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Kannauj

Kannauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is a modern form of the classical name Kanyakubja, it was known as Mahodaya during the time of Gurjara-Pratihara Emperor Mihira Bhoja, around the 9th century. Kannauj is an ancient city, it is said that Kanyakubja Brahmins of whom Shandilya is held to have constituted one of the three prominent families from Kannauj. During Classical India, it served as the center of imperial Indian dynasties; the earliest was under Maukhari dynasty, Emperor Harsha of the Vardhana dynasty. Between the 7th and 11th century, Kannauj became the center of the Tripartite struggle, that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara Empire; the city came under the Gahadavala dynasty, under the rule of Govindachandra, the city reached "unprecedented glory". However, the "glory of Imperial Kannauj" ended with conquests of the Delhi Sultanate.

Kannauj famous for distilling of scents is known as India’s perfume capital and is famous for its traditional Kannauj Perfume, a government protected entity, Kannauj itself has more than 200 perfume distilleries and is a market center for tobacco and rose water. It has given its name to a distinct dialect of the Hindustani known as Kanauji, which has two different codes or registers. Archaeological discoveries show that Kannauj was inhabited by the Painted Grey Ware and Northern Black Polished Ware cultures, ca. 1200-600 ca. 700-200 BCE, respectively. Under the name of Kanyakubja, it is mentioned as a well-known town in the Hindu Epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, by the grammarian Patanjali; the early Buddhist literature mentions Kannauj as Kannakujja, refers to its location on the trade route from Mathura to Varanasi and Rajgir. Kannauj may have been known to the Greco-Roman civilization under the name of Kanagora or Kanogiza, which appears in Geography by Ptolemy, but this identification is not confirmed.

It was visited by the Chinese Buddhist travellers Faxian and Xuanzang in the fifth and seventh centuries CE, respectively. Kannauj formed part of the Gupta Empire. During the decline of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, the Maukhari dynasty of Kannauj - who had served as vassal rulers under the Guptas - took advantage of the weakening of central authority, broke away and established control over large areas of northern India. Under the Maukharis, Kannauj continued to grow in prosperity, it became the greatest city of Northern India under Emperor Harsha of the Vardhana dynasty, who conquered it and made it his capital. Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited India during the reign of Harsha, described Kannauj as a large, prosperous city with many Buddhist monasteries. Harsha died with no heir, resulting in a power vacuum until Maharaja Yashovarman seized power as the ruler of Kannauj. Kannauj became a focal point for the three powerful dynasty's namely the Gurjara Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas, between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The conflict between the three dynasties has been referred to as the Tripartite struggle by many historians. There were initial struggles but the Gurjara Pratiharas succeeded in retaining the city; the Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled Avanti, bounded to the South by the Rashtrakuta Empire, the Pala Empire to the East. The Tripartite struggle began with the defeat of Indrayudh at the hands of Gurjara-Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja; the Pala ruler Dharampala was keen to establish his authority at Kannauj, giving rise to a struggle between Vatsaraja and Dharampala. Dharampala was however defeated. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Rastrakuta ruler Dhruva surged northwards, defeated Vatsaraja, took Kannauj for himself, completing the furthest northern expansion by a South Indian ruler; when the Rashtrakuta ruler advanced back to the south, Dharampala was left in control of Kannauj for some time. The struggle between the two northern dynasties continued: the Pala Chakrayudh was defeated by the Pratihara Nagabhata II, Kannauj was again occupied by the Gurjara Pratiharas.

Dharampala tried to take control of Kannauj but was defeated badly at Moongher by the Gurjara Pratiharas. However, Nagabhata II was in turn soon defeated by the Rashtrakuta Govinda III, who had initiated a second northern surge. An inscription states that Chakrayudh and Dharampala invited Govinda III to war against the Gurjara Pratiharas, but Dharampala and Chakrayudh both submitted to the Govinda III, in order to win his sympathy. After this defeat, Pratihara power degenerated for some time. After the death of Dharampala, Nagabhata II regained hold over Kannuaj and made it the capital of the Gurjara Pratihara Empire. During this period, the Rashtrakutas were facing some internal conflicts, so they, as well as the Palas, did not contest this, thus Gurjara Pratiharas became the greatest power in Northern India after occupying Kannauj. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni captured Kanauj in 1018. Chandradeva founded the Gahadvala dynasty with its capital at Kanauj around 1090, his grandson Govindachandra "raised Kanauj to unprecedented glory."

