Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
A vizier is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister called katib, at first a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir of the Sassanian kings. In modern usage, the term has been used for government ministers in much of the Middle East and beyond. Several alternative spellings are used in English, such as vizir and vezir; the word entered into English in 1562 from the Turkish vezir, derived from the Arabic wazir . Wazir itself has two possible etymologies: The most accepted etymology is that it is derived from the Arabic wazara, from the Semitic root W-Z-R; the word is mentioned in the Quran, where Aaron is described as the wazir of Moses, as well as the word wizr, derived from the same root. On the other hand, the presence of a Middle Persian word vizīr or vicīr, cognate to the Avestan vīcira, meaning "decreer" or "arbitrator", could indicate an Indo-European origin; the Muslim office of vizier, which spread from the Persians, Turks and Mongols and neighboring peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs.
The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter. The term has been used in two different ways: either for a unique position, the prime minister at the head of the monarch's government, or as a shared'cabinet rank', rather like a British secretary of state. If one such vizier is the prime minister, he may hold the title of another title. In Muslim Persia, the prime minister under the political authority of the Shahanshah was styled Vazīr-e Azam, various Ministers held cabinet rank as vazir, including a Vazir-i-Daftar and a Vazir-i-Lashkar. In Al-Andalus appointed by the Caliph of Cordoba. In many of the emirates and sultanates of the taifas which the caliphate was broken up into. In Muslim Egypt, the most populous Arab country: Under the Fatimid Caliphs. Again since the effective end of Ottoman rule, remarkably since 1857 (i.e. before the last Wali, Isma`il Pasha, was raised Khedive, exchanged for the western prime ministers on 28 August 1878.
During the days of the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the—often de facto ruling—prime minister, second only to the Sultan and was the leader of the Divan, the Imperial Council. "Vizier" was the title of some Ottoman provincial governors, use of the title indicating a greater degree of autonomy for the province involved and the greater prestige of the title holder. In the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco, a Sadr al-A'zam was in office until 22 November 1955, replaced since 7 December 1955 a Prime Minister. In the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, the sole Vizier was the future second king Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, under his father Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, maintained after the assumption of the Caliphal style In the'regency' of Tunisia, under the Husainid Dynasty, various ministers of the Bey, including: Wazir al-Akbar:'great minister', i.e. grand vizier, chief minister or prime minister. Wazir al-'Amala: Minister for the Interior. Wazir al-Bahr: Minister'of the Sea', i.e. for the Navy/ Marine.
Wazir al-Harb: Minister for the Army or Minister for War. Wazir al-Istishara: Minister-Counsellor. Wazir al-Qalam: Minister of the Pen. Wazir ud-Daula: Minister of State. Wazir us-Shura: Privy Counsellor. In Oman the Hami/Sultan's chief minister was styled Wazir till 1966, but in 1925–1932 there was or instead a chairman of the council of Ministers. Viziers to the Sultans of Zanzibar. Grand Viziers to the Sultan of Sokoto – this is however disputed; the title "Waziri" is a derivative of this word, is a regarded chieftaincy title in most of northern Nigeria. Indeed, most of the emirs in northern Nigeria have a "Waziri", a high-ranking adviser to the emir. In pre- and colonial India many rulers some Hindu princes, had a vizier as chief minister – compare Diwan, Nawab wasir, etc. In the sultanate of the Maldives, the prime minister was styled Bodu Vizier, various Ministers held cabine
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia refers to the communities of Greek people living outside Greece, Cyprus which are the traditional Greek homelands, North Macedonia, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, Eastern Anatolia, the South Caucasus, southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica. The term refers to communities newly established by Greek migration outside these traditional areas during the 20th and 21st centuries; the Greek diaspora is one of the oldest and largest in the world, with an attested presence from Homeric times to the present. Examples of its influence range from the role played by Greek expatriates in the emergence of the Renaissance, through liberation and nationalist movements involved in the fall of the Ottoman Empire, to commercial developments such as the commissioning of the world's first supertankers by shipping magnates Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos. In Archaic Greece and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor propagated Greek culture and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins.
Greek city-states were established in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, the Black Sea coast, the Greeks founded over 400 colonies in these areas. Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa. Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as geographically-dispersed as Uzbekistan and Kuwait. Seleucia and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times. Greeks spread across the Roman Empire, in the eastern territories the Greek language became the lingua franca; the Roman Empire was Christianized in the fourth century AD, during the late Byzantine period the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a hallmark of Greek identity. In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant and Black Sea, maintaining their identity among local populations as traders and settlers.
Soon afterwards, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate seized the Levant, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science. After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople and found refuge in Italy, they brought ancient Greek writings, lost in the West, contributing to the Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice and Rome. Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828-29, thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated from the Pontic Alps and eastern Anatolia to Georgia and other southern regions of the Russian Empire, the Russian province of Kars in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia and settled in these areas to avoid Ottoman reprisals after supporting the Russian invasions of eastern Anatolia in the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late 18th to the early 20th century.
Others resettled in search of new opportunities in trade, farming, the church, the military, the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. Greeks spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took major roles in its economic life the Phanariots; the Phanariots helped administer the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century. Other Greeks settled outside the southern Balkans, moving north in service to the Orthodox Church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by Ottoman authorities after Greek rebellions against Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. Greek Macedonia was most affected by the population upheavals, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population could form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population. A larger-scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia the province of Kars Oblast in the southern Caucasus after the short-lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War.
An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountains of northeastern Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory. The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the southern Caucasus assimilated with preexisting Caucasus Greek communities; those who settled in Ukraine and southern Russia became a sizable proport
This Immortal, serialized as... And Call Me Conrad, is a science fiction novel by American author Roger Zelazny. In its original publication, it was abridged by the editor and published in two parts in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction in October and November 1965, it tied with Frank Herbert's Dune for the 1966 Hugo Award for Best Novel. Most, but not all of the cuts made for the serialized version were restored for the first paperback publication by Ace Books and the title was changed by the publisher to This Immortal. Zelazny stated in interviews; the abridged version was novel length at over 47,000 words. However, it was not until a book club version was published in the 1980s that Zelazny realized that some cuts had not been restored to the book version; the abridged magazine version contains 10 paragraphs of text not in the book version, starting from "And the long-dormant Radpol was stirring again, but I did not know that until several days later" and ending with "The days of Karaghiosis had passed."
The "Synopsis of Part One" that appeared in the November 1965 issue of F&SF is written in the first person and contains material about Conrad's character and backstory, not in the main text of... And Call Me Conrad nor the 1980s restored version of This Immortal. After being devastated by a nuclear war, the Earth is a planet with a population of only 4 million, overrun by a variety of mutated lifeforms. Worse, much of the Earth is now owned by the Vegans, a race of blue-skinned aliens who see the planet as a tourist location. Conrad Nomikos, the first person narrator, is a man with a past that he'd rather not talk about who's been given a task that he'd rather refuse: to show an influential Vegan around the old ruins of Earth, but Conrad finds himself the reluctant protector of this alien visitor when attempts are made on the Vegan's life. Conrad knows that keeping the Vegan alive is important—but now he must find out why. Conrad now finds himself pitted against a group of Earth rebels that includes an old comrade-in-arms and an old lover, neither of whom can understand why he would want to protect one of Earth's subjugators.
He is aided by another old friend and an old man, one of his sons. It is revealed that the Vegan he is escorting has been charged with the final disposition of the planet Earth; the Vegan in his turn is confounded by Conrad's actions. Ostensibly there as a tourist to see Earth's sights, he is horrified to find that Conrad is having the pyramids of Egypt torn down, more so when the immortal explains that the process is being filmed, that the film will be run backwards to simulate the construction of the pyramids. Along the way it appears. At the end, the rebels realize. Through actions such as the deconstruction of the pyramids, Conrad makes the Vegans see that Earthlings would rather destroy the planet's riches than see them fall into the hands of others. In the final battle to protect the Vegan, Conrad's wife appears to deliver the decisive saving blow; the Vegan sees the mettle of which Conrad is made, decides to leave the planet in the possession of the one being with the longevity and moral fiber to do well by it.
Conrad finds himself the owner of Earth. Many of Zelazny's heroes are overmen, or gods or demigods. Identified early in the book as a possible "Kallikantzaros" by his lover Cassandra, Conrad is also compared to Pan. Whether or not Conrad is a god, however, is left unclear in the book: while he has led an extraordinarily long life, it is hinted that this could be the result of mutation due to the nuclear war. Jane Lindskold, in her book titled Roger Zelazny, suggests that the fact that Conrad's face is handsome on one side and disfigured on the other is a metaphor for Conrad's ability to be both creator and destroyer, it is not until the end of the book that the broken god can be "healed." Zelazny declared that "I wanted to leave it open to several interpretations -- at least two. I wanted to sort of combine fantasy and sf… either Conrad is a mutant or he is the Great God Pan; the book may be read either way.” In keeping with this, some of the clues that Conrad may be Pan are that Conrad's surname Nomikos recalls Nomios, he plays a syrinx in the novel, he may be immortal, he has a disfigured appearance.
Conrad Nomikos is a prototype for Zelazny rogues such as Corwin, the amnesiac hero from The Chronicles of Amber and the cigarette-smoking Buddha, Sam in Lord of Light — both flawed humans who are flawed superhumans. Zelazny identified Aldous Huxley as one model he kept in mind while writing this novel: "Bear in mind when constructing the cast of characters, including the monomaniac scientist as a note of thanks for the assist, but take nothing else. Do not lean too on anyone." Algis Budrys praised This Immortal as "an interesting and undeniably important book", describing it as "a story of adventures and perils, high intrigue, esthetics politics... utterly charming optimistic". He predicted that as examples of the New Wave, Zelazny's career would become more important and enduring than Thomas M. Disch's. Lawrence P. Ashmead, an editor for Doubleday & Company Inc, rejected the book for publishing, claiming that "the plot is terribly
Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others. The behavior is repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, such acts may be directed towards particular targets. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, religion, sexual orientation, behavior, body language, reputation, strength, size, or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. In the United Kingdom, there is no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal and cyber, it involves subtle methods of coercion, such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is referred to as "peer abuse". Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism. A bullying culture can develop in any context; this may include school, the workplace and neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying is on social media websites. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, "the strongest predictor was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player's life would approve of the bullying behavior". There is no universal definition of bullying, however, it is agreed upon that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: hostile intent, imbalance of power, repetition over a period of time. Bullying may thus be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another individual, mentally, or emotionally.
The Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons". He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways." Individual bullying is characterized by a person behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Individual bullying can be classified into four types. Collective bullying is known as mobbing, can include any of the individual types of bullying. Physical and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could begin much earlier whilst continuing into stages in individuals lives, it is stated. Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against targets; this is any bullying that hurts damages their possessions. Stealing, hitting and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is the first form of bullying that a target will experience.
Bullying will begin in a different form and progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body. Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice; this can lead to a situation where they are being taunted and beaten-up by their classmates. Physical bullying will escalate over time, can lead to a tragic ending, therefore must be stopped to prevent any further escalation; this is any bullying, conducted by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is the province of girls. Girls are more subtle, in general, than boys. Girls use verbal bullying, as well as social exclusion techniques, to dominate and control other individuals and show their superiority and power. However, there are many boys with subtlety enough to use verbal techniques for domination, who are practiced in using words when they want to avoid the trouble that can come with physically bullying someone else.
This is any bullying, done with the intent to hurt somebody's reputation or social standing which can link in with the techniques included in physical and verbal bullying. Relational Bullying is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but upon girls. Relational bullying can be used as a tool by bullies to both improve their social standing and control others. Unlike physical bullying, obvious, relational bullying is not overt and can continue for a long time without being noticed. Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, embarrass, or target another person; when an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites, text messages, cell phones. Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against targets. Trolling behavior on social media, although gener