Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Boundary County, Idaho
Boundary County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,972; the county seat and largest city is Bonners Ferry. Boundary County was created by the Idaho Legislature on January 23, 1915, it is so named because it borders the only county in Idaho with an international border. Boundary County was formed on January 1915 from Bonner County, it was named Boundary County because it lies on the border of Canada and Montana. Boundary County has 7 election precincts: Bonners Ferry, Kootenai, Naples, North Bonners Ferry, Valley View. All contain part of Bonners Ferry City except Copeland and Naples precincts. Moyie Springs was incorporated in 1947. Settlement of the area started with the establishment of Bonners Ferry on the Kootenai River in 1864. Settlement was limited to the ferry operation until about 1890; the town of Bonners Ferry was established in 1893. At that point settlement was still sparse with small ranching and mining operations, but an expanding timber economy.
By 1900, other areas started to develop with the Boulder and Naples precincts first listed in the U. S. Census of that year; the Moyie precinct first appeared in the 1910 census. In 1980, convicted spy Christopher John Boyce found refuge in Boundary County, for a few months, after his escape from the Lompoc Federal Correctional Complex, he stayed at the home of Gloria Ann White. Boyce sustained himself during his stay with a series of bank robberies in the surrounding area with technical assistance from Ms. White. In 1992, Boundary County was the scene of the infamous Ruby Ridge siege by 350–400 armed federal agents against Randy Weaver and his family. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,278 square miles, of which 1,269 square miles is land and 9.3 square miles is water. Lincoln County, Montana – east/Mountain Time Border Bonner County – south Pend Oreille County, Washington – west Regional District of Central Kootenay, British Columbia – north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Kaniksu National Forest Kootenai National Forest Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge US 2 US 95 SH-1 Boundary County Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport located two nautical miles northeast of the central business district of Bonners Ferry.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,871 people, 3,707 households, 2,698 families residing in the county. The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 4,095 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.24% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 2.02% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 3.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.4% were of German, 12.9% American, 12.7% English, 9.9% Irish and 6.4% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 3,707 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 101.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,250, the median income for a family was $36,440. Males had a median income of $31,209 versus $18,682 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,636. About 11.50% of families and 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.50% of those under age 18 and 11.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,972 people, 4,421 households, 2,976 families residing in the county; the population density was 8.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,175 housing units at an average density of 4.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.8% white, 1.7% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.5% were German, 12.8% were English, 11.2% were Irish, 7.4% were American, 5.9% were Norwegian, 5.4% were Dutch, 5.1% were Scottish. Of the 4,421 households, 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 42.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,712 and the median income for a family was $43,562. Males had a median income of $36,125 versus $26,076 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,011. About 15.7% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. In addition to a local translator district which provides broadcast television stations from Spokane, WA MSA, several additional television broadcast construction permits have been granted by the FCC.
Bonner County, Idaho
Bonner County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,877; the county seat and largest city is Sandpoint. Partitioned from Kootenai County and established in 1907, it was named for Edwin L. Bonner, a ferry operator. Bonner County comprises ID Micropolitan Statistical Area. Bonner County was formed on February 21, 1907, it was named for a ferry operator. In 1864, the Idaho Legislature created the counties of Kootenai. Kootenai County covered all of present-day Bonner and Boundary counties and a portion of present-day Kootenai County, it overlapped part of the existing boundary of Shoshone County. Sin-na-ac-qua-teen, a trading post in present-day Bonner County on the south shore of the Pend Oreille River near Laclede, was named county seat; the government of Kootenai failed to organize due to lack of settlement within the county boundary. In 1867, the legislature repealed the act that created the two counties and consolidated them into a county that retained the Kootenai name.
Rathdrum became the county seat when Kootenai County organized in 1881. The tiny portion of Bonner County south of the 48th parallel and east of Shoshone County was not in any of Idaho's counties from 1863 to 1907, the longest time frame any non-county area existed in the State of Idaho; the Idaho panhandle north of the Clearwater River's basin was in Spokane County, Washington prior to Idaho's creation as a territory in 1863. When Idaho defined its original counties by February, 1864, it attached the former Spokane County area to Nez Perce County for judicial purposes. Legislators creating Kootenai County in December 1864 lacked knowledge of the geography of the area and failed to include the non-county area within the county boundaries of Kootenai or Lah-Toh; the non-county area was included within Bonner County when it was formed in 1907. Boundary County was formed from Bonner County in 1915. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,919 square miles, of which 1,735 square miles is land and 185 square miles is water.
