The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bishkek Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is the administrative centre of the Chuy Region; the province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Apollon Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek", it lay within the General Governorship of its Semirechye Oblast. In 1925 the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was established in Russian Turkestan, promoting Pishpek to its capital. In 1926 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union renamed the city as Frunze, after the Bolshevik military leader Mikhail Frunze, born there. In 1936, the city of Frunze became the capital of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union.
In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek". Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters, just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range; these mountains provide a backdrop to the city. North of the city, a fertile and undulating steppe extends far north into neighboring Kazakhstan; the Chui River drains most of the area. Bishkek is connected to the Turkestan-Siberia Railway by a spur line. Bishkek is a city of wide boulevards and marble-faced public buildings combined with numerous Soviet-style apartment blocks surrounding interior courtyards. There are thousands of smaller built houses outside the city centre. Streets follow a grid pattern, with most flanked on both sides by narrow irrigation channels, watering innumerable trees to provide shade in the hot summers. A caravan rest stop on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in 1825 by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort.
In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by the Datka. In 1860, the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area. Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison; the site was redeveloped from 1877 onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed "Frunze" after Mikhail Frunze, Lenin's close associate, born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and during the Russian civil war of the early 1920s; the early 1990s were tumultuous. In June 1990, a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital; the city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February 1991 and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Before independence, the majority of Bishkek's population were ethnic Russians. In 2004, Russians made up 20% of the city's population, about 7–8% in 2011. Today, Bishkek is a modern city with many restaurants and cafes, with many second-hand European and Japanese cars and minibuses crowding its streets; however and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the 1990s. At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is the country's financial center, with all of the country's 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since 1991 or now operate on a much reduced scale. One of Bishkek's largest employment centers today is the Dordoy Bazaar open market, where many of the Chinese goods imported to CIS countries are sold. Though the city is young, the surrounding area has some sites of interest dating to prehistorical times.
There are sites from the Greco-Buddhist period, the period of Nestorian influence, the era of the Central Asian khanates, the Soviet period. The central part of the city is laid out on a rectangular grid plan; the city's main street is the east–west Chui Avenue, named after the region's main river. In the Soviet era, it was called Lenin Avenue. Along or near it are many of the most important government universities; these include the Academy of Sciences compound. The westernmost section of the avenue is known as Deng Xiaoping Avenue; the main north–south street is Yusup Abdrakhmanov Street, still referred to by its old name, Sovietskaya Street. Its northern and southern sections are called Yelebesov and Baityk Batyr Streets. Several major shopping centers are located along it, in the north it provides access to Dordoy Bazaar. Erkindik Boulevard runs from north to south, from the main railroad station south of Chui Avenue to the museum quarter and sculpture park just north of Chui Avenue, further north toward the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. An imp
The Chuy Valley is a large valley located in north Tian-Shan. It extends from Boom Gorge in the east to Muyunkum Desert in the west, it has an area of about 32,000 square kilometres, borders Kyrgyz Ala-Too in the south, Chu-Ili mountains in the north. Through Boom Gorge in the narrow east part Chuy Valley is linked with Issyk-Kul Valley. Chu River is the major stream of the valley; the warm summer and availability of drinking and irrigation water makes this area one of the most fertile and most densely populated regions of Kyrgyzstan. There are deposits of zinc ore, lead and construction materials; the 2006 World Drug Report estimated. The climate is continental. Summers are long and hot, winters are short and cold; the average temperature of the hottest month is 24.4 °C with a maximum of 43 °C. The average temperature of the coldest month is −5.0 °C with a minimum of −38 °C. The typical annual precipitation varies from 300 to 500 millimetres in different climatic zones of the valley. Precipitation progressively increases with increasing altitude near Kyrgyz Ala-Too range.
Spring and autumn are the rainiest seasons in Chuy Valley. Bishkek Kara-Balta Kant Kemin Shopokov Tokmok Ivanovka
Chuy Region or Chui Region is the northernmost region of the Kyrgyz Republic. It is bounded on the north by Kazakhstan, clockwise, Issyk Kul Region, Naryn Region, Jalal-Abad Region and Talas Region, its administrative center is Bishkek. The main northwest part of the region is flat, a rarity in Kyrgyzstan; this is the valley of the Chu River. The valley's black soil is fertile and is irrigated with water diverted from the Chu River; the region's Agricultural production includes wheat, sugar beets, potatoes and various vegetables and fruits. The Kyrgyz Ala-Too mountains form the southern border of the region, the northern border of Talas Region. There are many trekking routes accessible from the towns in the valley; the southwestern heel of the region over the Kirgiz Alatau is geographically more like Naryn Region. The northeast panhandle is the Chong Kemin Valley. In 1926, the region became part of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR. During the Soviet period, various agro-processing and other industries were established throughout the province, giving rise to a number of urban centers such as Tokmok and Kara-Balta.
