Trusty system (prison)
The "trusty system" was a strict system of discipline and security in prisons in parts of the United States, made compulsory under Mississippi state law but was used in other states as well, such as Arkansas, Louisiana, New York and Texas. The method of controlling and working inmates at Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, was designed in 1901 to replace convict leasing; the trusty system had designated inmates used by staff to control and administer physical punishment to other inmates according to a strict, prison-determined, inmate hierarchy of power. The case of Gates v. Collier ended the flagrant abuse of inmates under the trusty system and other prison abuses that had continued unchanged since the building of the Mississippi State Penitentiary. Other states using the trusty system were forced to give it up under the ruling. Parchman Farm, as the prison was called, was built in 1903 on the rich soil of the Mississippi Delta. By Mississippi law, the prison was required to pay for itself and make a profit for the state.
That meant the state was entering into business, using no-cost labor. That was harmful to normal businesses; the prison warden was without outside interference. Its operations remained much the same from 1903 until the Gates v. Collier Prison Reform Case forced it to change. In 1911, the New York Times wrote an article praising the Mississippi prison system for its for-profit approach to incarceration; the prison had 16,000 acres of farmland and grew such cash crops as cotton as well as engaged in livestock production. Although the population of the prison was around 1,900 inmates, the law allowed only a maximum of 150 staff members to be hired to minimize operating costs. Thus, the farm labor was done by inmates; the bulk of guarding and disciplining of the inmates was performed by inmate trusties. They performed most of the administrative work, supervised by a few employees. Therefore, the inmate trusties controlled inmate care and custody running the prison system. Highest in the prison inmate hierarchy were the inmates armed with rifles, called the "trusty shooters."
Their job was to act as prison guards and control other inmates on a day-to-day basis in the residential camps or out on the field work crews. Next came the unarmed trusties who performed janitorial and other menial tasks for the prison's staff. Simple tasks, such as distributing medication, were carried out by other categories of inmates such as "hallboys.' Inmate trusties enforced discipline within the prison inmate living quarters and in the work camps and farms. In addition to punishment administered on site, inmate trusties could recommend further punishment in the special punishment area for disobedient or disruptive inmates. According to attorney Roy Haber, who handled the series of litigation cases brought by the American Civil Liberties Union against the Trusty system, inmates were whipped with leather straps for failing to pick their daily quota of cotton; the farm's camps of black inmates were supervised by one white sergeant, under him the black inmate "trusty shooters," who were serving sentences for murder, carried rifles and enforced discipline.
Gates v. Collier ended the flagrant abuse of inmates under the trusty system and other prison abuses that had continued unchanged since the building of the prison in 1903. On October 20, 1972, Federal Judge William Keady ordered the end of racial segregation in prison residential quarters, he required replacement of trusty shooters with civilian prison guards. Any system in which inmates were allowed to be in a position of authority and control other inmates or to use physical abuse or intimidation of other inmates was abolished, it found some types of corporal punishment were a violation of an inmate's Eighth Amendment rights, including "handcuffing inmates to the fence and to cells for long periods of time... and forcing inmates to stand, sit or lie on crates, stumps, or otherwise maintain awkward positions for prolonged periods."Its structure and abuses were detailed Hope v. Pelzer in which a former inmate sued the prison superintendent for personal injury suffered under the trusty system.
Other states using the trusty system, such as Arkansas, Alabama and Texas were forced to abolish it under the Gates v. Collier rulings. However, some states, such as Texas, still continued their use of trusty systems until the 1980s, when Federal Judge William Wayne Justice, in Ruiz v. Estelle, 503 F. Supp. 1265, compelled the replacement of the trusty system with the strictly-regulated Support Service Inmate system. Parchman Farm Louisiana State Penitentiary Convict lease Prison farm Oshinsky, David M. "Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice." The Free Press: NY ISBN 0-684-83095-7. Taylor, William Banks. Down on Parchman Farm. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-5023-8. Trusty system in New Jersey Black Annie' at Parchman Prison Farm, Mississippi Parchman Prison to be Featured in History Channel's "Big House" Series History of Angola Forced Labor in the 19th century South: The Story of Parchman Farm Down on Parchman Farm – The Great Prison in the Mississippi Delta – Review
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Sapulpa is a city in Creek and Tulsa counties in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The population was 20,544 at the 2010 United States census, compared to 19,166 at the 2000 census; as of 2013 the estimated population was 20,836. It is the county seat of Creek County; the town was named after the area's first permanent settler, a full-blood Lower Creek Indian named Sapulpa, of the Kasihta Tribe, from Osocheetown, Alabama. About 1850, he established a trading post near the meeting of Rock creeks; when the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad built a spur to this area in 1886, it was known as Sapulpa Station. The Sapulpa post office was chartered July 1, 1889; the town was incorporated March 31, 1898. After Oklahoma became a state, each county held an election to determine the location of the county seat. Sapulpa competed with Bristow for county seat of Creek County. After five years of contested elections and court suits, the question was settled by the Oklahoma Supreme Court on August 1, 1913. Sapulpa was ruled the winner.
