft was the Guggenheim Competition Biplane. The name Gugnunc was at first unofficial, coming from the Pip and Wilfred newspaper cartoon, but it became official. Only one example of the type was constructed, allotted civil registration G-AACN, it used slots and flaps to achieve the necessary low speed and short takeoff and landing distances for the various safety prizes. The aircraft competed in the competition in 1929. Most of the competitors failed to enter due to mechanical problems or failure to satisfy the organizers' safety checks; the Gugnunc did not win any prizes. While there, the HP team noticed that the Curtiss competitors were using an unlicensed version of the Handley Page slot. In the following legal battles, the Curtiss lawyers brought up a postwar judgement that foreign aircraft were prohibited from being imported into the US.
On return to the UK, the aircraft continued experimental flying, was purchased by the Air Ministry, given registration K1908, was allocated to the Royal Aircraft Establishment for further testing. The aircraft was presented to the Science Museum. In 2016 it was installed as the centrepiece of the Winton Gallery of the museum; the curved overhead structure and layout of the gallery, designed by Dame Zaha Hadid represents the airflow around the aircraft. General characteristics Crew: two Length: 25 ft 9 in Wingspan: 40 ft Height: Wing area: 293 ft2 Airfoil: RAF 28 Empty weight: 1,362 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 2,180 lb Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose I, 150 hp Performance Maximum speed: 112 mph Cruise speed: 97 mph Stall speed: 33 mph Rate of climb: 730 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era Curtiss Tanager Related lists List of experimental aircraft Science Museum HP Gugnunc