Muhammad Ghori advanced against the city, in the Battle of Chandwar of 1193, killed Jayachandra. Alberuni has referred to "Kanoj" as the key geographical point to explain marching distances to other Indian cities; the "glory of Imperial Kanauj" ended with Iltutmish's conquest. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun at the battle of Kannauj on 17 May 1540. During early English rule in India, the city was spelled Cannodge by th

Žemaičių Naumiestis

Žemaičių Naumiestis is a town in Klaipėda county, Šilutė district municipality in western Lithuania, between Klaipėda and Kaliningrad Oblast. The rivers Šustis, Šelmuo and Lendra flow through it. For centuries, it was located at the border to Prussia, creating its distinctly multicultural population. Besides Lithuanian inhabitants, its Jewish and German populations—and to some degree Russian—have played significant roles in its history.. As a result of the multi-layered events at the eve of World War II, over the course of the war and in the first decade after the war, this multi-cultural population structure was destroyed, it is reflected in the architectural heritage of Žemaičių Naumiestis. There is the wooden Catholic St. Michael Church, a Protestant church made of stone and a stone synagogue. For a long time the town was called Nowe Miasto. In Yiddish, the town was called Neishtot Sugint. Under tsarist rule, the town in 1884 was renamed Aleksandrovsk; this designation was valid until 1918. In the 1920s, the town was called Tauragės Naumiestis or Neishtot Tavrik referring to the located town Tauragė as opposed to other Lithuanian towns by the name of Naumiestis.

In the 1930s the designation Žemaičių Naumiestis is valid until today. The town was created by the Grand Master of the German Order, Winrich von Kniprode. In 1600 it was again mentioned as property of the crown; the town gained privileges for markets and trade fairs in 1750. In 1779, King Stanisław August Poniatowski leased the town for 50 years to the nobleman Mykolas Rionikeris, who settled artisans in the town and had the Catholic Church St. Michael constructed; the king granted the town Magdeburg Rights and a coat-of-arms in 1792. With the third partition of Poland, the town fell to the Russian Empire, first belonging to Vilna governorate and to Raseiniai district within the newly established Kovno governorate. Since 1795, the border between the Russian Empire and Prussia, located only three kilometres from the city, was fortified. A class-3 customs office was located in the town. In this time, the town was known for its trade fairs and the market, which took place twice a week. Moreover, the town hosted a post station, as this was where the post lines Palanga-Tauragė and Sartininkai-Švėkšna met.

The town grew in the second half of the 19th century as a result of cross-border trade. In 1860 there were 165 houses with 1,600 inhabitants in the town, most of them Jews. In 1897 the population had increased to 2,445 inhabitants, 1,438 of whom were Jews. There were three mills and three workshops for leather stitching; the trade fairs and markets were popular. The town was an important location for the export of horses and timber. Moreover, the town gained significance after the ban on Lithuanian press, as an important route of the book smugglers led through it. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, several houses were burnt down. From 1916 to 1918, the region was occupied by the German Army. After the end of World War I, Žemaičių Naumiestis belonged to the Republic of Lithuania. After the town was occupied by the Red Army in summer 1940 and its incorporation into the USSR, businesses were nationalized; the German minority left the town in March 1941 on the basis of the German-Soviet resettlement agreement of 1941.

On 14 June 1941, citizens of the town were exiled to Siberia. On the morning of 22 June 1941, the Wehrmacht entered Žemaičių Naumiestis. Heavy firing occurred, in the course. Subsequently the Wehrmacht arrested the majority of Jewish men and locked them in the Protestant church; the parish priest, managed to convince the German officers of the innocence of the Jews, they were freed. After the occupation, the Germans established an “advanced border-supervision post” of the Reich Financial Administration; the Jews were shot after a short time. In summer 1942, a part of the German population returned. In the time of Soviet Lithuania, a state domain and a professional school for agricultural education were located in Žemaičių Naumiestis. Jews lived in the town since the 17th century. An old Jewish cemetery was mentioned at the end of the 17th century. In the early 18th century, a Chevra Kaddisha was founded. There was a synagogue and a prayer house. Since the middle of the 19th century there were Jews who traded in located East Prussia and subsequently settled there..

At first, several Jews emigrated to the United States. Many emigrated to South Africa. After the Wehrmacht occupied Žemaičių Naumiestis in June 1941, a local headquarters was established on the market square, where male Jews had to register every day. Many were employed in street cleaning. Moreover, they had to bury those soldiers. In June 1941 the Jews were physically forced with kicks and blows to bring out the inventory of the synagogue including scrolls and banks into the yard and burn it there. In the beginning of 1941, the Jews were assigned flats on a certain street, they were banned from using sidewalks. On 19 July 1941, the SS of Heydekrug, under the direction of Werner Scheu, organized a second “Action to acquire Jews”, its target was Žemaičių Naumiestis, 14 km east of

1965–66 FC Dinamo București season

The 1965–66 season was FC Dinamo Bucureşti's 17th season in Divizia A. After four consecutive championships, Dinamo finishes only third this time. In the European Cup, Dinamo meets again Internazionale Milano. Despite winning the home game, Dinamo is eliminated by the title holder. Preliminary round - first leg Second leg First round - first leg Second leg Goalkeepers: Ilie Datcu, Iuliu Uţu. Defenders: Dumitru Ivan, Ion Nunweiller, Lică Nunweiller, Lazăr Pârvu, Cornel Popa, Mircea Stoenescu, Constantin Ştefan. Midfielders: Vasile Gergely, Emil Petru, Octavian Popescu. Forwards: Florea Dumitrache, Gheorghe Ene, Constantin Frățilă, Gheorghe Grozea, Ion Hajdu, Vasile Ionescu, Mircea Lucescu, Radu Nunweiller, Ion Pîrcălab, Aurel Unguroiu, Iosif Varga. Mircea Stoenescu and Iosif Varga are brought from Dinamo Piteşti. Varga and Marcel Pigulea are suspended for six months by the club. Florea Dumitrache made his debut in the first squad. Www.labtof.ro www.romaniansoccer.ro

Morro do Chapéu State Park

The Morro do Chapéu State Park Portuguese: Parque Estadual do Morro do Chapéu is a state park in the state of Bahia, Brazil. It protects an area of the caatinga biome that includes interesting geological formations and prehistoric cave paintings. There have been extended delays in physically implementing the park, an attempt was made in 2011 to cancel it; the Morro do Chapéu State Park is in the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, Bahia. It has an area of 46,000 hectares; the park is in a part of the Chapada Diamantina which has great scenic beauty and potential for tourism. The park contains sub-basins of the Salitre, Jacaré, Jacuípe rivers; these in turn feed the São Francisco rivers. 543 important springs have been catalogued, the site has potential to function as a geopark. It contains archaeological sites with cave paintings; the paintings in the Brejões, Boa Esperança, Igrejinha and Cristal caves demand special protection. The Morro do Chapéu State Park was created by decree 23.682 of 12 December 1973, but no action was taken to implement the park.

An event on conservation of nature sponsored by the municipality of Morro do Chapéu and the state planning department was held in 1985 and called for measures to implement the park. The Geological Service of Brazil presented a report in December 1995 that included plans for infrastructure and tourist sites, gave environmental information, risk factors and speleological and archaeological studies. Based on this, the state's department of forest development reopened the question of the park's area, commissioned a study on alternatives for the location of the park; the Morro do Chapéu State Park was recreated by state decree 7.413 of 17 August 1998. The objectives are to protect species of rare and endangered animals, to protect vegetation in the ecotone where the cerrado and caatinga meet, to protect archaeological sites. In 2008, at the request of the state secretariat of the environment, a team from the State University of Feira de Santana concluded a study for a new polygon to define the area of the park.