The county courthouse was completed in 1914, replacing an earlier structure built in 1902. The area around Sapulpa produced walnuts when the town was founded. In 1898, the Sapulpa Pressed Brick was established, followed in a few years by the Sapulpa Brick Company; this began the clay products industry. The founding of Premium Glass Company in 1912 marked Sapulpa's entry to glass manufacturing. Premium Glass was absorbed into Liberty Glass Company in 1918. Other glass producers in the city were Bartlett-Collins Glass Company, Schram Glass Company, Sunflower Glass Company. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History, Sapulpa became known as "The Crystal City of the Southwest". Sapulpa is the home of Frankoma Pottery. In 1889 the Frisco route between Oklahoma City and Tulsa, passing through Sapulpa, was opened; the Frisco built a railyard in Sapulpa and by 1900 designated Sapulpa as the location of an overhaul base for its rolling stock. In 1900, construction of the line from Sapulpa to Denison, Texas was started and rushed to completion by March 1901.
With changes in ownership over the years, the portion of the old Frisco line between Sapulpa and Del City, near Oklahoma City ended up owned by the State of Oklahoma. In 1998, the line was leased to Stillwater Central Railroad, in 2014 was sold to that company; the sale contract included a requirement to start a six-month daily passenger service trial run before August 2019, with a financial penalty for not meeting the deadline set at $2.8 million. In June of 2018, the Stillwater Central, being only a freight operator, issued a request for proposal to begin the process of securing another private rail carrier to provide the passenger service, such service known locally as the Eastern Flyer; the terms include an initial period of 10 years, involves only the route between Sapulpa and Del City, but with the expectation of working with city officials to expand service to the downtowns of both Tulsa and Oklahoma City. Separately, Sapulpa in the early days was on the route of the Sapulpa & Interurban Railway streetcar/interurban line connecting to Tulsa in one direction, Kiefer and Mounds in the other.
S&I subsequently went through a series of mergers and name changes, with only the Tulsa-to-Sapulpa portion continuing as the Tulsa-Sapulpa Union Railway. Sapulpa is located in the northeast corner of Creek County at 36°0′13″N 96°6′17″W. A small portion of the city extends north into Tulsa County and was annexed into the city in 2004. Downtown Tulsa is 14 miles to the northeast via Interstate 44; the Creek Turnpike branches east from I-44 in northeastern Sapulpa and provides a southern and eastern bypass of Tulsa. In January 2018, the Sapulpa City Council voted to approve the annexation of 300 acres of land in West Tulsa; the land is bordered to the north by 51st street, to the south by Southwest Blvd, to the west by 65th West Avenue. This annexation included the future site of the interchange of the Gilcrease Expressway and I-44. However, the city has now planned to de-anex this area back to the city of Tulsa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Sapulpa has a total area of 25.1 square miles, of which 24.3 square miles is land and 0.81 square miles, or 3.21%, is water.
As of the 2010 census, there were 20,544 people, 8,015 households, 5,497 families residing in the city. The population density was 844.3 people per square mile. There were 8,903 housing units at an average density of 435.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 3.0% African American, 10.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 6.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 7,430 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,372 and the median income for a family was $52,639. Males had a median income of
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Clarkson is an unincorporated community in southwestern Middleton Township, Columbiana County, United States, clustered around the intersection of Clarkson and Sprucevale roads. Clarkson is located at 40°44′50″N 80°36′47″W; the majority of residences are clustered at the intersection of Sprucevale Roads. Clarkson was platted in February 1816 by Robert Hanna, who moved there in a conestoga wagon with his wife, it was surveyed by William Heald. Hanna resided in a log tavern at the intersection of two roads; this building was known as the Edward McGinnis tavern. In 1817, James Monroe, while President of the United States, visited his cousin, Catherine Hanna, in Clarkson. A post office was established in Clarkson in 1833 and remained until 1935. An early settler and businessman was Milo Warrick who, in 1840, was a cabinet maker and undertaker in Clarkson, his son, Clement Vlandingham Warrick, opened a general store in Clarkson in 1885. He established the first Standard Oil dealership in Ohio, holding vendor's license Number 1.
Pretty Boy Floyd, bank robber, was shot and killed by FBI agents in a corn field near Clarkson in 1934. Gaston's Mill, named for Clarkson resident Philander Gaston, lies within Beaver Creek State Park; the mill has been restored. Clement Vlandingham Warrick - First standard oil dealer in Ohio. Almira Park - the mother of Hannah Milhous Nixon and maternal grandmother of President Richard Nixon
Leavenworth is the county seat and largest city of Leavenworth County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 35,251. Located on the west bank of the Missouri River; the site of Fort Leavenworth, built in 1827, the city became known in American history for its role as a key supply base in the settlement of the American West. It is important in nineteenth-century African-American history. During the American Civil War, many volunteers joined the Union Army from Leavenworth. In 1866, the 10th Regiment of Cavalry, an all-black unit within the U. S. Army, was stood up at Fort Leavenworth; the city has been notable as the location of several prisons the United States Disciplinary Barracks and United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth. Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first city incorporated in the territory of Kansas; the city developed south of Fort Leavenworth, established as Cantonment Leavenworth in 1827 by Colonel Henry Leavenworth. Its location on the Missouri River attracted refugee African-American slaves in the antebellum years, who were seeking freedom from the slave state of Missouri across the river.
Abolition supporters helped. In the years before the American Civil War, Leavenworth was a hotbed of anti-slavery and pro-slavery agitation leading to open physical confrontations on the street and in public meetings. On April 3, 1858, the "Leavenworth Constitution" for the state of Kansas was adopted here. Although the federal government never approved this early version of the state constitution, it was considered one of the most radical of the four constitutions drafted for the new territory because it recognized freed blacks as citizens. Refugee African Americans continued to settle in the city during the war. By 1865 it had attracted nearly one-fifth of the 12,000 blacks in the state. Charles Henry Langston was an African-American leader from Boston who worked and lived in Leavenworth and northeast Kansas in the Reconstruction era and afterward. In Kansas, Langston worked for black suffrage and the right of African Americans to sit on juries, testify in court, have their children educated in common schools.
African Americans gained suffrage in 1870 after passage of the federal 15th constitutional amendment, the legislature voted for their right to sit on juries in 1874. African Americans continued to migrate to the state of Kansas after the war. There were a total of 17,108 African Americans in Kansas in 1870, with 43,107 in 1880, 52,003 by 1900. Most lived in urban areas. Following months of assaults on young white women in late 1900, in which witnesses had identified a "large white man" and a "slight black man" as having been seen in the vicinity of the attacks, Fred Alexander, a 22-year-old black veteran of the Spanish–American War, was arrested on circumstantial evidence for the attacks; the police had moved him to the penitentiary during questioning, but a lynch mob was forming in Leavenworth. The sheriff needed to bring him to Leavenworth for arraignment at the county court, he refused the governor's offer of state militia, was unable to protect the prisoner. On January 15, 1901, Alexander was taken from jail by a mob of 5,000 people and to the site of the murder of Pearl Forbes, where he was brutally lynched: burned alive.
He protested his innocence to the end. An inquest concluded he had been killed by "persons unknown", his family refused to claim his body for burial. His father Alfred Alexander, an exoduster, said "The people have mutilated him, now let them bury him." The city arranged burial. African Americans in the region were horrified at Alexander's murder by the mob and created the first state chapter of the Afro-American Council the only national organization working for civil rights. In 1972 Benjamin Day became the city's first African-American mayor. Day had been elected to the City Commission one year earlier. Leavenworth appoints its mayor from among the members of the Commission, Day was named mayor in 1971. Day was a former principal in Leavenworth. Fort Leavenworth was located outside the city limits until its territory was annexed by the city on April 12, 1977. In 2008, an underground series of "vaults" was found in the city built during the late 19th century. Leavenworth is located at 39°18′40″N 94°55′21″W at an elevation of 840 feet.
Located in northeastern Kansas at the junction of U. S. Route 73 and Kansas Highway 92, Leavenworth is 25 mi northwest of downtown Kansas City, 145 mi south-southeast of Omaha, 165 mi northeast of Wichita; the city lies on the west bank of the Missouri River in the Dissected Till Plains region of North America's Central Lowlands. Four small tributaries of the river flow east through the city. From north to south, these are Quarry Creek, Corral Creek, Three Mile Creek, Five Mile Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.06 square miles, of which, 24.04 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Fort Leavenworth occupies the northern half of the city's area. Leavenworth, along with the rest of Leavenworth County, lies within the Kansas City metropolitan area. Lansing, Kansas, is located to the south. Leavenworth experiences a humid continental climate, with hot, humid summers and cold, drier winters. On average, January is the coldest month, July is the hottest month, June is the wettest month.
The average temperature in Leavenworth is 55.2 °F or 12.9 °C. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of 19 °F or −7.2 °C in January to an average high of 90