Taulihawa known as Kapilavastu, is a municipality and administrative center of Kapilvastu District in Province No. 5 of southern Nepal. Taulihawa is located 25 kilometres to the south-west of Lumbini, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the birthplace of Gautama Buddha; the municipality lies at an altitude of 107 metres above sea level on Nepal's southern border across from Uttar Pradesh state, India. There is a customs checkpoint for goods while movement of Indian and Nepalese nationals across the border is unrestricted. Taulihawa had a population of 27,170 at the time of the 2001 Nepal census. Many historians claim Tilaurakot located in Kapilavastu municipality to be the ancient city of Kapilavastu. On the other hand, some other archaeologists have identified present-day Piprahwa, India as the location for the historical site of Kapilavastu; the 19th-century search for the historical site of Kapilavastu followed the accounts left by Faxian and by Xuanzang, who were Chinese Buddhist monks who made early pilgrimages to the site.
Kapilavastu was the capital city of the Shakya kingdom. King Śuddhodana and Queen Māyā are believed to have lived at Kapilavastu, as did their son Prince Siddartha Gautama until he left the palace at the age of 29. There are many sites of historical interest in or close to Kapilavastu, including: Amaulikot Arourakot Darbar Bardahawa Bargadawa Stupa Bikulikot Derwa Stupa Dohanikot Gotihawa, birthplace of Kakusandha Buddha, marked by an Ashoka pillar Jagdishpur Reservoir Kanthak Stupa Kapilvastu Museum Kopawa Stupa Kudan Lohasariya Stupa Lumbini, birthplace of Gautama Buddha Nigalikot, birthplace of Koṇāgamana Buddha, marked by an Ashoka pillar Paltimai Temple Pipara Stupa Pipari Premnagar Stupa Rampur Siddhipur Stupa Sagarahawa Reservoir Sarkup Pokhari Semara Shiv Mandir Sihokhor Stupa Siseniya Stupa Tauleshwor Nath Mandir is a devotional temple for Hindus. Many Hindus come here to worship Lord Shiva during the Maha Shivaratri festival. Tilaurakot Twin Stupa Kumarwarti Lumbini On Trial: The Untold Story by Terry Phelps.
See Section'The Kapilavastu of the Chinese Pilgrims' and following passage also. Description of Kapilavastu by the Chinese pilgrim monk Faxian Suttas spoken by Gautama Buddha concerning Kapilavatthu: Cula-dukkhakkhandha Sutta - The Lesser Mass of Stress Sakka Sutta - To the Sakyans"
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Kapilvastu district Kapilbastu, is one of the districts of Province No. 5, Nepal. The district, with Kapilbastu municipality as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,738 square kilometres and in 2001 had a population of 481,976, which increased to 571,936 in 2011. Kapilvastu district has 3 number of seats for central whereas 6 seats for state level elections; the district is situated at a height of 93 to 1,491 metres above sea level. Geographically, the district can be divided into the low land plains of Terai and the low Chure hills. Kapilvastu is bounded by Rupandehi District to the east, Dang Deukhuri District in Rapti zone to the northwest, Arghakhanchi District to the north, Balrampur district, Awadh region, Uttar Pradesh, India to the west and Siddharthnagar district, Purvanchal region, Uttar Pradesh to the south; the summer is hot with temperature above 27 °C and winter temperature remains below 15 °C. Due to hot and cold climatic conditions, the people suffer from viral fever, maleria etc and cold and diarrohea respectively.
According to the 2001 census, the major ethnic groups in this district are Indians. The 2011 census found that 90% of people in the district were Awadhi speakers followed by, Tharu and are native Nepali speakers; the number of immigrants from the neighboring hilly region is increasing every year. The major caste of the district is Muslim; the district consists of ten municipalities, out of which six are urban municipalities and four are rural municipalities. These are as follows: Kapilvastu Municipality Banganga Municipality Buddhabhumi Municipality Shivaraj Municipality Krishnanagar Municipality Maharajgunj Municipality Mayadevi Rural Municipality Yashodhara Rural Municipality Suddhodhan Rural Municipality Bijaynagar Rural Municipality Most of the population of the district is dependent on agriculture. Paddy rice is a major crop of the district. A number of youths rely on foreign employment. In 2011 National population and Housing census 2011 was reported that total population of kapilvastu district was 571,936.
