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Karaoke is a type of dining interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music using a microphone. The music is an instrumental version of a well-known popular song. Lyrics are displayed on a video screen, along with a moving symbol, changing colour, or music video images, to guide the singer. In several Asian countries such as China and Singapore, a karaoke box is called a KTV; the global karaoke market has been estimated to be worth nearly $10 billion. From 1961 to 1966, the American TV network NBC carried a karaoke-like series, Sing Along with Mitch, featuring host Mitch Miller and a chorus, which superimposed the lyrics to their songs near the bottom of the TV screen for home audience participation; the primary difference between Karaoke and sing-along songs is the absence of the lead vocalist. Sing-alongs fundamentally changed with the introduction of new technology. In the late 1960s and into the 1970s, stored audible materials began to dominate the music recording industry and revolutionized the portability and ease of use of band and instrumental music by musicians and entertainers as the demand for entertainers increased globally.

This may have been attributable to the introduction of music cassette tapes, technology that arose from the need to customize music recordings and the desire for a "handy" format that would allow fast and convenient duplication of music and thereby meet the requirements of the entertainers' lifestyles and the'footloose' character of the entertainment industry. The karaoke-styled machine was developed in various places in Japan. Japanese engineer Shigeichi Negishi, who ran a car audio system assembly business in Tokyo, made the first prototype in 1967. 3 years Toshiharu Yamashita, who worked as a singing coach sold an 8-track playback deck and kick-started the karaoke trend. It was 1971 that a musician Daisuke Inoue, believed as an inventor of karaoke, devised karaoke equipment in Kobe, although the audio company Clarion was the first commercial producer of the machine due to there being no patent. In Japan, it has long been common to provide musical entertainment at a party. Inoue, a drummer, was asked by guests in the Utagoe Kissa where he performed to provide recordings of his performances so that they could sing along.

Realizing the potential for the market, he made a tape recorder-like machine that played songs for a 100-yen coin each. Instead of giving his karaoke machines away, Inoue leased them out so that stores did not have to buy new songs on their own, it was considered a somewhat expensive fad, as it lacked the live atmosphere of a real performance and 100 yen in the 1970s was the price of two typical lunches, but it caught on as a popular kind of entertainment. Karaoke machines were placed in restaurants and hotel rooms. In 2004, Daisuke Inoue was awarded the tongue-in-cheek Ig Nobel Peace Prize for inventing karaoke, "thereby providing an new way for people to learn to tolerate each other."The patent holder of the karaoke machine is Roberto del Rosario. He developed the karaoke's sing-along system in 1975. Shortly after the development of LaserDisc Pioneer started to offer Video Karaoke machines, capable of displaying lyrics over a music video, in addition to the existing audio functionality. Karaoke soon spread to other countries all over the world.

In-home karaoke machines soon lacked success in the American and Canadian markets. When creators became aware of this problem, karaoke machines were no longer being sold for the purpose of karaoke but as home theater systems to enhance television watching to "movie theater like quality". Home theater systems took off, karaoke went from being the main purpose of the stereo system to a side feature; as more music became available for karaoke machines, more people within the industry saw karaoke as a profitable form of lounge and nightclub entertainment. It is not uncommon for some bars to have karaoke performances seven nights a week. With high-end sound equipment superior to the small, stand-alone consumer versions. Dance floors and lighting effects are becoming common sights in karaoke bars. Lyrics are displayed on multiple television screens around the bar. A basic karaoke machine consists of a music player, microphone inputs, a means of altering the pitch of the played music, an audio output.

Some low-end machines attempt to provide vocal suppression so that one can feed regular songs into the machine and remove the voice of the original singer. Most common machines are CD+G, Laser Disc, VCD or DVD players with microphone inputs and an audio mixer built in. CD+G players use a special track called subcode to encode the lyrics and pictures displayed on the screen while other formats natively display both audio and video. Most karaoke machines have technology that electronically changes the pitch of the music so that amateur singers can choose a key, appropriate for their vocal range, while maintaining the original tempo of the song. A popular game using karaoke is to type in a random number and call up a song, which participants attempt to sing. In some machines, this game is pre-programmed and may be limited to a genre so that they cannot call up an obscure national anthem that none of the participants ca

Armstrong County, Texas

Armstrong County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,901, its county seat is Claude. The county was formed in 1876 and organized in 1890, it was named for one of several Texas pioneer families named Armstrong. Armstrong County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Paleo-Indians first inhabitants as far back as 10,000 BC. Apachean cultures roamed the county until Comanche dominated around 1700; the Comanches were defeated by the United States Army in the Red River War of 1874. Tribes include Kiowa and Cheyenne. Armstrong County was formed from Bexar County in 1876, organized in 1890, with Claude as the county seat. Charles Goodnight and John George Adair established ranching in the county. In 1876, Goodnight brought a herd of 1,600 cattle into the Palo Duro Canyon; the JA Ranch encompassed over a million acres, including Armstrong County and five adjoining counties. The county land use was ranch-related after the trickling in of homesteaders, for the remainder of the 19th century.

In 1887, the JA Ranch split up, giving way to a terminus for the Fort Denver City Railway. The first town from the ranch was Goodnight. Landowner Robert E. Montgomery platted the town of Washburn, named after railroad executive D. W. Washburn; the next year, railroad lines turned Washburn into a boom town. In the same year, Armstrong City was renamed Claude in honor of railroad engineer Claude Ayers. In 1890, the two towns competed with Claude winning. Many scenes of the 1963 Paul Newman film Hud were filmed at Claude. At the beginning of the 20th century, ranching began to share the land with cotton and wheat crops, although ranching remained the leading industry; the Great Depression had a severe effect on the county's economy, recovery took years. Ranches still occupied about 68% of the land in the county in 2005. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles, of which 909 square miles are land and 4.7 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 207 Carson County Gray County Donley County Briscoe County Swisher County Randall County Potter County As of the census of 2000, 2,148 people, 802 households, 612 families resided in the county.

The population density was 2 people per square mile. The 920 housing units averaged 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.44% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 2.79% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. About 5.40 % of the population was Latino of any race. Of the 802 households, 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.20% were married couples living together, 6.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.60% were non-families. About 21.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was distributed as 26.00% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 19.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,194, for a family was $43,894. Males had a median income of $30,114 versus $21,786 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,151. About 7.90% of families and 10.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.80% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over. The Claude Independent School District serves all of Armstrong County. Three school districts headquartered in surrounding counties, Clarendon Consolidated Independent School District, Groom Independent School District, Happy Independent School District, include small unincorporated portions of Armstrong County. Claude Goodnight Washburn Wayside Armstrong County Sheriff's Office List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Armstrong County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Armstrong County Armstrong County Armstrong County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Armstrong County from the Texas Almanac Armstrong County from the TXGenWeb Project Armstrong County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties Interactive Texas Map Texas Map Collection

Derrick Strait

Derrick Lee Strait is a former American college and professional football player, a cornerback in the National Football League for three seasons during the early 2000s. He played college football for the University of Oklahoma, was recognized as a unanimous All-American; the New York Jets chose him in the third round of the 2004 NFL Draft, he played professionally for the Chicago Bears and Carolina Panthers of the NFL. Strait was born in Texas, he attended Lanier High School in Austin, playing football for coach and former University of Texas player Wade Johnson. While in high school, Strait was selected to the Texas Top 100 by the Houston Chronicle and a Max Emfinger National Top 500 selection. Strait saw action as a quarterback, defensive back and running back during his senior season, where he rushed for 1,439 yards and 17 touchdowns, recording eight runs of 20 or more yards, including one of 81 yards and threw three touchdowns, he had, 118 tackles, one quarterback sack, two forced fumbles, four fumble recoveries, 11 pass deflections and two interceptions on defense.

He returned one fumble 42 yards for a touchdown. Strait combined for more than 1,500 yards as a junior, he was an All-District standout as well as being selected to the All-CenTex team. Strait received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Oklahoma, played for coach Bob Stoops's Oklahoma Sooners football team from 2000 to 2003, he was a starter at the cornerback position all four years. Derrick was a two-time All-American, recipient of the 2003 Bronko Nagurski Trophy, the 2003 Jim Thorpe Award after his senior season, he holds a team record with five fumble recoveries in a single season. He was named to the Sports Illustrated All-Decade Team in 2009. In 2000, Strait was selected as the Big 12 Conference Defensive Newcomer of the Year by the Associated Press, Freshman All-America selection by The Sporting News, a third-team All-Big 12 selection by the Big 12 Coaches. Strait started every game at right cornerback and finished his first season fourth in tackles with 62, he recorded five tackles for loss, two sacks and 15 pass deflections.

He recorded the second most deflections on the team and fourth most for an Oklahoma defensive back in a single season. Strait recorded one of his biggest deflections late in the Oklahoma State game when he broke up a pass in the end zone on fourth and goal, which helped Oklahoma secure the victory. Strait had another key breakup in the Orange Bowl against Florida State, with he deflected a possible touchdown pass in the fourth quarter, he had five tackles in the game. Strait had a two of interceptions, including a third quarter pick against Nebraska which he returned 32 yards for a touchdown, he was one of five Sooners to return an interception for a touchdown, he recorded a career-high 10 tackles against Texas. He recorded five tackles, two tackles for loss and one sack a week at Kansas State. Strait had seven tackles and an interception in the final home game of the year against Texas Tech. In 2001, Strait was an All-Big 12 Second Team selection by the Associated Press, he was an All-Big 12 Honorable Mention selection by the Big 12 Coaches.

Strait emerged as one of the better cover corners in the country. He recorded. Strait had at least three tackles in 11 of the 12 regular season games. Strait had eight tackles against Texas, he returned an interception 47 yards for a touchdown in the season opener against North Carolina, cutting across the field in an exact replay of his TD against Nebraska the previous year. Strait did however give up the winning touchdown in the 2001 Bedlam Series against Oklahoma State to Rashaun Woods, unable to perform his game-saving magic of a year ago. In 2002, Strait was consensus All-Big 12 first team, he started every game at cornerback. He tied for the team lead with six interceptions, the No. 10 total in school history, set a school record for return yards in a season by taking his six interceptions back for 175 yards. Strait had two interceptions at Baylor which he returned for a school record 127 yards, one for a 75-yard touchdown. Strait had a total of 175 interception return yards for the season rank third on the team.

Strait had a season high eight tackles at Texas A&M. Following his 2003 senior season, Strait won the Bronko Nagurski Trophy, the Jim Thorpe Award, was recognized as a unanimous first-team All-American. On February 9, 2004, state senator Debbe Leftwich, praised Strait on the Oklahoma Senate floor when she presented him with Senate Resolution 36. Strait was selected with the 13th pick in the 3rd round of the 2004 NFL Draft by the New York Jets. After spending two seasons as a backup defensive back, Strait was traded to the Cleveland Browns on August 14, 2006 for running back Lee Suggs. Suggs, failed his physical, both he and Strait returned to their respective teams. On October 11, 2006, he was claimed off waivers by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, but was released a week later. On November 8, 2006, he was claimed off waivers by the Chicago Bears. On December 9, 2006, he was released by the Bears. On December 11, 2006, he was claimed off waivers by the Carolina Panthers. On September 1, 2007, he did not make the final cut down, was released by the Panthers.

In 2008, Strait joined the Columbus Destroyers of the Arena Football League. However, he was waived on February 13. On March 4, 2008, Strait signed with the Edmonton Eskimos. On March 6, 2009, he was signed by the Winnipeg Blue Bombers but was released at the beginning of training camp. In March 2012, he began his college coaching career as a graduate assistant for his alma mater Oklahoma University un

Emmanuel Christian Seminary

Emmanuel Christian Seminary is the graduate theological seminary of Milligan College. The school is located near Johnson City, United States in Elizabethton, Tennessee city limits and in the community of Milligan; the seminary was founded in 1965 as an freestanding institution, though related to Milligan College, but became one of the graduate schools of the college in July 2015. It was founded by church leaders and scholars within the Christian churches and churches of Christ and the Christian Church who recognized the need for a seminary rooted in the heritage of the Stone-Campbell wing of the Reformed tradition while still engaging in theological preparation for ministers; the seminary's campus is located on a hill overlooking the Appalachian Mountains of northeast Tennessee. The school offers four degrees: the Master of Arts in Religion, the Master of Christian Ministries, the Master of Divinity, the Doctor of Ministry, it is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada to award masters and doctoral degrees.

Support for the school comes from churches and individuals related to the Stone-Campbell tradition who believe in the school's mission of ministerial preparation. It has long enjoyed a strong relationship with all three streams of the movement to which it is related and has produced pastors and leaders for all three streams as well as for the wider church. Emmanuel has graduated alumni that serve in colleges and seminaries across the United States and around the world; the majority of Emmanuel's graduates serve as ministers in contexts such as parish pastors, missionaries, campus ministers and youth ministers, church planters, chaplains in hospitals and the military. Emmanuel's main building, the B. D. Phillips Memorial building is located at the top of a hill that overlooks the Milligan College campus and the Appalachian Mountains, it is in the Phillips Memorial Building. The building contains Emmanuel's library of over 181,000 volumes, which houses the Restoration Archives, a collection of materials chronicling the history and theology of the Stone-Campbell wing of the Reformed tradition.

The administrative offices are located on the first floor. The Thompson Community Center is located within walking distance of the main building; the Thompson Center has lodging available for guests. Students study in the Ashworth Alumni Hall; the Itha Pratt Conference Room houses conference rooms. The offices of the Emmanuel Institutes, which host seminars and continuing education classes for ministers throughout the year, are located here; the Emmanuel Village is the on-campus housing for their families. The village consists of 42 "English cottage" style town homes within walking distance of the classrooms; the Delno Brown Walking Trail and the Dana Gohn Prayer Garden are nearby, as is a children's playground. The Algrhim Carriage House is the campus maintenance facility in the Village; the student body is composed of 150 students pursuing master's degrees and many coming from the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, the Christian Church, the Churches of Christ, though an increasing number of students from the Episcopal Church, Presbyterian Church, Baptist Churches, the United Methodist Church have studied there in recent years.

Foster, DA. The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-6975-3 Emmanuel Christian Seminary, archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Emmanuel Christian Seminary, Facebook. Faculty, archived from the original on 2014-05-09; the Thompson Community Center, archived from the original on 2013-06-20. The Emmanuel Village, archived from the original on 2013-06-20

Josie Russell (Home and Away)

Jacinta "Josie" Russell is a fictional character on the Australian soap opera Home and Away, portrayed by actress Laurie Foell. She first appeared on 9 August 2004 and departed on 29 June 2005. Foell starred in the serial as Kelly McCane in 1999 and Josie's cousin Angie Russell in 2002. Josie's storylines include meeting and forging a relationship with her cousin's daughter Tasha Andrews, Becoming involved with Jesse McGregor, having an affair with ex-boyfriend Marc Edwards, having the circumstances of a client's death being revealed and being murdered by Brett Macklin. Two years after departing the serial as Angie Russell, Foell rejoined the cast in 2004 to play Angie's identical cousin, Josie. Comparing the characters, Foell said "Angie was quite cold. She's a survivor, around the block a few times, but she's fair." Josie appears when Irene Dylan Russell track her down at her brothel in the city. Due to her profession, Irene wants Josie to keep her distance from Tasha Andrews, the daughter of Josie's cousin, Angie.

Josie's uncanny identical appearance to Angie causes a stir when she arrives in Summer Bay to connect with Tasha. Tasha gets along well with Irene is against her being in Tasha's life. Josie settles into Summer Bay and donates $2000 to the school and invests in the surf club and suggests naming a new bar "Noah's" - in honour of the murdered Noah Lawson. Tasha's friends Sally Fletcher and Flynn Saunders are suspicious and accuse Josie of wanting Tasha's inheritance. Irene enlists the help of Morag Bellingham for legal advice when Josie applies for guardianship of Tasha. Josie withdraws, she assists for Ian Osbourne, Tasha's biological father and his assistant Stafford McRae to plant surveillance cameras in the beach house, in order for Ian to keep an eye on Tasha. The cameras are soon exposed and Ian withdraws. Josie begins a relationship with business partner Jesse McGregor but gets cold feet when he professes his love for her and she breaks up with him as a result. Tasha concocts a scheme to get them back together by pretending to break up with her boyfriend Robbie Hunter.

The plan works and Josie and Jesse reunite. Josie comforts Tasha when Ian rejects her in an act to prevent her becoming like his other children. Marc Edwards, Josie's ex-boyfriend arrives in Summer Bay. Although, she is now with Jesse, the two sleep together and Josie regrets it. Marc's continual presence in Summer Bay uneases her and matters escalate when he begins blackmailing her for money over her secret, the suspicious death of one of her clients. Josie reluctantly accepts Jesse's proposal of marriage and they are ready to marry but Marc presents Jesse with the video footage of him and Josie together and Jesse exposes the affair to the congregation and leaves town for several days. Following Marc's arrest as a suspect of being the Summer Bay Stalker, he is bailed and harasses Josie at a murder mystery party, where he is murdered by Eve Jacobsen, the real stalker. Josie is a suspect but is cleared, she leaves town and asks Tasha to leave with her but she declines. Josie returns a few weeks having gone into business with Brett Macklin.

She soon discovers Brett is responsible for illegally dumping waste and relays the information to Stafford and arranges to meet him to organise a plan to bring Brett down, Stafford does not turn up and Brett arrives in his place and tries to kill her by pushing her off a cliff but is foiled and arrested. Josie has a short entanglement with Scott Hunter but it fizzles out and she decides to leave the bay once more and settles in Boston, Massachusetts; the following year, Josie invites Tasha and their daughter Ella to join her over there. Roz Laws of the Sunday Mercury observed "Josie, the scarily-lookalike sister of Angie, has been in Home And Away for only five minutes but has made her mark.". A writer from What's On TV described her as "twisted", stated that Foell caused trouble twice in the show in both her roles as Angie and Josie. An Inside Soap reporter branded Josie's arrival played by Foell a "bonkers - but nonetheless brilliant" storyline

Robert Bauer (mycologist)

Robert Bauer was a German mycologist, specialising in rust and smut fungi. Bauer studied Biology at the University of Tübingen during the 1970s, a particular interest in plants and fungi led to completing his PhD there in 1983 with a doctoral dissertation entitled Experimentell-ontogenetische und karyologische Untersuchungen an Uredinales, he went on to become chair of "Systematic Botany and Mycology" in the "Institute of Evolution and Ecology" at Tübingen. He became adept in the use of electron microscopes and the prerequisite specialised cutting and preparation techniques at a time when ultrastructural study of fungi was still in its infancy, he became known for detailed work on the smut fungi in particular. He was able to use ultrastructural evidence to postulate phylogenies in this group before molecular techniques were developed. Subsequent molecular studies aligned with his hypotheses. Bauer produced over 100 publications during his career, during which time he was strongly involved in teaching, the university's botanic garden and overseeing specialist internships in electronmicroscopy.

Bauer aged 64, on 8 September 2014 in Neckartailfingen, Stuttgart. List of mycologists