U.S. Route 45
U. S. Route 45 is a major north–south United States highway and a border-to-border route, from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico. A sign at the highway's northern terminus notes the total distance as 1,300 miles. US 45 is notable for incorporating, in its maiden alignment, the first paved road in the South, a 49-mile segment in Lee County, Mississippi. Let to contract in July 1914, the concrete highway opened on November 15, 1915; as of 2006, the highway's northern terminus is in Ontonagon, Michigan, at the corner of Ontonagon and River Streets, a few blocks from Lake Superior. M-64 terminated there as well until its rerouting in October 2006 to use the newly built Ontonagon River Bridge, its southern terminus is in Mobile, Alabama, at an intersection with U. S. Route 98. US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 17 between Mobile and Vinegar Bend, just north of Deer Park, in Washington County, Alabama. From Vinegar Bend to the Mississippi state line, US 45 is concurrent with unsigned SR 57. U. S. Highway 45 is part of a designated hurricane evacuation route in Mississippi.
It is four-laned from its point of entry from Alabama, at the town of State Line, to the Tennessee line just north of Corinth, along the way serving the towns of Waynesboro, Meridian and Tupelo. At Brooksville, U. S. 45 splits away from U. S. 45 Alternate and serves the towns of Columbus and Aberdeen before rejoining U. S. 45 Alternate south of Tupelo. The alternate roadway provides a more direct and four-laned route between Meridian and Tupelo, bypassing Columbus to the west and, more Starkville to the east. Major junctions of U. S. 45 in Mississippi include U. S. Route 84 at Waynesboro, Interstate 20/59 at Meridian, U. S. Route 82 at Columbus, Interstate 22/U. S. Route 78 at Tupelo and U. S. Route 72 at Corinth; each of these junctions is an interchange and, with the exception of Waynesboro, each is part of a freeway segment. The Mississippi section of U. S. 45 is defined at Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3. From the Mississippi state line U. S. 45 extends north past Selmer and Jackson to Three Way, just north of Jackson.
At Three Way, the highway splits into U. S. 45E and U. S. 45W. From Three Way to the northeast, U. S. 45E extends past Milan Martin and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 43 for most of the route's length past except for short segments at South Fulton and Martin, where it is cosigned with State Route 216 and State Route 215 respectively. From Three Way to the northwest, U. S. 45W extends past Humboldt and is concurrent with unsigned State Route 5 to Union City and with U. S. 51 to the junction with U. S. 45E less than a quarter mile south of the Kentucky state line. Mainline U. S. 45, concurrent with U. S. 51, continues north into Kentucky. U. S. 45 enters Kentucky at Fulton northeast past Mayfield heads directly north into Paducah as a four-lane highway. In Paducah, U. S. 45 serves as a major artery, intersecting with Interstate 24 at exit 7, intersecting US 60 and 62. U. S. 45 leaves Kentucky from Paducah's northern border across the two-lane, metal-grate Brookport Bridge to Brookport, Illinois across the Ohio River.
In the state of Illinois, U. S. 45 runs from a bridge across the Ohio River from Paducah, through Shawnee National Forest and north to the Wisconsin border east of Antioch, Illinois. With a length of 428.99 miles in Illinois, U. S. 45 is the longest numbered route in Illinois. In its progress north from the Ohio River U. S. 45 first joins Interstate 24 as far as Vienna heads northeast through Harrisburg and north through Fairfield, Effingham, Champaign, Urbana and Kankakee straight north through the western suburbs of Chicago in Will County, Cook County and Lake County to the Wisconsin border. U. S. 45 enters the state in southeast Wisconsin. It runs concurrent with Interstate 894 and U. S. Route 41 through the west side of metro Milwaukee to form a major artery through the metropolitan area, it runs north to Fond du Lac. The highway routes near the western shore of Lake Winnebago through Wisconsin. U. S. 45 travels north through Wittenberg and Eagle River, as well as the state and national forests, until it leaves the state at Land O' Lakes and enters Michigan.