Male=285,599 and Female=286,337 and number of total household was 91,321 Data source: central bureau of statistics, kathmandu government of Nepal. Awadhi people are the major inhabitants of this region, rich in their culture. Awadhi cuisine is well known; as majority of the population are Muslims, they celebrate Bakrid. Tharu people living in the western part of the district have their own distinct culture; the main culture of Tharu is Maghi. Most of the people in Kapilvastu district are migrated from Arghakhanchhi district and few are from the rest of the districts of Lumbini zone; the hindus from the hilly and the permanent local people of the district, specially Brahmin celebrate the festivals like Dashain, Janai purnima,Holi etc. According to the local grandfather well known at शिवराज नगरपालिका named खिमलाल, it was the district filled with Muslims and Tharu only. A region with biodiversity, cultural and historical monuments, proposed to be enlisted in the list of World Cultural Heritage of UNESCO.
More than 138 historical sites related to Buddha have been identified within the boundary to the east of Banganga, west of Kothi, north to Indian border and south to Mahendra highway. The forest of the district stands as a natural park; the land is irrigated by the rivers like Banganga, Surai, Chirai and others. Bikuli, Kapilvastu Zones of Nepal Lumbini Zone "Districts of Nepal". Statoids. Kapilvastu travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Terai is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; the Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region in West Bengal, Bangladesh and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called'Dooars'. In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2, about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m. The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8 -- 12 km wide. In Hindi the region is called तराई,'tarāī' meaning "foot-hill". In Nepali, the region is called तराइ'tarāi' meaning "the low-lying land, plain" and "the low-lying land at the foot of the Himālayas".
The region's name in Urdu is ترائي'tarāʼī' meaning "lands lying at the foot of a watershed" or "on the banks of a river. The Terai is crossed by the large perennial Himalayan rivers Yamuna, Sarda, Karnali and Kosi that have each built alluvial fans covering thousands of square kilometres below their exits from the hills. Medium rivers such as the Rapti rise in the Mahabharat Range; the geological structure of the region consists of old and new alluvium, both of which constitute alluvial deposits of sand, silt and coarse fragments. The new alluvium is renewed every year by fresh deposits brought down by active streams, which engage themselves in fluvial action. Old alluvium is found rather away from river courses on uplands of the plain where silting is a rare phenomenon. A large number of small and seasonal rivers flow through the Terai, most of which originate in the Siwalik Hills; the soil in the Terai is fine to medium textured. Forest cover in the Terai and hill areas has decreased at an annual rate of 1.3% between 1978 and 1979, 2.3% between 1990 and 1991.
With deforestation and cultivation increasing, a permeable mixture of gravel and sand evolves, which leads to a sinking water table. But where layers consist of clay and fine sediments, the groundwater rises to the surface and heavy sediment is washed out, thus enabling frequent and massive floods during monsoon, such as the 2008 Bihar flood; the reduction in slope as rivers exit the hills and transition from the sloping Bhabhar to the nearly level Terai causes current to slow and the heavy sediment load to fall out of suspension. This deposition process creates multiple channels with shallow beds, enabling massive floods as monsoon-swollen rivers overflow their low banks and shift channels. Many areas show erosion such as gullies. There are several differences between the climate on the western edge of the Terai at Chandigarh in India and at Biratnagar in Nepal near the eastern edge. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter.
In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west. In India, the Terai extends over the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; these are the districts of these states that are on the Indo-Nepal border: Haryana: Panchkula district Uttarakhand: Haridwar district, Udham Singh Nagar and Nainital districts Uttar Pradesh: Pilibhit district, Lakhimpur Kheri district, Bahraich district, Shravasti district, Balrampur district, Siddharthnagar district, Maharajganj district Bihar: West Champaran district, East Champaran district, Sitamarhi district, Madhubani district, Supaul district, Araria district, Kishanganj district West Bengal: Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling district, Jalpaiguri Sadar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district The Terai in Nepal is differentiated into "Inner" and "Outer" Terai and includes 20 districts.
