Karaite Judaism

Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the written Torah alone as its supreme authority in halakha and theology. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation, it is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. As a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud; when interpreting the Torah, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or most obvious meaning of the text. By contrast, Rabbinic Judaism relies on the legal rulings of the Sanhedrin as they are codified in the Midrash and other sources to indicate the authentic meaning of the Torah. Karaite Judaism holds every interpretation of the Torah to the same scrutiny regardless of its source, teaches that it is the personal responsibility of every individual Jew to study the Torah, decide its correct meaning.

Karaites may consider arguments made in the Talmud and other works without exalting them above other viewpoints. According to Mordecai ben Nissan, the ancestors of the Karaites was a group called Benei Ṣedeq during the Second Temple period. Historians have argued over whether Karaism has a direct connection to the Sadducees, dating back to the end of the Second Temple period, or whether Karaism represents a novel emergence of similar views. Karaites have always maintained that, while there are some similarities to the Sadducees due to the rejection of rabbinical authority and the Oral Law, there are major differences. According to Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud, in his Sefer HaQabbalah, the Karaite movement crystallized in Baghdad in the Gaonic period under the Abbasid Caliphate in what is present-day Iraq; this is the view universally accepted among Rabbinic Jews. However, some Arab scholars claim that Karaites were living in Egypt in the first half of the 7th century, based on a legal document that the Karaite community in Egypt had in its possession until the end of the 19th century, in which the first Islamic governor ordered the leaders of the Rabbinite community against interfering with Karaite practices or the way they celebrate their holidays.

It was said to have been stamped by the palm of'Amr ibn al-'As, the first Islamic governor of Egypt, was dated 20 AH. Karaites at one time made up a significant proportion of the Jewish population. Estimates of the Karaite population are difficult to make because they believe on the basis of Genesis 32 that counting Jews is forbidden. In the 21st century, some 30,000–50,000 are thought to reside in Israel, with smaller communities in Turkey and the United States. Another estimate holds that, of the 50,000 worldwide, more than 40,000 descend from those who made aliyah from Egypt and Iraq to Israel; the largest Karaite community today resides in the Israeli city of Ashdod. Arguments among Jewish sects regarding the validity of the Oral Law date back to Hellenistic period, the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE. Accordingly, some scholars trace the origin of Karaism to those who rejected the Talmudic tradition as an innovation. Judah Halevi, an 11th-century Jewish philosopher and rabbi, wrote a defense for Judaism entitled Kuzari, placing the origins of Karaism in the first and second centuries BCE, during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BCE: After him came Judah b.

Tabbāi and Simon b. Shētaḥ, with the friends of both. At this period arose the doctrine of the Karaites in consequence of an incident between the Sages and King Jannai, a priest, his mother was under suspicion of being a'profane' woman. One of the Sages alluded to this, saying to him:'Be satisfied, O king Jannai, with the royal crown, but leave the priestly crown to the seed of Aaron.' His friends prejudiced him against the Sages, advising him to browbeat and scatter or kill them. He replied:'If I destroy the Sages what will become of our Law?"There is the written law,' they replied, whoever wishes to study it may come and do so. He followed their advice and expelled the Sages and among them Simon b. Shētaḥ, his son-in-law. Rabbinism was laid low for some time; the other party tried to establish a law built on their own conception, but failed, till Simon b. Shētaḥ returned with his disciples from Alexandria, restored tradition to its former condition. Karaism had, taken root among people who rejected the oral law, called all kinds of proofs to their aid, as we see to-day.

As regards the Sādōcaeans and Boēthosians, they are the sectarians who are anathemised in our prayer. Abraham Geiger, a 19th-century German scholar who founded Reform Judaism, posited a connection between the Karaites and a remnant of the Sadducees, the 1st-century Jewish sect that followed the Hebrew Bible and rejected the Pharisees' notion of an Oral Torah before it was written. Geiger's view is based on comparison between Karaite and Sadducee halakha: for example, a minority in Karaite Judaism do not believe in a resurrection of the dead or afterlife, a position held by the Sadducees; the British theologian John Gill noted, In the times of John Hyrcanus, Alexander Janneus his son, sprung up the sect of the Karaites

St. Leo's Roman Catholic Church, Mimico

St. Leo's Roman Catholic Church is a Catholic church in Toronto, Canada, it is located in the Mimico neighbourhood, part of Etobicoke. It is the only Catholic church in Mimico. First churchThe first services were held at Eden Court the home of Mr Edward Stock, one of only three remaining Victorian Houses on Royal York with St. Leo's Rectory, the building has been declared a historic building. Mr. Stock donated land for the original church in 1895 which opened as a mission of Holy Family in 1903. In 1909 St. Leo's became a parish serving Swansea south of the College St extension and Mimico with its original boundaries: Lake Ontario, the Humber River, North Queen St and Mimico Ave. One of ten famous races run between athletes Tom Longboat and Alf Shrubb took place for St. Leo's parish picnic at an old Mimico park in 1912 the same year St. Leo's extensively extended the church, doubling its capacity. St. Leo's casualties for the First World War were 1 killed, 5 wounded out of 30 enlisted. In 1920 the former western portion of Mimico became the Town of New Toronto, leading in 1924 to the building of St. Teresa's Catholic Church and the separation of this area from St. Leo's.

In 1923 the Town of Mimico had opened a second Public school and in 1926 the parish built St. Leo Elementary School across from the church on land bought from Mimico's Werden family which led to the creation of the Mimico Separate School Board which met at the old Rectory, 48 Station Rd across from the Mimico Library. St. Leo Elementary School is the oldest Separate School in Etobicoke still open. Like the Town of Mimico and its other churches, St. Leo's went into debt during the Great Depression. With much post war Italian immigration to the northern half of Mimico, in 1947 the Mimico Separate School Board opened a second Catholic school for the parish north of the QEW. All of St. Leo's early clergy served at the mother church of Holy Family. All the early pastors but the first taught at St. Augustine's Seminary, a tradition carried on by the current pastor. Second churchA new church was built across the street from the old in 1953 on the site of Mimico's 1858 post office. Shortly after, the parish made a concerted effort to buy the next door Postmaster's Home, Werden House, to be the new rectory.

In 1955 St. Mark's Catholic Church was built in Humber Bay neighbourhood and in 1961 Holy Angels was built for The Queensway neighbourhood, the area having been cut off from Mimico by the building of the Queen Elizabeth Way. After liturgical changes in the Latin Rite led to the use of the vernacular in place of Latin, St. Leo's began providing a separate liturgy for Italian parishioners. In 1960 a Parish Hall was built on the site of the Old Church. Both elementary schools were extensively added to throughout the 1960s as Mimico was amalgamated with Etobicoke, St. Leo's parish replacing Our Lady of Sorrows Roman Catholic Church, Kingsway as the oldest Catholic parish in Etobicoke. After full funding for Catholic Schools was introduced, the Public Board of Education offered the old Mimico High School to the Separate School Board which declined on the grounds that demographics changes in Etobicoke meant Mimico was no longer centrally located. Four St. Leo's parishioners have received the Sacrament of Holy Orders: Fr.

Jim Passery, Deacon Ralph Yearsley, Deacon Gord Weiss, Deacon Alan Morris. One of St. Leo's most celebrated former parishioners is NHL Hockey Player Brendan Shanahan. St. Leo's is home to the Fourth Lakeshore Beavers and Scouts. Rev Msgr Jim Coyle Commuted from Holy Family, Toronto Rev. George Doherty First Pastor, bought old rectory at 48 Station Rd. Rev. Msgr. Edward Brennan Became Rector of St. Augustine's Seminary Rev. Msgr. John Corrigan Taught at St. Augustine's Seminary Rev. Dr. Louis Markle Taught at St. Augustine's Seminary. Built new church, Bought new Rectory, Pastor during liturgical reforms in the Latin Rite. Dr. Markle died shortly after retiring from St. Leo's. Rev. Marshall Beriault Assistant from 1967, brought Cursillo movement to Canada Rev. Thomas Cullen Died shortly after retiring from St. Leo's. Rev. Joseph Sultana Became Pastor at St. Aidan's Roman Catholic Church in Agincourt, Scarborough Rev. Giuliano Costato Rev. Frank Carpinelli Teaches at St. Augustine's Seminary St. Teresa, New Toronto Founded 1924 St. Mark, Humber Bay Founded 1955 Holy Angels, Queensway Founded 1961 St. Leo Elementary Founded 1926 St. Louis Elementary Founded 1947 Mimico Holy Family, Toronto Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto

Regions of Uganda

The regions of Uganda are known as Central, Western and Northern. These four regions are in turn divided into districts. There were 56 districts in 2002, which expanded into 111 districts plus one city by 2010; the national government interacts directly with the districts, so regions do not have any definite role in administration. Under British rule before 1962, the regions were functional administrative units and were called provinces, headed by a Provincial Commissioner; the central region is the kingdom of Buganda, which had a semi-autonomous government headed by the Kabaka. The equivalent of the Provincial Commissioner for Buganda was called the Resident. At Uganda's 2002 census, the Central region contained 27 percent of the country's population, the Western region contained 26 percent, Eastern region 25 percent, the Northern region had 22 percent; the country's population density by region was 226 persons per square kilometre in the Eastern region, 176 per square kilometre in the Central region, 126 per square kilometre in the Western region, 65 per square kilometre in the Northern region.

In 2002 3 million people, or 12 percent of the country's population, lived in urban areas. The Central region had 54 percent of the urban population, the Northern region 17 percent, the Western region 14 percent, the Eastern region 13 percent. List of regions of Uganda by Human Development Index Counties of Uganda Sub-counties of Uganda Uganda Local Governments Association ISO 3166-2:UG