Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period. Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. France and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants' Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict, the Hundred Years' War. To add to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was temporarily shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively, those events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite the crises, the 14th century was a time of great progress in the arts and sciences. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance began.
The absorption of Latin texts had started before the Renaissance of the 12th century through contact with Arabs during the Crusades, but the availability of important Greek texts accelerated with the Capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West Italy. Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning; those two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began; the expansion of the Ottoman Empire cut off trading possibilities with the East. Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the Spanish expedition under Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492 and Vasco da Gama’s voyage to Africa and India in 1498, their discoveries strengthened the power of European nations. The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.
However, the division is somewhat artificial, since ancient learning was never absent from European society. As a result, there was developmental continuity between the modern age; some historians in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all but rather see the high period of the Middle Ages transitioning to the Renaissance and the modern era. The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People. Flavio Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire. Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient and New Period. For 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit.
The heart of this rediscovery lies in Italy, where, in the words of Jacob Burckhardt: "Man became a spiritual individual and recognized himself as such". This proposition was challenged, it was argued that the 12th century was a period of greater cultural achievement; as economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of history, the trend was to see the late Middle Ages as a period of recession and crisis. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne continued the subdivision of Early and Late Middle Ages in the years around World War I, yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan Huizinga, responsible for popularising the pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages. To Huizinga, whose research focused on France and the Low Countries rather than Italy and decline were the main themes, not rebirth. Modern historiography on the period has reached a consensus between the two extremes of innovation and crisis, it is now acknowledged that conditions were vastly different north and south of the Alps, the term "Late Middle Ages" is avoided within Italian historiography.
The term "Renaissance" is still considered useful for describing certain intellectual, cultural, or artistic developments, but not as the defining feature of an entire European historical epoch. The period from the early 14th century up until – and sometimes including – the 16th century, is rather seen as characterized by other trends: demographic and economic decline followed by recovery, the end of western religious unity and the subsequent emergence of the nation state, the expansion of European influence onto the rest of the world; the limits of Christian Europe were still being defined in the 15th centuries. While the Grand Duchy of Moscow was beginning to repel the Mongols, the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the Balkans fell under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, the remaining nations of the continent were locked in constant international or internal conflict; the situation led to the consolidation of central authority and the emergence of the nation state.
The financial demands of war necessitated higher levels of taxation, resulting in the emergence of representative bodies – most notably the English Parliament. The growth of secular authority was further aided by t
Mut is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Mut is a rural district at the foot of the Sertavul Pass on the road over the Taurus Mountains from Ankara and Konya to the Mediterranean coast at Anamur or Silifke. Mut is known for its special apricot variety, Mut şekerparesi, a statue of a girl carrying a basket of them stands at the entrance to the town; the summer is hot and the people of Mut retreat to high meadows further up the mountainside. The forests up here are home to wild boar, the Gezende reservoir on the Ermenek River is a welcome patch of blue in this dry district; the dam has a hydro-electric power station built in Romania. The area has been inhabited since the time of the Hittites, was part of ancient Cilicia. Under the Roman Empire, the town was called Claudiopolis. Alahan Monastery, 15 kilometres north of Claudiopolis, was started in the second half of the fifth century by the Emperor Leo I and finish by Emperor Zeno; the Romans were succeeded by the Kingdom of Armenia.
In the 13th century the Armenians were replaced by the Karamanid clan who founded the state of the same name. The mosque of Lal Pasha, the Red Minaret are among the buildings from the Karamanids that still stand in Mut today. Durmuş Yalçın Karacaoğlan Musa Eroğlu Hüseyin Gezer Seyhan Kurt Fikri Sağlar İbrahim Özat Ziya Özel Doğan Atlay Mut is one of the places in the area that claims to be the burial place of the folk poet Karacaoğlan; the folk musician Musa Eroğlu was born in Mut. The Anatolian leopard was last sighted near Mut, in the locality called "Dandi" in 2001. District municipality's official website
Mehmet I of Karaman
Mehmet I of Karaman known as Şemseddin Mehmet, was the second bey of Karaman Beylik, a Turkish principality in Anatolia in the 13th century. His father was Karaman Bey. After the death of his father around 1261, Mehmet collaborated with the governor of Niğde to start a rebellion against the Mongols who were the suzerain of Seljuk lands. However, after the governor of Niğde was killed by the Mongols, Mehmet lost his capital Ermenek. Mehmet continued fighting, in 1276 he defeated the combined forces of Mongols and Seljuks in a surprise attack in the Göksu River valley. Next year he allied himself with Baybars of Mamluks. In May he captured the Seljuk capital, but instead of declaring himself as the sultan he supported his puppet Jimri as sultan, in turn Jimri appointed him as vizier of the Seljuks on 12 May 1277. As vizier Mehmet issued his famous firman ordering the Turkish language to be used instead of Persian and Arabic in government offices, but his service term in Konya lasted only about a month.
Hearing news of the approaching Mongol army, both Mehmet and Jimri fled from Konya. But the Mongols chased him, during a clash in Mut Mehmet and his two sons were executed in August 1277, he was succeeded by his brother Güneri. Mehmet is known as a devotee of the Turkish language. During his brief term as a vizier, he issued a firman dated 13 May 1277: The university of Karaman city is named after him. Firman of Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Silifke is a town and district in south-central Mersin Province, Turkey, 80 km west of the city of Mersin, on the west end of Çukurova. Silifke is near the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the Göksu River, which flows from the nearby Taurus Mountains, surrounded by attractive countryside along the river banks. Silifke was called Seleucia on the Calycadnus — variously cited over the centuries as Seleucia Cilicia, Seleucia Isauria, Seleucia Trachea, Seleucia Tracheotis —; the city took its name from King Seleucus I Nicator. The ancient city of Olba was within the boundaries of modern-day Silifke; the modern name derives from the Latin Seleucia which comes from the Greek Σελεύκεια. Located a few miles from the mouth of the Göksu River, Seleucia was founded by Seleucus I Nicator in the early 3rd century BCE, one of several cities he named after himself, it is probable that there were towns called Olbia and Hyria and that Seleucus I united them giving them his name. The city grew to include the nearby settlement of Holmi, established earlier as an Ionian colony but being on the coast was vulnerable to raiders and pirates.
The new city up river was doubtless seen as safer against attacks from the sea so Seleucia achieved considerable commercial prosperity as a port for this corner of Cilicia, was a rival of Tarsus. Cilicia thrived as a province of the Romans, Seleucia became a religious center with a renowned 2nd century Temple of Jupiter, it was the site of a noted school of philosophy and literature, the birthplace of peripatetics Athenaeus and Xenarchus. The stone bridge was built by the governor L. Octavius Memor in 77 AD. Around 300 AD Isauria was established as an independent state with Seleucia as the capital. Early Christian bishops held a Council of Seleucia in 325, 359, 410. Seleucia was famous for the tomb of the virgin Saint Thecla of Iconium, converted by Saint Paul, who died at Seleucia, the tomb was one of the most celebrated in the Christian world and was restored several times, among others by the Emperor Zeno in the 5th century, today the ruins of the tomb and sanctuary are called Meriamlik. In the 5th century the imperial governor in residence at Seleucia had two legions at his disposal, the Legio II Isaura and the Legio III Isaura.
From this period, later, dates the Christian necropolis, west of the town, which contains many tombs of Christian soldiers. According to the Notitia Episcopatuum of the Patriarchate of Antioch, in the 6th century, the Metropolitan of Seleucia had twenty-four suffragan sees. In 705 Seleucia was recovered by the Byzantines, thus by 732 nearly all the ecclesiastical province of Isauria was incorporated into the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In the Notitiae of Leo VI the Wise Seleucia had 22 suffragan bishoprics. In 968 Antioch again fell into the power of the Byzantines, with the Province of Isauria, Seleucia was allocated to the Patriarchate of Antioch. We know of several metropolitans of this see, the first of whom, attended the Council of Nicaea in 325. No longer a residential see, Seleucia in Isauria has been included in the list of titular sees of the Catholic Church, which has made no new appointments of a titular bishop to this eastern see since the Second Vatican Council. In the 11th century, the city was captured by the Seljuk Turks.
During this period of struggle between Armenians, Byzantines and Turks, a stronghold was built on the heights overlooking the city. On June 10, 1190, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was drowned trying to cross the Calycadnus, near Seleucia during the Third Crusade. In the 13th century Seleucia was in the possession of the Hospitallers, who lost it to the Karamanid Principality in the second half of the 13th century, it ended up in the hands of the Ottomans under general Gedik Ahmet Pasha in 1471; until 1933, Silifke was the capital of İçel Province, but İçel and Mersin provinces were merged. The merged province took the name of İçel but with its administrative centre at Mersin. In 2002 the name of İçel was replaced with that of Mersin; the economy of the district depends on agriculture and raising livestock. The town of Silifke is as a market for the coastal plain, which produces beans, sesame, orange, cotton, lentils, olives and canned fruits and vegetables. An irrigation project located at Silifke supplies the fertile Göksu delta.
In recent years there has been a large investment in glasshouses for producing strawberries and other fruit and vegetables in the winter season. Silifke is an industrial town, well-connected with other urban areas and producing beverages, clothes, glass, plastics and textiles. Silifke has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters. Akdere Arkum Atakent Atayurt N
The Taurus Mountains, are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east, it is a part of the Alpide belt in Eurasia. The Taurus mountains are divided into three chains from west to east; the mountains are a place of many ancient storm-god temples. Torrential thunderstorms in these mountains were deemed by the ancient Syrians to be the work of the storm-god Adad to make the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rise and flood and thereby fertilise their land; the Hurrians originators of the various storm-gods of the ancient Near East, were a people whom modern scholars place in the Taurus Mountains at their probable earliest origins. A Bronze Age archaeological site, where early evidence of tin mining was found, is at Kestel; the pass known in antiquity as the Cilician Gates crosses the range north of Tarsus.
The Amanus range in southern Turkey is where the Taurus Mountains are pushed up as three tectonic plates come together. The Amanus is a natural frontier: west is Cilicia, east is Syria. There are several passes, like the Amanian Gate. In 333 BCE at the Battle of Issus, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III Codomannus on the foothills along the coast between these two passes. In the Second Temple period, Jewish authors seeking to establish with greater precision the geographical definition of the Promised Land, began to construe Mount Hor as a reference to the Amanus range of the Taurus Mountains, which marked the northern limit of the Syrian plain. During World War I, the German and Turkish railway system through the Taurus Mountains proved to be a major strategic objective of the Allies; this region was mentioned as a strategically controlled objective slated for surrender to the Allies in the Armistice, which ended hostilities against the Ottoman Empire. In the Aladaglar and Bolkar mountains, limestone has eroded to form karstic landscapes of waterfalls, underground rivers, some of the largest caves of Asia.
The Manavgat River originates on the southern slopes of the Beydaglari range. In addition to hiking and mountain climbing, there are two ski resorts on the mountain range, one at Davras about 25 km from the two nearest towns of Egirdir and Isparta, the second is Saklıkent 40 km from the city of Antalya; the Varda Viaduct, situated on the railway lines Konya-Adana at Hacıkırı village in Adana Province, is a 98-metre-high railway bridge constructed in the 1910s by Germans. West Taurus and Taurus Mountains form an arc around the Gulf of Antalya; the East Taşeli Plateau and Goksu River divide it from the Central Taurus Mountains. It has many peaks rising above 3,000–3,700 m; the complex is divided into four ranges: Beydaglari mountain range, highest peak Mt. Kizlarsivrisi 3,086 m Aladaglar mountain range, highest peak Mt. Demirkazik 3,756 m Bolkar mountain range, highest peak Mt. Medetsiz 3,524 m Munzur mountain range, highest peak Mt. Akbaba 3,462 m Mercan mountain range, within the MunzurThe highest point in the central Tauruses is the summit of Mt. Demirkazık.
Central Taurus are defined to be the north of Mersin and north west of Adana The Southeastern Taurus mountains form the northern boundary of the Southeastern Anatolia Region and North Mesopotamia. They are the source of the Euphrates River and Tigris River. Map of Eurasia showing Taurus Mountain ranges