The Inner Terai consists of five elongated valleys located between the Mahabharat and Shivalik ranges. From north-west to south-east these valleys are: Surkhet Valley in the Surkhet district, north of the Kailali and Bardiya districts. Most of these valleys are 5 -- 10 up to 100 km long; the Outer Terai extends to the Indo-Gangetic plain. In the Far-Western Region, Nepal it comprises the Kanchanpur and Kailali districts, in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal Bardiya and Banke districts. Farther east, the Outer Terai comprises the Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, Bara, Sarlahi, Dhanusa, Saptari, Sunsari and Jhapa districts. East of Banke the Nepalese Outer Terai is interrupted where the international border swings north and follows the edge of the Siwaliks adjacent to Deukhuri Valley. Here the Outer Terai is in Uttar Pradesh's Shravasti and Balrampur districts. East of Deukhuri the
Balrampur district is one of the districts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is a part of Devipatan division as well as the historic Awadh regions. Located on the banks of the West Rapti River, Balrampur town is the district headquarter. Balrampur is known for the temple of Pateshwari Devi, a Shakti Pitha, for the ruins of the nearby ancient city of Sravasti, now a pilgrimage site for Buddhists and Jains; the nearest airport is Shravasti airport 23.3 kilometres from the town but it is not an international and regular airport. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and is 162 kilometres from Balrampur district headquarters; the creation of Balrampur District was done by G. D. No. 1428/1-5/97/172/85-R-5 Lucknow dated May 25, 1997 by the division of District Gonda. Siddharth Nagar, Gonda District, are situated in the east-west and south sides and Nepal State are Situated in its northern side; the area of the district is 336917 Hectares. In which the agriculture irrigated area is 221432 Hectares.
In the north of the district is situated the Shivalics ranges of the Himalayas, called Tarai Region. According to Government of India, the district Balrampur is one of the Minority Concentrated District in India on the basis of the 2001 census data on population, socio-economic indicators and basic amenities indicators; the district is named after its capital, Balrampur. The name of this estate was derived from its founder Balram Das, who founded it in c. 1600 CE. The territory which the present Balrampur district covers was a part of the ancient Kosala kingdom. Sravasti was the capital of Uttara Kosala; the ruins of Sahet, ancient Sravasti, spread an area of 400 acres. Towards the Rapti River, a little north of Sahet, lies the ancient city of Mahet. Gautam Buddha spent 21 rainy season under the sacred Peepal tree; the famous incident of Angulimal happened in the forest of Sravasti, where the dacoit who used to kill people and wear a garland of their fingers, was enlightened by Gautam Buddha. The area covered by the district was a part of Bahraich Sarkar of Awadh Subah during the Mughal rule.
It came under the control of the ruler of Awadh till its annexation in February, 1856 by the British government. British government separated Balrampur from Bahraich and it became a part of Gonda. During the British rule a commissionary was made for the administration of this area with its headquarters at Gonda and military command at Sakraura Colonelganj. During this period Balrampur was an Estate in Utraula tehsil of Gonda district, which consisted 3 tehsils, Gonda Sadar and Utraula. After independence, Balrampur estate was merged with Utraula tehsil of Gonda district. On 1 July 1953 the tehsil of Utraula was bifurcated into two tehsils and Utraula. In 1987 three new tehsils were created from Gonda Sadar tehsil, Tulsipur and Colonelganj. In 1997 Gonda district was bifurcated into two parts and a new district, Balrampur was born consisting of three tehsils of the northern part of the erstwhile Gonda district, Balrampur and Tulsipur; the district's northern border with Nepal's Dang Deukhuri District follows the southern edge of the Dudhwa Range of the Siwaliks.
To the northeast lies Kapilvastu District, Nepal. The rest of Balrampur is surrounded by Uttar Pradesh: on the east by Siddarthnagar, Basti on the south, Gonda on the southwest, Shravasti on the west. Balrampur's area is 3,457 km2. Balrampur town is known for Balrampur Chini Mills, one of the largest sugar manufacturing industry in the country. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Balrampur one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The district comprises 3 tehsils, Balrampur and Utraula, which are further divided into 9 blocks: Balrampur, Gaindas bujurg, Harya satgharwa, Rehera bazar, Shriduttganj and Utraula Sadullaah Nagar According to the 2011 census Balrampur district has a population of 2,149,066 equal to the nation of Namibia or the US state of New Mexico; this gives it a ranking of 213th in India. The district has a population density of 642 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.74%. Balrampur has a sex ratio of 922 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 51.76%. The Khanzada community form the largest ethnic group in the district; the fortified entrance to Mahet is made of mud, constructed in a crescent shape. The Sobhnath temple houses the great Stupas; these Stupas reflect the Buddhist tradition and boast of the history of the monasteries in Balrampur. Jeetavana monastery, one of the oldest monasteries in the country, is said to be one of the favorite sites of Gautam Buddha, it contains the 12th century inscriptions. There is a sacred tree of Peepal nearby, it is said. Another site of religious importance in the city is Sravasti, it is said that Mahavira Jain, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism,'influenced' this place. It houses the Shwetambar temple. M. L. K College, Balrampur Kendriya Vidyalaya Balrampur St. Xavier's High school Jesus & Mary school Emmanuel Church School, Utraula Scholars Academy, Utraula M.
J. Activity Inter College, Utraula Sharada Public School Blooming Buds Public School Gonda road Balrampur Balrampur Modern school Balrampur City Montessori Inter College Balrampur Shara
Arghakhanchi is one of the districts of Province No. 5 in Nepal. The district headquarter is Sandhikharka; the district covers an area of 1,193 km² and has a population of 197,632. Its neighboring districts are Palpa in the east, Gulmi in the north, Kapilvastu District in the south and Pyuthan in the west; the district consists of two pre-unification principalities Khanchi. Argha was the name given to ritual offerings made at the former principality's main Bhagwati Temple. Khanchi may come from the word Khajanchi or tax collector since the center of the latter principality was known for its tax office. Both were two of the Chaubisi rajya middled in the Gandaki Basin. In 1786 A. D. during the unification of Nepal the two were annexed by Gorkha. The merger was renamed “Arghakhanchi” and added to Gulmi District. Arghakhanchi became a separate district in 1961 A. D.. In 2001, the population was 208,391. In 1991, the population was 180,884. According to the 2011 census the total population was 197,632. Of these 86,266 were male and 111,366 are female.
The total number of households was 46,835 and the average household size 4.22 on the basis of usual place of residence. The sex ratio was 77.5 and population density was 166. The major religion of this district is Hindu, followed by Islam. Arghakhanchi lies between 27'45"N and 28'6"N latitude, 80'45"E to 83'23"E longitude, it covers 1,193 km². The altitude of the district varies from 305 to 2515 meter above the sea level. 68% of the district is in the mountainous Mahabharat Range and the rest is in the Siwalik Hills. Elevations range from 305–2575 m above sea level and about 40% of the total area is forested; the major rivers of the district are Bangi khola, Bangsari Khola, Mathurabesi Khola, Banganga Khola, Durga khola, Sita khola, Khakabesi Khola, Rangsing Khola, Ratne Khola, Jhimruk Khola, Khankbesi Khola. The major lakes of the district are Sengleng lake; the district consists of six municipalities, out of which three are urban municipalities and three are rural municipalities. These are as follows: Sandhikharka Municipality Sitganga Municipality Bhumikasthan Municipality Chhatradev Rural Municipality Panini Rural Municipality Malarani Rural Municipality The major town in the district is Sandhikharka, the headquarter of Arghakhanchi district in the Lumbini Zone of Nepal.