US 45 enters Michigan south of Watersmeet. From there, the highway crosses the Western Upper Peninsula through the Ottawa National Forest running north to Ontonagon. US 45 ends just south of Lake Superior in downtown Ontonagon; the terminus was not changed in 2006 despite realignment of M-38 and M-64 from the terminus to a crossing 0.7 miles south. Until March 1935, US 45's northern terminus was in the Illinois area. Prior to the construction of the Interstate Highway system, US 45 was one of the main routes south out of Chicago toward New Orleans, Louisiana. Much of the traffic left US 45 at Effingham, continuing on through Cairo, Illinois along Illinois Route 37. Southern segmentAlabama US 98 in Mobile I‑65 in Prichard Mississippi US 84 in Waynesboro I‑20 / I‑59 in Meridian US 11 / US 80 in Meridian US 82 west of Columbus; the highways travel concurrently to Columbus. US 278 north-northwest of New Wren; the highways travel concurrently to the Verona–Tupelo city line. I‑22 / US 78 in Tupelo US 72 in Corinth Tennessee US 64 in Selmer.
The highways travel concurrently through the city. I‑40 / US 412 in Jackson US 45E / US 45W in Three Way US 79 in Milan US 79 in Humboldt Northern segmentTennessee US 45E / US 45W / US 51 in South Fulton. US 45 / US 51 travel concurrently to Fulton, Kentucky. Kentucky Future I‑69 north of Mayfield I‑24 in Paducah US 62 in Paducah; the highways travel concurrently through the city. US 60 / US 62 in Paducah. US 45/US 60 travels concurrently throu
Newton County, Indiana
Newton County is a county located near the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 14,244; this county is part of Northwest Indiana as well as the Chicago metropolitan area. The county seat is Kentland; the county is divided into 10 townships. The original Newton County was formed by statute on February 7, 1835, was a square area some 30 miles on a side, encompassing what is now the northern half of the county, the northern half of Jasper County, a large section to the north; the northern border was cut back to the Kankakee River on February 1, 1836, with all land north of the Kankakee River going to Lake and Porter counties. The county was abolished and combined with Jasper County in 1839. On December 8, 1859, the county was re-created and the borders were redrawn to their current state. Newton County is named after Sgt. John Newton, who served under Gen. Francis Marion in the American Revolutionary War, it is adjacent to Jasper County, named after Sgt. William Jasper, whose story is similar.
At least four other states, Mississippi and Texas, have adjacent Jasper and Newton Counties, as though these two were remembered as a pair. Upon its re-creation, Newton County was the last county to be organized in Indiana. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 403.44 square miles, of which 401.76 square miles is land and 1.68 square miles is water. Newton County is the site of the Kentland crater, a probable meteorite impact crater located between Kentland and Goodland. J. C. Murphy Lake is at the center of Willow Slough Wildlife Area. Interstate 65 U. S. Route 24 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 52 State Road 10 State Road 14 State Road 16 State Road 55 State Road 71 State Road 114 CSX Transportation Toledo and Western Railway Lake County Jasper County Benton County Iroquois County, Illinois Kankakee County, Illinois The municipalities in Newton County, their populations as of the 2010 Census, are: The 10 townships of Newton County, with their housing units as of the 2010 Census, are: In recent years, average temperatures in Kentland have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, with a record low of −25 °F recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 104 °F recorded in June 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.60 inches in February to 4.51 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code; the county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes; the executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue and managing day-to-day functions of the county government.
The county maintains a small claims court. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court; the county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county; each of the townships has a trustee who administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief and manages cemetery care, among other duties. The trustee is assisted in these duties by a three-member township board; the trustees and board members are elected to four-year terms. Newton County is part of Indiana's 1st congressional district and in 2008 was represented by Pete Visclosky in the United States Congress.
