The Karakum Desert spelled Kara-Kum and Gara-Gum, is a desert in Central Asia. Its name means Black Sand in Turkic languages, in reference to the dark soil that lies beneath the sandy surface of much of the desert, it occupies 350,000 km ², of the area of Turkmenistan. The population is sparse, with an average of one person per 6.5 km². Rainfall is sparse, ranging from 70 to 150 mm per year. Covering much of present-day Turkmenistan, the Karakum Desert lies east of the Caspian Sea, with the Aral Sea to the north and the Amu Darya river and the Kyzyl Kum desert to the northeast. In modern times, with the shrinking of the Aral Sea, the extended "Aral Karakum" has appeared on the former seabed, with an estimated area of 15,440 sq mi/40,000 km². Although the level of the Aral Sea has fluctuated over its existence, the most recent level drop was caused by the former Soviet Union building massive irrigation projects in the region. Although the North Aral Sea is rising, the South Aral Sea is still dropping, thus expanding the size of the desert.
In the late Pleistocene, the Amu Dar'ya used to flow through the Karakum to the Aral Basin and Sarykamysh Depression, but flooding in the Amu Dar'ya valley during a pluvial period resulted in overflow to the Zeravshan River valley. The Amu Dar-ya merged with the Zeravshan and reached Horezm Lake; as the Horezm Lake, formed by the earlier Khvalinian period, expanded northwards it linked with the Aral along the Akcha Dar'ya Corridor which created what is called the Akcha Dar'ya Delta. The sands of the Aral Karakum are made up of a salt-marsh consisting of finely-dispersed evaporites and remnants of alkaline mineral deposits, washed into the basin from irrigated fields; the Karakum Desert is home to the Darvaza Gas Crater. The area has significant oil and natural gas deposits. To the south the Murghab and Tejen rivers flow out of the Hindu Kush Mountains, flow west, empty into the desert, providing water for irrigation; the desert is crossed by the second largest irrigation canal in the world, the Karakum Canal, which brings water from the Amu Darya to southern regions of the desert.
Construction on the canal was started in 1954 and completed in 1958. It is 1,375 km in length, carries 13-20 km³ of water annually. Within the Karakum are the Uly Balkan, a mountain range in which archaeologists have found human remains dating back to the Stone Age; the oases of Mary and Tejen are noted for cotton growing. The Darvaza gas crater called the "Door to Hell" or the "Gates of Hell" by locals, a crater of natural gas, burning since 1971, is located in the Karakum Desert; the crater is a major tourist attraction, with hundreds of visitors arriving each year. The desert is crossed by the Trans-Caspian Railway. Kyzylkum Desert List of deserts by area Gonur Depe site in the Karakum Desert photos and about the Karakum Desert TravelBlog Darvasa Craters: Entrance to Hell
The Tucson Weekly is an alternative newsweekly, founded in 1984 by Douglas Biggers and Mark Goehring, serves the Tucson, metropolitan area of about 1,000,000 residents. The paper is a member of the Association of Alternative Newsmedia. New issues arrive at kiosks throughout Tucson every Wednesday. Jim Nintzel is the current editor. Staff members include Logan Burtch-Buus, Tirion Morris, Christopher Boan, Jeff Gardner, Kathleen Kunz and Chelo Grubb. Longtime editor Jimmy Boegle left the Weekly in late 2012 to start his own independent paper in Palm Springs, California; the founding editor was Douglas Biggers, who served as editor and publisher until he sold the paper to Wick Communications in 2000. He founded Edible Baja Arizona. 10/13 Communications bought the paper from Wick in 2014. The paper is owned by Thirteenth Street Media. Former editors include Dan Huff, Carol Ann Bassett, James Reel, Michael Parnell, Dan Gibson and Mari Herreras. Longtime Weekly and Arizona Daily Star reporter Chris Limberis was posthumously inducted into the Arizona Newspaper Association Hall of Fame in 2006.
The cantera of Spanish professional football club CA Osasuna is the organisation's youth academy, developing players from childhood through to the integration of the best prospects into the adult teams. The final category within the youth structure is the Juvenil A under-18/19 team which represents the club in national competition; the successful graduates usually move to the club's affiliated team for younger players, CD Iruña, or to the reserve team, Osasuna B which are considered part of the cantera due to being stages in progression towards the senior team, albeit competing in the adult league system. The academy is based at the club training complex, the name used informally to refer to the system itself; the top football clubs in the Spanish leagues place great importance in developing their cantera to promote the players from within or sell to other clubs as a source of revenue, Osasuna is no exception. Their youth recruitment network is focused around their home region of Navarre and there are collaboration agreements in place with the small clubs in the region.
Navarre has a population of just 640,000, a small catchment zone for an elite football club, additionally Osasuna faces a battle for some of the region's talented young players due to the presence of Athletic Bilbao, whose Basque-only player recruitment policy includes Navarre in its definition. In the 1990s and 2000s, several prominent players made the journey directly from Pamplona to Bilbao, including Ziganda, Lacruz, Orbaiz, Javi Martínez, David López and Muñoz, while others such as Goikoetxea, José Mari and Ezquerro moved from Osasuna to Athletic via other clubs; the Biscay organisation have an affiliate team in Pamplona, several promising players who might otherwise have been to join Osasuna, the closest major club to their home towns were recruited by Athletic instead. This situation of aggressive recruitment fostered a tense relationship between the two clubs, arguably more so than any on-field battles. After a spell in the late 2000s during which Osasuna had few new academy graduates joining their main squad while Athletic reached a European final with a team full of Navarros, the trend reversed - Osasuna's relegation from La Liga in 2014 provided an opportunity for several academy players to integrate into the side in the less intense atmosphere of the second tier, they played a role in the club's return to the top level in 2016.
Meanwhile, Athletic recruited hardly any youth players from Navarre in the same period. According to a 2016 report, Osasuna had a total of 11 homegrown players still at their formative club, with another 5 at other top clubs across Europe; as a club from a small city with limited resources, the youth department's ability to train such coveted players is a vital source of income. The departures of four of the former youth players – Raúl García, Javi Martínez and Azpilicueta –, who all became Spanish internationals, earned Osasuna €31 million in transfer fees. In summer 2017, Álex Berenguer became the latest canterano to move abroad for a considerable fee, an important financial boost in the wake of another relegation. Athletic Bilbao had been interested in Berenguer, but no deal was agreed due in part to the rivalry between the clubs. At the same time, Athletic secured the signature of 18-year-old Jesús Areso from Osasuna's youth team, paying his modest contractual release clause amount, making it impossible for Osasuna to reject the approach.
Another analysis in 2016 concluded that the Navarre region was the most successful in Spain for producing top-level footballers per head of population thanks to the efforts of both Osasuna and Athletic Bilbao in recruiting and developing local talent. The Juvenil A team play in Group II of the División de Honor Juvenil as their regular annual competition, their main rivals in the league group are Real Sociedad. The under-17 team, Juvenil B, plays in the Liga Nacional Juvenil, the lower division of the same structure; the team occasionally participates in the Copa de Campeones and the Copa del Rey Juvenil, qualification for, dependent on final league group position. In these nationwide competitions the opposition includes the academy teams of Barcelona, Atlético Madrid and Real Madrid, it is possible for Osasuna Juvenil to participate in the UEFA Youth League, either by winning the previous season's Copa de Campeones or by way of the senior team qualifying for the UEFA Champions League group stages, but so far neither has been achieved.
The core of boys from the Navarre region are first introduced into the Tajonar Futbol 8 teams at around 10 years of age and advance by an age group every season through Infantil and Juvenil levels. In the past, players retained after their Juvenil A spell would move to reserve team CA Osasuna B to gain experience in an adult league. However, Promesas is an under-23 team and it can be difficult for the younger players to make an impact; some other leading clubs in Spain have a further reserve team or an affiliated club in the lower Tercera División level to bridge this gap (see Villarreal CF C
No. 4 Service Flying Training School was a flying training school of the Royal Australian Air Force during World War II. It was formed in February 1941, commenced flying the following month. Responsible for intermediate and advanced instruction of pilots under the Empire Air Training Scheme, the school was based at Geraldton, Western Australia, operated Avro Anson aircraft. Two reserve squadrons were formed in response to the outbreak of war in the Pacific, though they never saw action. Flying activity was reduced towards the end of 1943, the school was disbanded in May 1945, having graduated over 1,000 pilots, it re-formed as No. 87 Operational Base Unit, renamed Care and Maintenance Unit Geraldton in May 1946. CMU Geraldton was disbanded in September 1947. Flying instruction in the RAAF underwent major changes following the outbreak of World War II, in response to a dramatic increase in the number of aircrew volunteers and the commencement of Australia's participation in the Empire Air Training Scheme.
The Air Force's pre-war pilot training facility, No. 1 Flying Training School at RAAF Station Point Cook, was supplanted in 1940–41 by twelve elementary flying training schools and eight service flying training schools. The EFTS provided basic flying training to prospective pilots who, if successful, would go on to SFTS for further instruction that focussed on operational flying; the course at SFTS consisted of two streams and advanced, included such techniques as instrument flying, night flying, advanced aerobatics, formation flying, dive bombing, aerial gunnery. The total duration of training varied during the war as demand for aircrew fell. Running for sixteen weeks, the course was cut to ten weeks in October 1940. A year it was raised to twelve weeks, again to sixteen weeks two months later, it continued to increase after this, peaking at twenty-eight weeks in June 1944. No. 4 Service Flying Training School was formed at Geraldton, Western Australia, on 10 February 1941, came under the control of Western Area Command.
Its inaugural commanding officer was Wing Commander P. G. Heffernan. Geraldton's civil airport had extensive runways, taxiways and barracks, but more buildings were required to house the RAAF trainees and unit personnel. Facilities were still under construction when the first course of flying training commenced on 10 March. A further challenge the school faced related to equipment. All its Avro Anson aircraft were transferred from other units that, according to the RAAF Historical Section, "happily disposed of their oldest air frames". Coupled with a shortage of the spare parts needed to keep such aircraft operational, the result was that flying hours remained low for some time. No. 4 SFTS received students who had graduated from No. 9 Elementary Flying Training School at Cunderdin, Western Australia. Sixty new entrants, of whom around fifty were expected to graduate, arrived at No. 4 SFTS every twenty-eight days. Discipline was strict, the aim being to cut down on the accidents that were typical of service flying training establishments.
In the event, the school did not suffer a fatal flying accident for over a year-and-a-half after it commenced operations. In November 1941, eight of its Ansons took part in the search for survivors from HMAS Sydney. By this time, No. 4 SFTS was operating just over a hundred aircraft, including two Fairey Battles and two de Havilland Fox Moths, the remainder being Ansons. Personnel totalled 1,475, including 197 students. Following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December, the school's aircraft were classified as Second Line aircraft in the defence of Australia. Nos. 68 and 69 Reserve Squadrons were formed at Geraldton, but they were only used for maritime search-and-rescue, saw no action before their disbandment in February 1943. On 30 September 1942, a No. 4 SFTS Anson operated by No. 68 Squadron crash-landed in a marsh 140 miles north of Carnarvon. From October 1942 to March 1944, the school was commanded by World War I veteran and pioneer civil aviator Norman Brearley. Two men were killed and three injured when one of No. 4 SFTS's Ansons crashed after colliding with trees after takeoff at a satellite airfield on 21 July 1943.
Four occupants of an Anson were killed on 1 November, when a wing disintegrated after the pilot became disorientated in cloud and the plane went into a high-speed dive. By the end of the year, flying at No. 4 SFTS had begun to taper off, it was reduced still further in 1944. Training at the school concluded in December that year, under a reorganisation of EATS establishments in Australia. No. 4 SFTS began disbanding in January 1945, as part of a general reduction in RAAF flight instruction owing to a surplus of trained aircrew, the task was complete by May. It had graduated over 1,000 pilots—among them Dave Shannon, awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his part in the Dambuster raid by No. 617 Squadron RAF in May 1943—and established, according to the RAAF Historical Section, "an enviable safety record". No. 87 Operational Base Unit was formed with No. 4 SFTS staff on 1 June 1945 to administer Geraldton's facilities and maintain its aircraft following the flying school's disbandment.