As of 2011 problems had been caused by opening a road inside the park, deforestation and complete lack of surveillance in the west of the park. Land owners had still not been compensated. Decree 12.744 of 12 April 2011 extinguished the park. The state prosecutor's office issued a recommendation detailing legal reasons why the park should be preserved. On 3 May 2011 Governor Jaques Wagner signed decree 12.810, which cancelled decree 12.744 and gave the Environmental Secretariat 90 days to prepare technical environmental studies, land surveys and a proposal to regularize land ownership. As of 2016 land ownership had yet to be regularized; the vegetation is from the caatinga biome, notably orchids and cacti. Areas with shrubs and herbaceous vegetation form natural gardens on rocky outcrops. There are areas of dunes; the presence of big cats shows the high degree of conservation. Threats include deforestation, sand mining, predatory hunting and squatters. In 2012 environmentalists expressed concern about the impact of construction of wind turbines in the vicinity.

The area is ideal for wind farms, with consistent strong winds channelled by the hills. However, construction of roads and tracks, explosions to build the foundations might drive out the population of cougars; the counter-arguments advanced by the Brazilian Wind Energy Association are that there is proof that wild animals return and with modern methods that vegetation recovers fast, the increased surveillance of the park will deter hunting, illegal logging and sand mining

Sarah Garfinkel

Sarah Garfinkel is a British neuroscientist and Professor of neuroscience and psychiatry based at the University of Sussex and the Brighton and Sussex Medical School. Her research is focused on the link between emotion and memory. In 2018, she was selected as one of 11 researchers on the Nature Index 2018 Rising Stars. Garfinkel was born at University College Hospital in London, she completed her PhD in Experimental Psychology at the University of Sussex in 2006, working on the effects of alcohol consumption on memory encoding. She did a postdoc at the University of Michigan studying the memory recall in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. In 2011 she joined the Brighton and Sussex Medical School as a postdoctoral fellow with Hugo Critchley, where she now runs her own lab. Garfinkel's research focuses on interoception, the ability to sense ones own body, the link between interoception and the brain, she focuses on the heartbeat, has shown that the heartbeat, perception thereof, influences the way people process fear.

Her research has furthermore shown that autistic people experience difficulty judging their heartbeat, causing anxiety and stress. This research has led to the development of a new therapy technique called interoception-directed therapy, which aims to reduce anxiety in autistic individuals. Garfinkel has been involved in number of TV shows, she was a guest on'All in the Mind' and'The Shock'. She gave a talk at TEDxBrighton in 2017. In 2018 she was featured in a short film by the BBC, where she talked about her research on interoception and autism. Sarah Garfinkel on Twitter

Audra State Park

Audra State Park is a West Virginia state park located on 355 acres in southwestern Barbour County. It was established around the remnants of an early 19th-century gristmill and the tiny community of Audra. A gristmill spillway is still visible in the river; the park is a secondary forest area bisected by the Middle Fork River. The deep pools, flat rocks, riverside beach have provided generations of campers, local teens and college students a place to swim or work on their tans. Audra State Park is the site of Alum Cave, accessible by a boardwalk built along this overhanging sandstone ledge; the park serves as the put-in point for a 6.6 mile kayak run along about 2.8 miles the Middle Fork River and about 3.8 miles of the Tygart Valley River to the confluence of the latter with the Buckhannon River. 67 camp sites Swimming in the Middle Fork River Hiking trails Kayaking in the Middle Fork River Picnic area Accessibility for the disabled was assessed by West Virginia University. The assessment found the campground, picnic area, park offices to be accessible.

The main swimming hole, with wet, slippery rocks and unpaved approaches is not considered accessible. List of West Virginia state parks Official website