It is part of Indiana Senate district 6 and Indiana House of Representatives districts 15 and 19. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,244 people, 5,503 households, 3,945 families residing in the county; the population density was 35.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,030 housing units at an average density of 15.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.2% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.4% were German, 16.9% were Irish, 11.0% were English, 8.1% were Polish, 7.6% were Dutch, 6.5% were American. Of the 5,503 households, 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families, 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.00.
The median age was 42.4 years. The median income for a household in the co
The Kankakee River is a tributary of the Illinois River 133 miles long, in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois in the United States. At one time, the river drained one of the largest wetlands in North America and furnished a significant portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. Altered from its original channel, it flows through a rural farming region of reclaimed cropland, south of Lake Michigan; the Kankakee rises in northwestern Indiana five miles southwest of South Bend, Indiana. It flows in a straight channelized course southwestward through rural northwestern Indiana, collecting the Yellow River from the south in Starke County, passing the communities of South Center and English Lake, it forms the border between LaPorte and Lake counties on the north and Starke and Newton counties on the south. The river curves westward and ceases to be channelized as it enters Kankakee County in northeastern Illinois. Three miles southeast of the city of Kankakee, it receives the Iroquois River from the south and turns to the northwest for its lower 35 miles.
It joins the Des Plaines River from the south to form the Illinois River 50 miles southwest of Chicago. The Kankakee River Basin drains 2,989 square miles in northwest Indiana, 2,169 square miles in northeast Illinois, about seven square miles in southwest Lower Michigan; the Kankakee River heads near South Bend flows westward into Illinois, where it joins with the Des Plaines River to form the Illinois. The area of Lake County which drained to Lake Michigan but now drains by means of artificial diversion to the Illinois River is not considered to be part of the Kankakee River Basin study region. Although the Kankakee River basin includes portions of Indiana and Michigan, the discussion below will focus on the Indiana portion of the basin; the Kankakee Outwash and Lacustrine Plain, a large and poorly drained plain, comprises the southern quarter of both Lake and Porter counties. It is the most recent of the three landscape regions to face the pressures of impending urbanization. Large portions of the area were once marshland associated with the meandering Kankakee River, for eight or nine months of the year, was flanked on both sides by wetlands.
The marsh area was three to four miles wide and contained water one to four feet deep. The low marshland was broken by infrequent islands of sand blown into dunes; the sand islands were the sites of Indian encampments and of pioneer homes. The Kankakee marsh was an effective barrier to early southerly exploration of both counties, but the area has been progressively drained by ditches constructed during the past 60 years; the Kankakee River Basin is a product of the Wisconsin Glacial Episode. It is a remnant of the glacial lakes. Landscape elements include 1) the nearly level plains of a ground moraine, 2) eolian plains, 3) outwash deposits, 4) the central river basin and 5) end moraines forming the north and southern borders. Local relief varies from 60 feet along the Iroquois Moraine, up to 100 feet on the Valparaiso Moraine. Deposits range from 50 to 100 feet in the lower basin; the deepest deposits of 100 to 250 feet are in the upper basin. Along the Valparaiso Moraine, deposits can reach 350 feet thick.
Outwash deposits occur along the northern border of the basin. The southern half of the Kankakee Basin, south of the main river channel, is characterized by the fine-grained sediments that are wind driven, forming a series of broad eolian sand dunes and ridges; these are of moderate height. Lacustrine silts and clays are mixed with the various waterborne and wind driven deposits throughout the basin; the bedrock underlying the Kankakee Basin is of Silurian age. There are strata from the Devonian, Mississippian periods; the Silurian rocks are dolomite and limestone. A major subterranean feature is the Kankakee Arch. North of the arch, the strata dip towards Lake Michigan and the Michigan Basin. To the south, the strata dips southwest toward the Illinois Basin. Within the Kankakee Basin, the rock strata are nearly flat; the Advanced Hydrological Prediction Service contains current data for river depths. Contrary to what may be shown in online mapping sites or GPS software, the bridge over the Kankakee River on State Line Road near the public ramp at the Indiana–Illinois state line is closed and dismantled.
Some fishing maps and websites about the river may include road directions to the public ramp at the state line, with outdated information. The public ramp is located on the north side of the river, with the bridge out, it is not accessible from the south side, from Illinois Route 114/Indiana State Road 10; as of September 7, 2008, the old iron bridge at the Indiana–Illinois state line had been removed from its concrete supports and was set on the ground, clearing the water by only 3 feet, making it possible to pass beneath only in small boats, etc. The Kankakee River was formed around 16,000 years ago by an event known as the Kankakee Torrent. A glacial lake resulting from meltwater from the Wisconsin glaciation breached the moraines holding it in; the resultant flood created the bed of the Kankakee River and had greater impact in what is today the state of Illinois. Up
Kankakee is a city in and the county seat of Kankakee County, United States. The city's name is derived from the Miami-Illinois word teeyaahkiki, meaning: "Open country/exposed land/land in open/land exposed to view", in reference to the area's prior status as a marsh; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 27,537. Kankakee is a principal city of the Kankakee-Bourbonnais-Bradley Metropolitan Statistical Area; the area of Kankakee was inhabited by the Potawatami beginning sometime in the 18th century. Kankakee was founded in 1854. Kankakee is located at 41°7′12″N 87°51′36″W. According to the 2010 census, Kankakee has a total area of 14.62 square miles, of which 14.14 square miles is land and 0.48 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 27,561 people, 10,020 households and 6,272 families residing within the city; the population density was 2,239.8 people per square mile. There were 10,965 housing units at an average density of 893.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 50.92% White, 41.07% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 5.50% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.25% of the population. There were 10,020 households, out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 21.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60, the average family size was 3.28. In the city, the population was spread out, with 29.5% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,469, the median income for a family was $36,428. Males had a median income of $30,894 versus $22,928 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,479. About 18.1% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.3% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.
Kankakee is governed by the mayor council system. The city council consists of fourteen members; the mayor and city clerk are elected in a citywide vote. Library service is provided by the Kankakee Public Library. Kankakee is served by the Greater Kankakee Airport, a general aviation facility located in the southern portion of Kankakee; the Kankakee Valley Airport Authority was formed in 1957. The location of the airport was chosen South of Kankakee in 1959; the Greater Kankakee Airport has been serving the Kankakee community since 1962. It is located 50 miles south of downtown Chicago and 70 miles north of Champaign, directly along Interstate 57 at the 308 exit. In 1966 the main runway was expanded attracting a commercial carrier. Air Wisconsin, Inc. began operating in 1967. Due to the commercial operations the Airport was able to build the terminal building in 1968, still standing today; the airport continues to serve the community though general aviation and is home to over 100 private hangars housing helicopter, singe engine aircraft and turbine powered aircraft.
The Greater Kankakee Airport made its Hollywood debut in the 1980 Steve McQueen movie "The Hunter," in which Ralph "Papa" Thorson comes to pick up the Trans Am at the airfield. The Greater Kankakee Airport has received recognition over the years for its outstanding service to Kankakee County; the airport has been awarded the General Aviation – Publicly Owned Airport of the year award by the Illinois Division of Aeronautics in 2001 and 2012. In September 2013 the Army National Guard broke ground on the Army Aviation Support Facility, completed in 2017; the facility houses 13 UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters. Greater Kankakee Airport covers an area of 950 acres at an elevation of 629 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways with asphalt surfaces: 4/22 is 5,981 by 100 feet and 16/34 is 4,398 by 75 feet. Amtrak provides service to Kankakee from the Kankakee Amtrak Station. Amtrak operates the City of New Orleans, the Illini, the Saluki with each train running once daily in both directions. Interstate 57 runs east-west in the southern part of the city and turns north-south in the eastern part of Kankakee.
United States Highways US 45 and US 52 run concurrently forming, along with Illinois Route IL 50, the major north-south thoroughfares through Kankakee. Illinois Route IL 17 is the major east-west road; the River Valley Metro Mass Transit District operates the region's transit bus system. Service runs seven days a week to locations in Kankakee as well as the nearby cities of Aroma Park, Bradley and Manteno. All of the Kankakee routes are stationed out of the North Schuyler Transfer Station. River Valley Metro operates 2 commuter routes; the Midway and University Park commuter routes were added January 5, 2014, in August 2015 River Valley Metro added a second Midway route to its schedule. In January 2016, a second University Park route was added. Kankakee Valley Park District has 37 parks, comprising a total of 600 acres. Facilities include an outdoor aquatic park named Splash Valley, indoor ice skating rink named Ice Valley, 1000 seat recreation cen
Ford County, Illinois
Ford County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 14,081, its county seat is Paxton. Ford County is part of the Champaign -- IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ford County was formed February 17, 1859, it was the last of Illinois’s 102 counties to be formed, was created at the behest of some residents of Vermilion County, who complained to the General Assembly that they lived too far from the Iroquois County county seat. Ford County was named after Thomas Ford, the Governor of Illinois from 1842 to 1846. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 486 square miles, of which 486 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Paxton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1999 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.40 inches in February to 4.38 inches in May.
Kankakee County – north Iroquois County – east Vermilion County – southeast Champaign County – south McLean County – southwest Livingston County – west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,081 people, 5,676 households, 3,798 families residing in the county. The population density was 29.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,282 housing units at an average density of 12.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 0.6% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 35.7% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 13.6% were American, 10.4% were English. Of the 5,676 households, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95.
The median age was 42.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,667 and the median income for a family was $62,819. Males had a median income of $43,849 versus $30,136 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,401. About 5.4% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.3% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Gibson City Paxton Clarence Guthrie Perdueville Stelle Ten Mile Grove Ford County is one of the state's most Republican counties. In 1912, the GOP was mortally divided and Progressive Theodore Roosevelt carried the county over the more conservative official nominee William Howard Taft. Since 1968 no Democratic presidential candidate has topped 36% of the county’s vote, since the county first formed only three Democrats – all in landslide national victories – have managed 40% of Ford County’s votes; the Libertarian Party has performed well enough in recent elections to gain "established party" status, making it easier for Libertarian candidates to appear on the ballot.
Ford is the only county in Illinois. President Gerald Ford visited Ford County on October 24, 1974, to mark the retirement of Congressman Leslie C. Arends of Melvin who served in Congress for 40 years, including over 30 years as Republican Minority Whip. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ford County, Illinois United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas History of Ford County - Information from Centurama Celebrating The First 100 Years of Ford County, Illinois 1859-1959
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
U.S. Route 52
U. S. Route 52 is a major United States highway in the central United States that extends from the northern to southeastern region of the United States. Contrary to most other even-numbered U. S. Highways, US 52 follows a northwest–southeast route, is signed north–south or east–west depending on the local orientation of the route; the highway's northwestern terminus is at Portal, North Dakota, on the Canadian border, where it continues as Saskatchewan Highway 39. Its southeastern terminus is in Charleston, South Carolina, at Number 2 Meeting Street and White Point Gardens along the Charleston Harbor. In North Dakota, US 52 continues from Highway 39 from the Canada–United States border at North Portal and Portal, North Dakota to the Red River in Fargo, a distance of 361 miles. US 52 is co-signed with US 2 near Minot, where it intersects with US 83. US 52 is co-signed with US 281 for 44 miles between Jamestown and Carrington. US 52 is concurrent with Interstate 94 between Jamestown and the Minnesota state line, co-signed between Jamestown and Fargo.
In the state of Minnesota, US 52 enters the state with Interstate 94 at Moorhead and follows Interstate 94 southeast all the way to the Twin Cities. The portion of the highway which overlaps Interstate 94 is unsigned. From downtown St. Paul, US 52 continues on its own southeast to the Iowa state line. MnDOT has a long-term goal of making US 52 a freeway with limited-access interchanges between St. Paul and Interstate 90 south of Rochester. South from Interstate 94 in St. Paul there is a freeway segment to just south of Concord Blvd in Inver Grove Heights; the portion of the highway between Inver Grove Heights and Pine Island is built to expressway standards. Another freeway segment begins from Pine Island, through Rochester, toward I-90; the highway proceeds to the Iowa state line. US 52 enters Iowa north of the unincorporated community of Burr Oak, it passes by Luther College on the west side of Decorah. At Calmar the road turns to a southwest–northeast orientation, it joins with US 18 just to the west of Postville.
The two highways overlap until a point east of the unincorporated community of Froelich. US 52 parallels the Mississippi River for the rest of its path through Iowa. At Luxemburg it turns east; the two highways run together to downtown Dubuque, where it intersects US 61 and US 151. South of Dubuque, US 52, US 61, US 151 share a freeway routing until US 52 departs in Key West to remain close to the Mississippi River. Just west of Sabula the highway turns to an east–west orientation at the junction of Iowa Highway 64 and the northern terminus of US 67. In Sabula, the highway becomes a wrong-way road. North of Dubuque, Iowa, US 52 is routed on to a narrow and winding road. While scenic, the road has been the scene of numerous accidents over the years owing to this nature. Between 1964 and 1967, this segment of the route was called Alternate US 52 and US 52 was rerouted south from Luxemburg to Dyersville along Iowa Highway 136, east from Dyersville to Dubuque along US 20. After the completion of the Southwest Arterial in 2019, a similar alignment change will take place as US 52 will no longer follow the winding Iowa Highway 3 route, instead share Iowa Highway 136 and US 20 to the intersection of the new four-lane Southwest Arterial and head southwest to US 61/US 151, where it would be linked to the existing highway US 52, continuing on to Bellevue and Sabula.
The entire length of US 52 in Iowa is located within the unglaciated Driftless Area. In Illinois, US 52 runs southeast from the Dale Gardner Veterans Memorial Bridge at the terminus of Iowa Highway 64 and Illinois Route 64 in Savanna, passing through the cities of Dixon and Mendota. US 52 turns due south and east, crossing Interstate 39 near Troy Grove, it continues east, passing through Shorewood and through the southern portion of Joliet, where it is a major thoroughfare in the city of Joliet, avoiding the city of Chicago proper. It joins with U. S. Route 45 through Kankakee, runs concurrently with U. S. Route 24, east of Watseka to the Indiana state line. In Indiana, US 52 runs in a northwest-southeast direction, it passes through Indianapolis. Northwest of Indianapolis, US 52 runs along the same general area as, is considered an alternative route to, Interstate 65. In the Indianapolis area, it is overlapped with Interstate 865 and Interstate 465. East of Indianapolis, it is considered an alternative to Interstate 74 before joining it near the Ohio border.
When U. S. 52 went through Downtown Indianapolis, it went onto Brookville Road turned right onto English Avenue. It joined U. S. 421. US 52/421 joined U. S. 40 when it turned left onto Washington Street. It splits into Washington Street and Maryland Street. US 52 turned right onto West Street. U. S. 52 turned left on either Indiana 16th Street. U. S. 52 would overlap U. S. 136 on 16th Street. It turned right onto Lafayette Road, which became Indianapolis Road when reaching Zionsville; when I-65 was completed through Downtown Indianapolis, U. S. 52 got on I-65 from the Lafayette Road interchange, traveled on I-65 the rest of the way. In 1970, the route was re-routed onto the south belt of I-465 from Brookville Road to I-65, it was re-routed again on its current rou