Kansas–Nebraska Act

The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 was an organic act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. It was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas, passed by the 33rd United States Congress, signed into law by President Franklin Pierce. Douglas introduced the bill with the goal of opening up new lands to development and facilitating construction of a transcontinental railroad, but the Kansas–Nebraska Act is most notable for repealing the Missouri Compromise, stoking national tensions over slavery, contributing to a series of armed conflicts known as "Bleeding Kansas"; the United States had acquired vast amounts of sparsely-settled land in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, since the 1840s Douglas had sought to establish a territorial government in a portion of the Louisiana Purchase, still unorganized. Douglas's efforts were stymied by Senator David Rice Atchison and other Southern leaders who refused to allow the creation of territories that banned slavery. To win the support of Southerners like Atchison and Douglas agreed to back the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, with the status of slavery instead decided on the basis of "popular sovereignty."

Under popular sovereignty, the citizens of each territory, rather than Congress, would determine whether or not slavery would be allowed. Douglas's bill to repeal the Missouri Compromise and organize Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory won approval by a wide margin in the Senate, but faced stronger opposition in the House of Representatives. Though Northern Whigs opposed the bill, the bill passed the House with the support of all Southerners and some Northern Democrats. After the passage of the act, pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of establishing a population that would vote for or against slavery, resulting in a series of armed conflicts known as "Bleeding Kansas". Douglas and Pierce hoped that popular sovereignty would help bring an end to the national debate over slavery, but the Kansas–Nebraska Act outraged many Northerners, giving rise to the anti-slavery Republican Party. Ongoing tensions over slavery would lead to the American Civil War. In his 1853 inaugural address, President Franklin Pierce expressed hope that the Compromise of 1850 had settled the debate over the issue of slavery in the territories.

The compromise had allowed slavery in Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory, acquired in the Mexican–American War. The Missouri Compromise, which banned slavery in territories north of the 36°30′ parallel, remained in place for the other U. S. territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, including a vast unorganized territory referred to as "Nebraska". As settlers poured into the unorganized territory, commercial and political interests called for a transcontinental railroad through the region, pressure mounted for the organization of the eastern parts of the unorganized territory. Though organization of the territory was required to develop the region, an organization bill threatened to re-open the contentious debates over slavery in the territories that had taken place during and after the Mexican–American War; the topic of a transcontinental railroad had been discussed since the 1840s. While there were debates over the specifics the route to be taken, there was a public consensus that such a railroad should be built by private interests, financed by public land grants.

In 1845, Stephen A. Douglas serving in his first term in the U. S. House of Representatives, had submitted an unsuccessful plan to organize the Nebraska Territory formally, as the first step in building a railroad with its eastern terminus in Chicago. Railroad proposals were debated in all subsequent sessions of Congress with cities such as Chicago, St. Louis, Quincy and New Orleans competing to be the jumping-off point for the construction. Several proposals in late 1852 and early 1853 had strong support, but they failed because of disputes over whether the railroad would follow a northern or a southern route. In early 1853, the House of Representatives passed a bill 107 to 49 to organize the Nebraska Territory in the land west of Iowa and Missouri. In March, the bill moved to the Senate Committee on Territories, headed by Douglas. Missouri Senator David Atchison announced that he would support the Nebraska proposal only if slavery were to be permitted. While the bill was silent on this issue, slavery would have been prohibited under the Missouri Compromise in territory north of 36°30' latitude and west of the Mississippi River.

Other Southern senators were as inflexible as Atchison. By a vote of 23 to 17, the Senate voted to table the motion, with every senator from the states south of Missouri voting to table. During the Senate adjournment, the issues of the railroad and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise became entangled in Missouri politics, as Atchison campaigned for re-election against the forces of Thomas Hart Benton. Atchison was maneuvered into choosing between antagonizing the state's railroad interests or its slaveholders, he took the position that he would rather see Nebraska "sink in hell" before he would allow it to be overrun by free soilers. Representatives generally found lodging in boarding houses when they were in the nation's capital to perform their legislative duties. Atchison shared lodgings in an F Street house shared by the leading Southerners in Congress, he himself was the Senate's President pro tempore. His housemates included Robert T. Hunter, James Mason and Andrew P. Butler (from South Carolina, chairman o

Minuscule 592

Minuscule 592, α 567, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on paper, dated by a Colophon to the year 1289. The manuscript has complex contents, it was labelled by Scrivener as 461. Gregory labelled the manuscript by 592e, 207a, 263p; the codex contains the text of the New Testament except Book of Revelation on 295 paper leaves. It is written in one column per 28-32 lines per page, it was written by many hands. It contains the lists of the κεφαλαια, numerals of the κεφαλαια, the τιτλοι, the Ammonian Sections, Menologion, subscriptions, ρηματα, στιχοι, Euthalian Apparatus; the order of books: Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles and Gospels. It contains an additional material about the councils; the Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx in Luke 1 and Luke 20. In Luke 10 no profile was made; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scrivener.

It was examined by Dean Burgon. The manuscript is housed at the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, at Milan. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism A. Turyn, Dated Greek Manuscripts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries in the Libraries of Italy, 45.


Mitacs is a nonprofit national research organization that, in partnerships with Canadian academia, private industry and government, operates research and training programs in fields related to industrial and social innovation. Mitacs was founded by Canadian mathematicians in 1999; the organization, whose name stood for "Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems", worked in the field of mathematical sciences and associated disciplines but has since expanded. In 2004, the Mitacs Accelerate program was launched and has since supported over 10,000 internships nationally. As of early 2019, Mitacs operates four main programs: The organization's flagship program has supported over 10,000 research internships for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows since 2004 and has since replaced the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's Industrial Postgraduate Scholarships Program. The two-year program has the objective of providing postdoctoral fellows with professional and leadership development training while leading a long-term research project with a partner organization.

The international program supports two-way research collaboration between Canada and research partners abroad. In 2016, the Globalink Research Internship program welcomed 565 students across Canada; the program matches PhD-level researchers to government agencies to influence evidence-based policy-making. Mitacs is jointly funded by the federal and provincial Canadian governments, academic partners and research partners. Between 2006 and 2015, the organization received $128 million in investments from the federal government. In 2015, the federal government pledged $56.4 million over four years to Mitacs in support of graduate-level research and development internships. Official website