Boundary County – north Lincoln County, Montana – east/Mountain Time Border Sanders County, Montana – southeast/Mountain Time Border Shoshone County – southeast Kootenai County – south Spokane County, Washington – southwest Pend Oreille, Washington– northwest Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Coeur d'Alene National Forest Kaniksu National Forest Kootenai National Forest US 2 US 95 SH-41 SH-57 SH-200 As of the census of 2000, there were 36,835 people, 14,693 households, 10,270 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 19,646 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.58% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. 1.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.9% were of German, 11.7% English, 11.7% American, 9.6% Irish and 5.3% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 14,693 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 29.30% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,803, the median income for a family was $37,930. Males had a median income of $32,504 versus $21,086 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,263. About 11.90% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 40,877 people, 17,100 households, 11,591 families residing in the county. The population density was 23.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,669 housing units at an average density of 14.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.0% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.1% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.4% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 15.2% were English, 6.2% were Norwegian, 5.0% were American. Of the 17,100 households, 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,943 and the median income for a family was $51,377.
Males had a median income of $40,076 versus $30,829 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,745. About 10.1% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.3% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Blanchard Schweitzer Mountain Resort National Register of Historic Places listings in Bonner County, Id
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bonners Ferry, Idaho
Bonners Ferry is a city in and the county seat of Boundary County, United States. The population was 2,543 at the 2010 census; when gold was discovered in the East Kootenays of British Columbia in 1863, thousands of prospectors from all over the West surged northward over a route that became known as the Wildhorse Trail. Edwin Bonner, a merchant from Walla Walla, established a ferry in 1864 where the trail crossed the broad Kootenai River. In 1875, Richard Fry, his Sinixt wife, Justine Su-steel Fry, leased the business, but the location retained the name of the original founder and became the town of Bonners Ferry. Before the gold rush, only a few visitors had come to the region. Thompson and four fellow fur traders arrived in 1808 to trade with the Lower Kootenais. Exhausted and famished, the local natives gave Thompson's party dried moss bread. Thompson established a trading post on Lake Pend Oreille, he was followed in 1846 by a missionary to the Kootenai Tribe. The Oregon question was settled by Oregon Treaty of 1846 which established the 49th Parallel north as the boundary between the US and British North America.
Government surveyors of the Boundary Commission came in 1858 to establish the border between the United States and British Columbia. With mines to the north, the community of Bonners Ferry began to flourish in the 1880s as a supplier; the Norwegian-built steamer Midge began service in 1883 and operated for the next 25 years, carrying passengers and freight between Bonners Ferry and British Columbia. The Great Northern Railway was built here in 1892, followed by the Spokane International and the Kootenai Valley lines; the village of Bonners Ferry was formally established in 1893, along the south bank of the Kootenai River. Scattered along the valley and benchland were a few ranches and homesteads. Numerous mines were developed in the nearby mountains, including the Continental Mine in the Selkirks; the lumber industry grew rapidly. Bonners Ferry, perched on stilts to avoid the inevitable spring floods, appeared to be a boom town. Moving into the 20th century, the town became the center of a lumbering and farming community.
The valley land was drained, levees were constructed and farms were cleared on the benches. The rich Kootenai Valley became known as the "Nile of the North", while the Bonners Ferry Lumber Company grew to be one of the world's largest lumber mills; the downtown took shape. Completion of the Libby Dam in 1975 lessened the threat of serious flooding. Today, much of Main Street dates from this initial period of permanent construction. On September 20, 1974, the Kootenai Tribe, headed by chairwoman Amy Trice, declared war on the United States government, their first act was to post soldiers on each end of the highway that runs through the town and they asked people, to pay a toll to drive through what had been the tribe's aboriginal land. The money would be used to care for elderly tribal members. Most tribes in the United States are forbidden to declare war on the U. S. government because of treaties, but the Kootenai Tribe never signed a treaty. The dispute resulted in the concession by the United States government and a land grant of 10.5 acres, now the Kootenai Reservation.
Bonners Ferry is eight miles from the site of the Ruby Ridge confrontation and siege in 1992 which occurred just outside Naples, Idaho. In recent years, Mormon Fundamentalists from nearby Bountiful, British Columbia have established a presence in Bonners Ferry, they have brought with them the controversial practice of plural marriage. Bonners Ferry is located at 48°41′32″N 116°19′3″W, at an altitude of 1,896 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.61 square miles, of which 2.44 square miles is land and 0.17 square miles is water. Bonners Ferry has a humid continental climate with cold, snowy winters and dry summers with hot days and cool nights, it is warm enough to be classed as a Mediterranean climate or oceanic climate, despite the cold, snow depths above 10 inches occur only on nine days in an average winter. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,543 people, 1,117 households, 631 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,042.2 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,254 housing units at an average density of 513.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.3% White, 0.2% African American, 2.0% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 1,117 households of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.5% were non-families. 38.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 41.9 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,515 people, 1,027 households, 650 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,186.9 people per square mile. There were 1
The Pend d’Oreille known as the Kalispel, are Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau. Their traditional territory was around Lake Pend Oreille, as well as the Pend Oreille River, Priest Lake. Today many of them live in eastern Washington; the Kalispel peoples referred to their primary tribal range as Kaniksu. It extended from present-day Plains, westward along the Clark Fork River, to Lake Pend Oreille in Idaho, the Pend Oreille River in eastern Washington and into British Columbia, they are divided geographically and culturally in the Kullyspelm and the Silkatkmlschi. The Upper Kalispel people are now enrolled in the federally recognized Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation in Montana; the Lower Kalispel people are now enrolled in the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in Washington. Some Kalispel are enrolled in the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation in eastern Washington; the name Pend d’Oreille was attributed to them by French colonists and traders in reference to the large shell earrings worn by these people.
The name Kalispel is an anglicization of their name in their own language Ql̓ispé (Salish pronunciation:, which means "Camas People." Camas is a root, a staple of their diet. Their language, Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille, is a Southern Interior Salish language, it is known as Flathead-Kalispel. The Pend d'Oreille people have two reservations: the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana and the Kalispel Indian Reservation in Washington. A small number of Kalispel people live on the Colville Indian Reservation in Washington; the main part of the Kalispel Reservation is northwest of Newport, Washington, in central Pend Oreille County. The main reservation is an 18.638 square kilometres strip of land along the Pend Oreille River, west of the Washington–Idaho border. There is a small parcel of land in the western part of the Spokane metropolitan area in the city of Airway Heights, with a land area of 0.202 square kilometres. This is the site of Northern Quest Casino, operated by the tribe; the total land area of the Kalispel Indian Reservation, located at 48°21′16″N 117°16′25″W in Pend Oreille County, is 18.840 square kilometres.
The nearest outside community is Cusick, near the south end of the reservation. The Pend d'Oreille people are believed to have migrated south from British Columbia. In 1809, the North West Company established a trading post in their territory, calling it Kullyspell House. Jesuits established a Roman Catholic mission there in 1846. In 1855, the tribe split into the upper and lower divisions, with the upper moving to the Flathead Reservation in Montana. One of the two lower bands joined them in 1887; these people made their weapons and tools from flint, many other things were shaped with rocks. For housing, the Pend d’Oreille lived in tipis in the summer, as well as lodges in the winter time; these houses were all built out of large cattails. These cattails were woven into mats called “tule mats”, which were attached to a tree branch frame to form a hut. Today a large community building on the Kalispel reservation bears the name “Tule Hut” in reference to this traditional housing; the tribe traded bison hides for other useful goods.
They traditionally made clothing from rabbit deer hides. They embellished hides with dyes, paints and porcupine quills; the Upper Pend d’Oreille of the Flathead Reservation became engaged in a dispute over off-reservation hunting between the tribes and the state of Montana, resulting in the Swan Valley Massacre of 1908. Long after they were dispossessed of their hereditary lands around Lake Pend Oreille, the Pend d'Oreille band of Kalispel continued to gather for an annual pow wow on its traditional grounds just east of what is now Sandpoint City Beach; the three-day event included ceremonies and traditional stick games. The pow wows. Since 1975, the Kalispel Tribe has held an annual pow wow at its Usk, reservation in July or August; the events are open to the public and include a dance contest, traditional foods, stick games and others. Kuilix Kullyspell House Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Kalispel Reservation, Washington United States Census Bureau Beaverhead and Dwight Billedeaux.
Mary Quequesah's Love Story: A Pend D'Oreille Indian Tale. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press, 2000. ISBN 0-917298-71-3. Boas, Franz. Folk-tales of Salishan and Sahaptin tribes. Published for the American Folk-Lore Society by G. E. Stechert & Co. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection. Includes Pend d'Oreille tales by James A. Teit. Carriker, Robert C; the Kalispel People. Phoenix, AZ: Indian Tribal Series, 1973. Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation. Sk"sk"stulex"s Sqélix: Names Upon the Land, a Tribal Geography of the Salish and Pend D'Oreille People. Pablo, MT: The Committee, 1996. Fahey, John; the Kalispel Indians. Civilization of the American Indian series, v. 180. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8061-2000-2 Lacy, Thomas F.. Kaniksu, Stories of the Northwest. Keokee Company Publishing. Fritz, Jane. Land of the Kalispel. Sandpoint Magazine Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, official website Kalispel Tribe of Indians, official website