Agricultural production includes wheat, sugar beets, potatoes and various vegetables and fruits. There is little industry in the region; the main east-west transportation axis of the region is the Taraz-Bishkek-Balykchy highway, running through most major cities of the region. This road's section west of Bishkek is part of European route E40, known locally as Highway M-39; the same numbers apply to the road that continues north-east from Bishkek toward Almaty, crossing the Chuy River and leaving the region for Kazakhstan at Korday border crossing. The only railway in the region runs along the same Taraz-Bishkek-Balykchy route. Employed population: 335,200 Registered Unemployed Population: 6563 Export: 294.3 million US dollars Import: 202.5 million US dollars Direct Foreign Investments: 57 million US dollars As of 2009, Chuy Region included 4 towns, 5 urban-type settlements, 331 villages. Its population, according to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, was 790,438; the population is more heterogeneous than that of the other regions of the country, with many ethnic Russians, Dungans, Germans, etc.
According to the 2009 Census, the ethnic composition of Chuy Region was: Chuy Region is divided administratively into 8 districts, the district-level city of Tokmok: The Chuy District surrounds the city of Tokmok. The Alamudun District surrounds the city of Bishkek, which however is not part of Chuy Region but a province-level administrative unit in its own right; the southwestern heel is administered as two exclaves of Jaiyl and Panfilov Raions, Panfilov having a valley to the southeast and Jaiyl the mountains to the north and southwest. Raions below are listed from east to west. Official website
Kant (air base)
Kant Air Base is a military air base in Ysyk-Ata District of Chuy Oblast in Kyrgyzstan. It is located just south of the city of Kant, some 20 km east of downtown Bishkek. In 1941, a Soviet Air Force base and pilot training school were set up near the city of Kant, based on a school evacuated from Odessa. During World War II, 1507 Soviet military pilots were trained there and from 1956, the school trained foreign pilots. Among its graduates were Egyptian former president Hosni Mubarak and the late Syrian president Hafez al-Assad, as well as India's Air Chief Marshal Dilbagh Singh and South Yemen Brigadier Pilot Shakeeb Khobani. In 1992, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, control of the air base was transferred to Kyrgyzstan. In accordance with a bilateral agreement between Russia and Kyrgyzstan signed on 22 September 2003, the air base hosts Russian Air Force units; the official opening took place on 23 October 2003, making the facility the first new air base Russia opened abroad since 1991.
The unit stationed there has been described as Russian Air Force's 5th Air Army's 999th Air Base. In December 2012, Kyrgyzstan agreed to lease the base to Russia for fifteen years after the Russian government agreed to reduce some Kyrgyz debt by some $500 million. Accident history for UAFW at Aviation Safety Network
Ysyk-Ata District is one of the eight districts of the Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 2,415 square kilometres, its resident population was 132,759 in 2009; the administrative center of the district is the city of Kant, the district itself was known as Kant District in the past. The district is located on the southern side of the Chui River, about halfway between the national capital Bishkek and the former provincial capital Tokmok. In 1941, a Soviet Air Force base and pilot training school were set up in the district. During World War II, 1507 military pilots were trained there. Since 1956, the school trained foreign pilots. In 1992, the air base was transferred to Kyrgyzstan authorities; the district authorities, as well as the residents of the riverside village of Milianfan, are concerned with the River Chui washing away the district's land, as it shifts its course to the south and erodes its left bank. As of 2009, Ysyk-Ata District included 1 town, 58 villages in 18 rural communities.
Its de facto population, according to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, was 131,503, de jure population 132,759. Some 21,762 people live in urban areas, 109,741 in rural ones. According to the 2009 Census, the ethnic composition of Ysyk-Ata District was: In total, Ysyk-Ata District includes 1 town and 56 settlements in 18 rural communities; each rural community can consist of one or several villages. The rural communities and settlements in Ysyk-Ata District are: city Kant Ak-Kuduk aiyl okmotu Birdik aiyl okmotu Ivanovka aiyl okmotu Jeek aiyl okmotu Internatsionalnyi aiyl okmotu Keng-Bulun aiyl okmotu Kochkorbaev aiyl okmotu Krasnorechenskiy aiyl okmotu Logvinenko aiyl okmotu Lyuksemburg aiyl okmotu Milyanfan aiyl okmotu Novopokrovka aiyl okmotu Nurmanbet aiyl okmotu Syn-Tash aiyl okmotu Tuz aiyl okmotu Uzun-Kyr aiyl okmotu Yurevka aiyl okmotu Ysyk-Ata aiyl okmotu Ysyk-Ata District data at the provincial administration web site
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan