Kansas Jayhawks

The Kansas Jayhawks referred to as KU, are the athletic teams that represent the University of Kansas. KU is one of three schools in the state of Kansas that participate in NCAA Division I; the Jayhawks are a member of the Big 12 Conference. KU athletic teams have won eleven NCAA Division I championships: three in men's basketball, one in men's cross country, three in men's indoor track and field, three in men's outdoor track and field, one in women's outdoor track and field; the name "Jayhawks" comes from the Kansas Jayhawker freedom fighter and anti-slavery movement during the Bleeding Kansas era of the American Civil War. The origin of the term "Jayhawk" is uncertain; the origin of the term may go back as far as the Revolutionary War, when it was used to describe a group associated with American patriot John Jay. The term became part of the lexicon of the Missouri-Kansas border in about 1858, during the Kansas territorial period; the term was used to describe militant bands nominally associated with the free-state cause.

One early Kansas history contained this succinct characterization of the jayhawkers: Confederated at first for defense against pro-slavery outrages, but falling more or less into the vocation of robbers and assassins, they have received the name – whatever its origin may be – of jayhawkers. Another historian of the territorial period described the jayhawkers as bands of men that were willing to fight and rob for a variety of motives that included defense against pro-slavery "Border Ruffians", driving pro-slavery settlers from their claims of land, and/or plunder and personal profit. In September 1861, the town of Osceola, Missouri was burned to the ground by Jayhawkers during the Sacking of Osceola. On the 150th anniversary of that event in 2011, the town asked the University of Kansas to remove the Jayhawk as its mascot; the university refused. Over time, proud of their state's contributions to the end of slavery and the preservation of the Union, Kansans embraced the "Jayhawker" term; the term came to be applied to items related to Kansas.

When the University of Kansas fielded their first football team in 1890, like many universities at that time, they had no official mascot. They used many different independent mascots, including a pig. Sometime during the 1890s, the team was referred to as the Jayhawkers by the student body. Over time, the name was supplanted by its shorter variant, KU's sports teams are now exclusively known as the Jayhawks; the Jayhawk appears in several Kansas cheers, most notably, the "Rock Chalk, Jayhawk" chant in unison before and during games. In the traditions promoted by KU, the jayhawk is said to be a combination of two birds, "the blue jay, a noisy, quarrelsome thing known to rob other nests, the sparrow hawk, a stealthy hunter."The link between the term "Jayhawkers" and any specific kind of mythical bird, if it existed, had been lost or at least obscured by the time KU's bird mascot was invented in 1912. The originator of the bird mascot, Henry Maloy, struggled for over two years to create a pictorial symbol for the team, until hitting upon the bird idea.

As explained by Mr. Maloy, "the term ‘jayhawk’ in the school yell was a verb and the term ‘jayhawkers’ was the noun." KU's current Jayhawk tradition springs from Frank W. Blackmar, a KU professor. In his 1926 address on the origin of the Jayhawk, Blackmar referenced the blue jay and sparrow hawk. Blackmar's address served to soften the link between KU's athletic team moniker and the Jayhawkers of the Kansas territorial period, helped explain the recently invented Jayhawk pictorial symbol with a myth that appears to have been of more recent fabrication; the University of Kansas sponsors 16 sports: 6 men's and 8 women's. There are club-level sports for rugby, ice hockey, men's volleyball; the school used to sponsor a wrestling team. The Jayhawks men's basketball program is one of the most successful and prestigious programs in the history of college basketball; the Jayhawks' first coach was the inventor of James Naismith. The program has produced some of the game's greatest professional players, most successful coaches.

The program has enjoyed considerable national success, having been retroactively selected Helms Foundation National Champions for 1922 and 1923, winning NCAA national championships in 1952, 1988, 2008, playing in 15 Final Fours, is one of only three programs to win more than 2,000 games. In Street & Smith's Annual list of 100 greatest college basketball programs of all time in 2005, KU ranked 4th. Kansas first fielded a women's team during the 1968–69 season. For thirty-one seasons the women's team was coached by Marian Washington, who led the team to three Big Eight championships, one Big 12 Championship, six conference tournament championships, eleven NCAA Tournament appearances and four AIAW Tournament appearances; the team's best post-season result was a Sweet Sixteen appearance in 1998. Bonnie Henrickson served as head coach from 2004 to 2015, until she was fired in March 2015. Brandon Schneider was hired to replace Henrickson in April 2015. KU began playing football in 1890; the football team has had notable alumni including Gale Sayers, a two-time All-American who enjoyed an injury-shortened yet Hall of Fame career with the Chicago Bears.

James Paul Gee

James Gee is a retired American researcher who has worked in psycholinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingual education, literacy. Gee most held the position as the Mary Lou Fulton Presidential Professor of Literacy Studies at Arizona State University appointed there in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education. Gee has been a faculty affiliate of the Games and Society group at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and is a member of the National Academy of Education. James Paul Gee was born in California, he received his B. A. in philosophy from the University of California at Santa Barbara and both his M. A. and Ph. D in linguistics from Stanford University, he started his career in theoretical linguistics, working in syntactic and semantic theory, taught at Stanford University and in the School of Language and Communication at Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts. After doing some research in psycholinguistics at Northeastern University in Boston and at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands, Prof. Gee's research focus switched to studies on discourse analysis and applications of linguistics to literacy and education.

He went on to teach in the School of Education at Boston University, where he was the chair of the Department of Developmental Studies and Counseling, in the Linguistics Department at the University of Southern California. At Boston University he established new graduate programs centered around an integrated approach to language and literacy, combining programs in reading, bilingual education, ESL, applied linguistics. From 1993 to 1997 he held the Jacob Hiatt Chair in Education in the Hiatt Center for Urban Education at Clark University in Massachusetts. From 1997 until 2007, he held the Tashia Morgridge Professor of Reading at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. In 2007, Gee relocated to Arizona State University, where he was the Mary Lou Fulton Presidential Professor of Literacy Studies in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. In 2019, Gee retired. In his work in social linguistics, Gee explored the concept of Discourse. In Gee's work, discourse refers to language-in-use; when discussing the combination of language with other social practices within a specific group, Gee refers to that as Discourse.

Individuals may be part of many different Discourse communities, for example “when you ‘pull-off’ being a culturally specific sort of ‘everyday’ person, a ‘regular’ at the local bar...a teacher or a student of a certain sort, or any of a great many other ‘ways of being in the world’”. Furthermore, being able to function within a Discourse may carry advantages in different situations. For example, if a person is raised in a family of lawyers, the Discourses of politics or business may come easily to that person. In the United States, those are all Discourses of power and they are related. Another person raised in a different Discourse community might find himself or herself at a disadvantage when trying to move within the Discourse of business, trying to get a loan, for instance. One Discourse community is not inherently better than another. In Gee's view, language always occurs within a context. There is no'neutral' use of language. Meaning is constructed within Discourse communities. Gee's 1999 text An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method is a foundational work in the field of discourse analysis.

According to Gee, there are at least two reasons why we should consider literacy in broader terms than the traditional conception of literacy as the ability to read and write. First, in our world today, language is by no means the only communication system available. Many types of visual images and symbols have specific significances, so “visual literacies” and literacies of other modes, or the concept of multimodal literacy, are included in Gee's conception of new literacies. Second, Gee proposes that writing are not such obvious ideas as they first appear. "After all," he states, "we write. In other words, according to which type of text we read there are different ways in which we read depending on the “rules” of how to read such a text. Literacy to Gee if it is the traditional print-based literacy, should be conceived as being multiple, or comprising different literacies, since we need different types of literacies to read different kinds of texts in ways that meet our particular purposes in reading them.

Furthermore, Gee argues that reading and writing should be viewed as more than just “mental achievements” happening inside people's minds. So, in Gee's view, literacies are not only multiple but are inherently connected to social practices. In order to expand the traditional view of literacy as print literacy, Gee recommends that we think first of literacy in terms of semiotic domains. By this, he means “any set of practices that recruits one or more modalities to communicate distinctive types of meanings”. There is a endless and varied range of semiotic domains, including cellular biology, first-person-shooter video games, rap music, or modern

Srikrishna Science Centre

Srikrishna Science Centre is a science museum in Patna, India, named after the first Chief Minister of Bihar, Sri Krishna Singh. It was inaugurated on 14 April 1978, by the Minister of Shri Thakur Prasad Singh. Srikrishna Science Centre forms a unit of the National Council of Science Museums, an autonomous body under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India, it is located in the southwestern corner of the Gandhi Maidan. The science centre has been set up for the benefit of the public students. A new innovation hub been set up to promote critical thinking through activities in science. Various facilities like 3D printing, broadband internet facilities as well as advanced labs are available; the centre is made up of galleries that teach different science topics: the Fun Science Gallery covers physics and maths with 50 hands-on exhibits. A new gallery on images and mirrors will have around 60 exhibits; the gallery will showcase the concept of reflection, illusive images, 3D images, medical imaging, concept of colours, digital and virtual imaging.

Several immersion virtual exhibits will be part of this gallery. Dr. A. P. J Abdul kalam science city, patna. Indra Gandhi Planetarium, Patna. Swami Vivekananda Planetarium, Mangalore. Srikrishna Science Centre, Patna Exhibits / Facilities at Srikrishna Science Centre Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine