Karaikal is a town of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, with a population of 222,589 and an area of 30 km2. Karaikal became a French Colony in 1674 and held control, with occasional interruption from the British and Dutch, until 1954, when it was incorporated into the Republic of India, along with Chandernagore, Mahé, Pondichéry; the origin of the word Karaikal is uncertain. The Imperial Gazetteer of British India gives its meaning as'fish pass'. Both the words ‘Karai and'Kal' have several meanings, of which the more acceptable ones are'lime mix' and'canal' respectively. Hence it has been suggested that the name may mean a canal built of lime mix, however, no trace of such a canal is evident. Before 1739, Karaikal was under the control of Raja Pratap Singh of Tanjore. In 1738, Pierre Benoît Dumas was anxious to extend the French territory in India by smooth means and negotiated with Sahuji of Thanjavur for possession of Karaikal, the fortress of Karakalcheri and five village for 40,000 chakras.
On 14 February 1739 the French took possession of Karaikal town, the fort of Karakalcheri and eight dependent villages. At this point, the King of Thanjavur raised the price for the town of Karaikal and the fort of Karakalcheri to 50,000 chakras, he demanded a loan of 150,000 chakras without interest repayable in three years against the hypothecation of Mayavaram lands, an annual rent of 4,000 pagodas for five villages. The French agreed to all the terms except for the payment of 150,000 chakras, reduced to 10,000 chakras, while the annual rental was reduced to two or three thousand chakras; the villages received were Kilaiyur, Puduthurai and Tirumalairayanpattinam. Subsequently, two villages were ceded to the French. Pratap Singh, who succeeded the throne, renewed the demand for a loan of 100,000 chakras, on receipt of the first instalment of 4,000 chakras he assigned eight more villages to the French viz. Codague, Arimullimangalam, Dharmapuram, Uzhiapathu and Polagam. On 12 February 1740, he sold these villages for 60,000 chakras, which he had assigned only the previous year for 40,000 chakras.
The same year, Dumas pledged Thirunallar Mahanam for 55,350 chakras and pledged 33 villages for 60,000 chakras. By a treaty signed on 12 January 1750 Pratap Singh ceded to the French 81 villages around Karaikal and cancelled the annual rent of 2,000 pagodas payable for the villages; this was all the territory the French possessed around Thanjavur when they surrendered to the British in 1761. The territory passed twice to British control before it was handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the Treaty of Paris, 1814; the formation of the Karaikal National Congress on 13 June 1947 and the Karaikal Students' Congress on 31 January 1947 symbolised the first concrete expression of popular desire in Karaikal for independence from French India. The French ruled this district until 31 October 1954, on which date the French flag flying atop the government house at Karaikal was lowered with due military honors before a large gathering of officials and non-officials, thus the de facto transfer of power took place on 1 November 1954 followed by de jure transfer on 16 August 1962.
Though the territory was handed over to the Republic of India on 1 November 1954, Karaikal's municipal administration was continued pursuant to the Arrêté dated 8 March 1880. This was replaced by the promulgation of the Pondicherry Municipality Act, 1973, with effect from 26 January 1974. Mr. Gaudart was the first Mayor of Karaikal in 1884. Karaikal is a small coastal enclave, part of French India. Together with the other former French territories of Pondicherry and Mahé, it forms the Union Territory of Puducherry. Karaikal is bounded on the North and South by Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu state, on the west by Tiruvarur district, on the East by the Bay of Bengal; the enclave is located 140 kilometres south of the city of Pondicherry, 158 kilometres east of Trichy and is known for its rich cultural heritage. Karaikal town, about 20 kilometres north of Nagappattinam and 12 kilometres south of Tarangambadi, is the regional headquarters; the main branches of Kaveri below Grand Anicut are the Kodamurutti, Arasalar and the Vikramanar.
Although Arasalar and its branches spread through Karaikal, the waters of Kodamurutti and Virasolanar meet the irrigation needs of the region. Forming a part of the fertile Cauvery delta, the region is covered by the distributaries of Cauveri. Covered by a thick mantle of alluvium of variable thickness, the lie of the region is flat having a gentle slope towards the Bay of Bengal in the east, it is limited on the north on the south-east by the Vettar. The group of rocks known as Cuddalore formations is met with in the area contiguous to Karaikal region in Nagappattinam District. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical dry; the District Collector is the official representative to the Lieutenant Governor and Chief Co-ordinator and Liaison Officer to all Government departments of Karaikal district. District Collectorate, Karaikal is the functional headquarters of Karaikal District. Karaikal region is made up of Karaikal municipality and the Communes of Nedungadu Kottucherry Neravy Thirunallar Tirumalarajanpattinam Poovam Varichikudy In 2011, Karaikal had population of 227,589 of which male and female were 111,492 and 116,097 respectively.
In 2001 census, Karaikal had a population of 170,791 of which males were 84,487 and remaining 86,304 were females. T
State Highway 73 is a 24½ mi state highway in Custer Co. Oklahoma, although a stretch of about four-fifths of a mile of its eastbound lane lies in Roger Mills Co. SH-73 has no lettered spur routes. State Highway 73 begins at State Highway 34 south of Hammon; the western terminus of the highway occurs at a jog in the Roger Mills–Custer county line. The first 0.8 miles of SH-73 straddles the county line. The county line makes another turn after this to return to a north–south orientation, SH-73 enters Custer County. In Custer County, SH-73 travels through hilly terrain and crosses both Panther Creek and Little Panther Creek, tributaries of Foss Lake. SH-73 serves the southwestern portion of the lake, runs along the edges of Foss State Park; the highway provides connections to four campgrounds along the lakeshore. Near the southeast corner of the lake, the route intersects SH-44. SH-73 turns south along SH-44; the two routes curve southwest to cross Oak Creek. SH-44/73 travel together for 2 miles before SH-73 splits off, returning to a due east course.
The highway parallels I-40, which runs to the south of SH-73. SH-73 bridges the Washita River. West of Clinton, the highway crosses a set of railroad tracks at the unincorporated locale of Ralph. State Highway 73 enters Clinton, where it comes to an end at an intersection with I-40's Clinton business loop. SH-73 at Roadklahoma
Intelligence and personality have some common features. In addition, they are both significant predictors of various outcomes, such as educational achievement, occupational performance, health. However, the traditional view in psychology is that there is no meaningful relationship between personality and intelligence and they should be studied as separate entities. Firstly, intelligence is considered to be a cognitive process, while personality is recognised as being non-cognitive, this implies that there is a great distinction between personality and intelligence. However, other psychologists argue that the distinction between cognitive and non-cognitive is vague because all personality traits have cognitive attributes, although they are more obvious in some traits than in others. For example, neuroticism is a personality trait, but is related to rumination and compulsive thinking about possible threats, while agreeableness is associated with understanding and considering the mental state of others.
In addition, different methods are used to assess intelligence and personality. Intelligence is measured by means of ability tests, whereas personality is assessed by means of questionnaires. Furthermore, different typical measurements lead to another conceptual distinction, that intelligence is considered to indicate individuals’ maximal performance, while personality is believed to reflect their typical behaviour. However, others argue that multiple methods can be used to assess personality. Therefore, different typical methods cannot prove that the relationship between intelligence and personality is a meaningless one. In addition, since individuals’ ability can affect their typical behaviour, IQ can predict outcomes related to aspects such as performance at work, academic achievement, health. Therefore, ability tests can provide indices of typical behaviour. An increasing number of studies have explored the relationship between intelligence and the Big Five personality traits. Openness shows the strongest positive relationship with g among the Big Five personality traits, ranging from r=.06 to r=.42.
Individuals with a high level of openness enjoy the experience of learning and prefer an intellectually stimulating environment. Therefore, openness shows a significant moderate association with crystallized intelligence, but a non-significant low association with fluid intelligence, these results are consistent with those of other studies; some psychologists have pointed out that previous instruments used to measure openness assessed two distinctive aspects. The first is intellect, which reflects intellectual engagement and perceived intelligence and is marked by ideas, while the second is emotion, which reflects the artistic and contemplative qualities related to being engaged in sensation and perception and is marked by fantasy, aesthetics and actions. On this basis, intellect was found to be associated with the neural system of the working memory, related to g, whereas openness was not. In addition, according to a study of genetic behaviour, intellect is genetically closer to intelligence than openness.
The association between conscientiousness and intelligence is uncertain. Individuals with a lower level of intelligence are always assumed to tend to behave in an orderly fashion and do extra work, related to being conscientious, in order to compensate for their lower level of cognitive ability. However, although intelligence has been observed to be negatively correlated with conscientiousness in some studies, others have not found this correlation to be significant and have found a positive relationship. Furthermore, some interaction has been found between conscientiousness and intelligence. Conscientiousness has been found to be a stronger predictor of safety behaviour in individuals with a low level of intelligence than in those with a high level; this interaction may be found in educational and occupational settings in future studies. Therefore speaking, an increase in either conscientiousness or intelligence may compensate for a deficiency in the other; the results of a meta-analysis research conducted in 1997, which consisted of 35 studies, indicated that there is a small, but statistically significant positive correlation between Extraversion and g.
Another recent meta-analysis of extraversion, which comprised 50 new studies, reported a similar correlation. There are some moderating variables in the relationship between extraversion and g including differences in the assessment instruments and samples’ age and sensory stimulation. Furthermore and Rock used Raven’s matrices and found that extraverts performed better than introverts with increasing auditory stimulation, whereas introverts performed best in silence; this result is consistent with that of Revelle et al.. In addition, different measures and different sub-traits of extraversion have been found to cause different correlations. Neuroticism has been found to have a reliable negative association with g. However, other researchers have reported a lower coefficient of.09 for general mental ability and emotional stability. Although these studies have some differences, they all indic
Prunus zippeliana or big leaf cherry is a species of Prunus native to China and Vietnam. Individuals have been found in Thailand, it prefers to grow in mixed forests and thickets on calcareous mountains 400 to 2400 m above sea level. In a 1994 study, P. zippeliana was found to be the best in the genus Prunus at preventing melanin synthesis. It is an important winter host plant for Asphondylia yushimai, the soybean pod gall midge, a major pest of soybeans in Japan. P. zippeliana is a tree about 10 to 25 m tall reaching 30 m. Its dusty gray and green bark has a tendency to flake off in patches, exposing the orange-red underbark, which changes colors as it weathers, producing quite a dramatic effect in some specimens, its large leathery leaves are borne on a 1 to 2 cm petiole. It flowers July through fruits in the winter, its white flowers are borne on racemes, are 5 to 9 mm in diameter. The flowers have 20 to 25 stamens; the fruits are brownish black
Jill N. Craybas is an American former professional tennis player. From the 2000 US Open to the 2011 US Open, Craybas competed in 45 consecutive Grand Slam main draws. By the time she retired in 2013, she was one of the oldest players on the WTA Tour at 39 years of age, as well as the longest serving, having turned pro in 1996. Craybas was born in Rhode Island, she received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Florida in Gainesville, where she played for coach Andy Brandi's Florida Gators women's tennis team in National Collegiate Athletics Association and Southeastern Conference competition from 1993 to 1996. As a senior in 1996, she won the NCAA women's singles tennis championship, she was the 1995–96 recipient of the Honda Sports Award for Tennis, recognizing her as the outstanding collegiate female tennis player of the year. Craybas graduated from the University of Florida with a bachelor's degree in telecommunications in 1996, has said in interviews that she hopes to enter film or television production when her playing career ends.
She was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a "Gator Great" in 2008. Craybas credits her achievements to Raja Chaudhuri. Chaudhuri has worked with her from the start of her tennis career. Craybas turned professional in 1996, she has won one WTA title at the Tokyo Japan Open. She beat Silvija Talaja in the final after trailing 4–0 in the third set. In the 2006 season, Craybas reached one quarterfinal at Hobart as the eighth seed, losing to unseeded Italian Mara Santangelo in three sets, she has reached the semifinals of a Tier III event in Memphis, a fourth-round showing at the Tier I event in Key Biscayne, Florida and a further quarterfinal appearance at Stanford in late July. Craybas is best known for her 2005 defeat of Serena Williams in the 3rd round of Wimbledon, she beat Williams 6–3, 7–6 lost to Serena's older sister, eventual champion, Venus Williams 6–0, 6–2. On March 25, 2006, Craybas once again served up an early round defeat of a top seeded player; this time it was second-seeded Kim Clijsters in the second round of the NASDAQ-100 Open tournament.
After having led in both the first and third sets, Clijsters lost by a score of 7–5, 3–6, 7–5. It was Clijsters earliest exit from the NASDAQ-100, Clijsters was the defending champion. By that time Craybas a veteran on the tour, was thought to be playing the best tennis of her life. However, after having a successful start to 2006, she fell short of what was expected of her from her impressive start, losing to lower-ranked opponents in first rounds or having difficult first round draws against the top players in the world, she began 2007 by reaching the semifinals of a Tier IV event in New Zealand. She beat all of her opponents in straight sets before bowing out to Russian Vera Zvonareva 6–3, 7–5, she next took part in the Tier II event in Sydney, where she lost in the last round of qualifying to Russian Vera Dushevina 6–1, 3–6, 6–1. At the first Grand Slam tournament of the year at the Australian Open, she suffered a first-round loss to the tenth-seeded Nicole Vaidišová 6–4, 5–7, 6–1. Craybas bounced back into winning form at her next tournament in the U.
S. at an ITF tournament in Midland, Michigan. As the top-seeded, she beat all of her opponents in straight sets until a hard-fought 2–6, 6–3, 6–3 victory over second-seeded and fellow American Laura Granville; because of her lower ranking, she suffered in tough draws, not going further than the second round of any tournament since. At the start of 2008, Craybas entered the Pattaya Women's Open in Pattaya, where, as the seventh-seed, she played some of the best tennis of her career and beat Olga Savchuk 6–1, 6–1 in the first round, Renata Voráčová 2–6, 6–1, 6–3 in the second round and Andreja Klepač 6–4, 6–4 in the quarterfinals. In the semifinals she beat Akgul Amanmuradova 6–4, 6–0 and lost to the top seed Agnieszka Radwańska in a tie-break in the third set, 6–2, 1–6, 7–6. Craybas's ranking improved from World No. 77 to World No. 60 because of these results. Craybas won the 2008 Istanbul Cup in doubles. Craybas represented the United States at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the tennis singles event.
She became the last qualifier for the event. The opening came available when fellow American Ashley Harkleroad elected to skip the games after she became pregnant. At the US Open 2013, Craybas announced her retirement from tennis. AS of 2017, she is working with the WTA Tour as a commentator. Florida Gators List of Florida Gators tennis players List of University of Florida alumni List of University of Florida Olympians List of University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame members Craybas announces retirement Jill Craybas at the Women's Tennis Association Jill Craybas at the International Tennis Federation
Identical twin brothers Peter Spierig and Michael Spierig, known collectively as The Spierig Brothers, are German-Australian film directors and screenwriters. Peter and Michael made their directing debut in 2003 with Undead and won a prize for Best Visual Effects at the Australian Film Institute Awards for their second film Daybreakers starring Ethan Hawke and Willem Dafoe, they write and produce their films together, are involved in the editing and visual effects of all their work. Their 2014 film, based on the science fiction short story "—All You Zombies—" by Robert A. Heinlein, opened at SXSW in March 2014, it was co-written and co-directed by the twins, was filmed in Australia during Spring of 2013. It stars Ethan Hawke, Sarah Snook, Noah Taylor; the film was positively received by critics, including those of Variety, The Guardian, IGN Movies. Peter and Michael Spierig were born on 29 April 1976 in Buchholz, Germany, to John and Marianne Spierig; the identical twins were four years old when their parents immigrated to Sydney, where they spent their childhood.
The family moved to Brisbane in the late'80s, where the twins continued their high school and university education. For a short time, both brothers lived in Berkeley Heights, NJ and attended Governor Livingston High School. Both Peter and Michael earned their Bachelor's Degree from Queensland College of Art where Michael majored in Graphic design and Peter in film and television; when they were children and Michael developed a fascination with filmmaking after discovering their father's video camera at age 10. They directed their first short film at the age of 12 which consisted of blowing up teddy bears in their backyard using fireworks. Throughout high school and college, the twins kept directing short films, many of which were featured in local film festivals and film awards ceremonies; the twins earned over 15 different awards for their short films. Their work caught the attention of Queensland's foremost commercial director Dick Marks, who subsequently hired the brothers to direct television commercials.
Peter and Michael ended up jointly directing over sixty television commercials for a large list of clients including Coke, Myer, Lend Lease and Telstra, to name a few. While working in the advertising industry and Michael continued to write and direct short films, their final short film The Big Picture went on to screen and win awards at several prestigious national and international film festivals including Rotterdam International Film Festival. After making over fifteen short films and dozens of television commercials, the Spierig Brothers ventured into feature film production in early 2000. Peter and Michael created their first film, Undead, a low-budget zombie horror-comedy film, after they agreed on pooling together their life savings."Undead" screened at 17 film festivals, including Edinburgh, Toronto, Berlin and Puchon. At the Melbourne International Film Festival, the International Federation of Film Critics awarded "Undead" the prestigious Fipresci Award; the film was sold to 41 countries, was released in the US and Canada by Lions Gate Entertainment, who developed a close relationship with Peter and Michael, backed their second production "Daybreakers."
Their second feature film Daybreakers starred two-time Academy Award nominee Ethan Hawke, Willem Dafoe, Sam Neill, Claudia Karvan, Vince Colosimo, Michael Dorman, Isabel Lucas. The film was released in the United States on 2,500 screens in January 2010, has gone on to gross US$51.4 million worldwide. The Spierig brothers's third film is the action sci-fi thriller Predestination based on the science fiction short story'"—All You Zombies—" by Robert A. Heinlein; the film stars Ethan Hawke and Sarah Snook, includes an appearance by Noah Taylor. The story recounts that of a detective from a covert government agency who embarks on an intricate series of time-travel journeys in order to catch a master criminal and ensure his own existence. After its premiere at SXSW on 8 March 2014, the film received many positive reviews including Variety, The Guardian, IGN Movies; the film was released that year. The two directed the eighth Saw film, released on 27 October 2017, their next film was Winchester: The House That Ghosts Built, a horror film about the Winchester Mystery House, starring Helen Mirren as heiress Sarah Winchester, released on 2 February 2018.
AACTA AwardsAustralian Film Institute AwardsGolden Raspberry AwardsInternational Federation of Film CriticsToronto After Dark Film Festival Michael Spierig on IMDb Peter Spierig on IMDb