It is located 300 km southwest of Nepal's capital of Kathmandu. Due to a high literacy rate, Sandhikharka once attracted people from outside Arghakhanchi district for its good schools. There are many small villages in the district, including Mareng,Bhagawati, Chhatradev Arghakhanchi, Chhatragunj Arghakhanchi Lamchi, Bangi, Sandhikharka Dhikura, Khanchikot, Kura, Bangla, Khana, Khanadaha and Dhatiwang. One of the famous schools of Arghakhanchi is in Hatari Neta which provides one of the finest education in the level of government sector, they are said to have good facilities in terms of roads, electric power, etc. Villages in the west and south part of the district have little development as compared to the villages of the north and east side. Sano Gaun is the most popular place for visit. Lamchi is another popular village in Arghakhanchi. Deurali temple is one the famous temple for all those local people as well as people who are near the Arghakachi district. In the context of visiting and religious place there of lots of temples and monuments on this districts which includes Supa Deurali, Argha Mandir and other temples.
The income of people depends on the remittance and the agriculture. Some people are engaged in the shops. Official website Arghakhanchi.com news portal
Awadh, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5. Its inhabitants are referred to as Awadhis, it was established as one of the twelve original subahs under 16th-century Mughal emperor Akbar and became a hereditary tributary polity around 1722, with Ayodhya as its initial capital and Saadat Ali Khan as its first Subadar Nawab and progenitor of a dynasty of Nawabs of Awadh. The traditional capital of Awadh was Faizabad, but the capital was moved to Lucknow the station of the British Resident, which now is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. Nepalgunj now is the capital of Province No. 5 of Nepal. Presently, Awadh geographically includes the districts of Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar,Faizabad, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Pratapgarh, Shravasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sultanpur, Kanpur, Kanpur Dehat, Fatehpur and Allahabad from Lower Doab, it includes a few district of Province No. 5 of Nepal.
The region is home to a distinct dialect, spoken by Awadhis. Awadh, known because of Lucknow and because of shashikant the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the Doab, a fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers, it was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. Awadh's political unity can be traced back to the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, with Ayodhya as its capital. Modern Awadh finds historical mention only in the late 16th century. In prehistoric times, reputedly the kingdom of Bikukshi, contained five main divisions: Uttara Kosala or the trans-Ghaghra districts, now known as Bahraich, Gonda and Gorakhpur. Silliana, consisting of lower range of hills to the north of Uttara Kosala, now belonging to Nepal, with the Tarai at its base. Pachhimrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti west to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur; this division included about third of present district of Faizabad, a small portion of the north of Sultanpur, greater part of Barabanki, sections of the Lucknow and Sitapur districts.
Purabrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti east to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur. This division included about two-thirds of present district of Faizabad, the north-eastern corner of Sultanpur, parts of Mirzapur district, Pratapgarh District and Jaunpur. Arbar, extended soutwards Gomti to the Sai river. Since AD 1350 different parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Kanpur was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated in India's Independence movement, emerged as an important city of North India. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Jehangir granted an estate in Awadh to a nobleman, Sheik Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheik Abdul Rahim built Machchi Bhawan in this estate; until 1719, the Subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire, administered by a Nazim or Subah Nawab appointed by the Emperor.
Nawab –the plural of the Arabic word'Naib', meaning'assistant'– was the term given to subahdars appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the Empire. In the absence of expeditious transport and communication facilities, they were independent rulers of their territory and wielded the power of life and death over their subjects. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow; the Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, but were so referred to because after the reign of the third Nawab, Lucknow became the capital of their realm, where the British station Residents from 1773. The city was North India's cultural capital. Under them music and dance flourished, many monuments were erected. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.
From the pre-historic period to the time of Akbar, the limits of the subah and its internal divisions seem to have been changing, the name of Oudh, or Awadh, seems to have been applicable to only one of the ancient divisions or Sarkars, nearly corresponding to old Pachhimrath. The title of Subehdar of Awadh is mentioned as early as 1280 AD, but it can only have denoted the governor of the tract of the country above defined; the Awadh of Mughal Badshah Akbar was one of the twelve subahs into which he divided the Mughal Empire as it stood in 1590. As constituted at the end of the sixteenth century, the Subah contained five sarkars, viz. Awadh, Bahraich and Gorakhpur, which in turn were divided