On 20 May 1946, No. 87 OBU was re-formed as Care and Maintenance Unit Geraldton. CMU Geraldton was one of many such units that the RAAF raised for the storage and maintenance of surplus aircraft prior to their disposal after the war, it was disbanded on 5 Sept
Rijk Gispen, was a Dutch virologist and former Director of the National Institute of Public Health in the Netherlands. He is well known for the study of orthopoxviruses. In 1949, he reported occurring pox infections in non-human primates. Fifteen years he isolated monkeypox virus from healthy monkey kidneys in the Netherlands, "silent monkeypox virus infections". At the time, the virus appeared indistinguishable from smallpox. Despite the finding being of some debate, it gave cause for concern and provided the impetus to continue World Health Organization field research into the potential existence of a smallpox reservoir. In the 1970s, he contributed to the immunology of orthopoxvirus infections by being the first to develop means of distinguishing between antibodies due to infections with variola and monkeypox. Gispen was born in 1910 to Willem Hendrik Gispen, a minister, Anna Maria Catharina van der Dussen. At the age of 27, he was promoted by J. J. van Loghem and travelled to the Dutch East Indies to take up a post with Professor Johannes Ernst Dinger.
Following the second world war, Gispen succeeded Dinger at the Queen Wilhelmina Institute for Hygiene and Bacteriology in Batavia. In 1951 he was appointed director of Fundamental Scientific Research at the National Institute for Public Health and in 1958 he became head of the newly established Laboratory of Virology, a centre he helped design. Three years he was appointed professor of Virology at the Utrecht University. Between 1963 and 1966, he was one of the editors of the Dutch Journal of Medicine. Throughout the 1970s, he contributed to the immunology of orthopoxvirus infections by being the first to develop means of distinguishing between antibodies due to infections with variola and monkeypox; as a member of the Health Council, he advised government on matters including the use of enhanced inactivated polio vaccine for immunizing infants. Subsequent to experiences with the measures to control yellow fever and malaria, it became apparent that the eradication of smallpox relied upon the knowledge that no animal reservoir existed.
Hence, the search for a reservoir continued. Up until 1968, seven suspected smallpox cases in monkeys were reported, but Gispen's case was the only one that confirmed the disease by isolating the virus in 1949. Two orangutans in a Djakarta zoo became unwell during a smallpox epidemic amongst humans, it was concluded that human-to-orangutan transmission had taken place and not animal-to-animal.“Silent monkeypox virus infections” were observed on three separate occasions during the 1964 and 1965 outbreaks in cynomolgus colonies in the Netherlands. In 1964, Gispen isolated two viruses from the kidneys of laboratory monkeys; the monkeys remained without symptoms. These viruses appeared identical to smallpox. A number of further discoveries of the smallpox-like virus were isolated from chimpanzees in West Africa and in well sun-squirrels. Despite finding that this was a mutant monkeypox virus, these incidents gave cause for concern and provided the impetus to continue WHO field research into the potential existence of a smallpox reservoir.
A personal correspondence from Gispen's colleague, J. G. Kapsenberg in the early 1980s, revealed that the cases of silent monkeypox were a result of contamination, he died on 6 December 2000 in Bilthoven, at the age of 90. Gispen has been cited on many occasions. Derrick Baxby
Miss Independent is the first video release of American singer Kelly Clarkson. It is a collection of music videos, live performances, behind-the-scenes footage detailing the creation of Clarkson's debut album Thankful; the home video was released on November 18, 2003. The collection features the music videos of Clarkson's first four singles - "A Moment Like This", "Before Your Love", "Miss Independent" and "Low"; the collection includes the live performance of Clarkson at the first anniversary of the September 11 attacks at the Washington, D. C. Lincoln Memorial on September 11, 2002, it includes three performances of "Miss Independent", a performance of "Low" on the 2003 Teen Choice Awards, a performance of "Some Kind of Miracle" at the 2002 Summer Music Mania, her performance of "A Moment Like This" at the grand finale of American Idol after winning the competition. Clarkson's performances of "Respect", "Before Your Love" and " A Natural Woman" from the American Idols LIVE! Tour 2002, filmed in Atlanta and Washington D.
C. appear in the video. Behind-the-scenes footage includes the making of the second single from Thankful, "Low", Clarkson giving candid interviews detailing her life and music prior to winning American Idol. "A Moment Like This" 3:40 "Miss Independent" 3:33 "Miss Independent" 3:32 "Some Kind Of Miracle" 2:35 "Low" 3:22 "Respect" 2:21 " A Natural Woman" 2:36 "Before Your Love" 3:59 "A Moment Like This" 3:46 "Before Your Love" 3:53 "Miss Independent" 3:33 "Low" 3:29 "Low" 8:01 "Low" 1:47 Miss Independent on Rotten Tomatoes