The Bartered Bride
The Bartered Bride is a comic opera in three acts by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana, to a libretto by Karel Sabina. The work is regarded as a major contribution towards the development of Czech music. It was composed during the period 1863–66, and first performed at the Provisional Theatre, the opera was not immediately successful, and was revised and extended in the following four years. In its final version, premiered in 1870, it gained popularity. Czech national opera until this time had been represented only by minor and this opera, Smetanas second, was part of his quest to create a truly Czech operatic genre. The overture, often played as a concert piece independently from the opera, unusually, after a performance at the Vienna Music and Theatre Exhibition of 1892, the opera achieved international recognition. It was performed in Chicago in 1893, London in 1895 and reached New York in 1909, subsequently becoming the first, many of these early international performances were in German, under the title Die verkaufte Braut, and the German-language version continues to be played and recorded.
A German film of the opera was made in 1932 by Max Ophüls, until the middle 1850s Bedřich Smetana was known in Prague principally as a teacher and composer of salon pieces. His failure to achieve recognition in the Bohemian capital led him to depart in 1856 for Sweden. During this period he extended his range to large-scale orchestral works in the descriptive style championed by Franz Liszt. Liszt was Smetanas long-time mentor, he had accepted a dedication of the latters Opus 1, Six Characteristic Pieces for Piano in 1848, and had encouraged the younger composers career since then. In September 1857 Smetana visited Liszt in Weimar, where he met Peter Cornelius and their discussions centred on the need to create a modern style of comic opera, as a counterbalance to Wagners new form of music drama. Smetana did not act immediately on this aspiration and he was spurred to creative action by the announcement of a prize competition, sponsored by the Czech patriot Jan von Harrach, to provide suitable operas for the Provisional Theatre.
By 1863 he had written The Brandenburgers in Bohemia to a libretto by the Czech nationalist poet Karel Sabina, whom Smetana had met briefly in 1848. The Brandenburgers, which was awarded the prize, was a serious historical drama. By this time he had heard the music of Corneliuss Der Barbier, for his libretto, Smetana again approached Sabina, who by 5 July 1863 had produced an untitled one-act sketch in German. Over the following months Sabina was encouraged to develop this into a full-length text, by the end of 1863 a two-act version, with around 20 musical numbers separated by spoken dialogue, had been assembled. Smetanas diary indicates that he, rather than Sabina, chose the title because the poet did not know what to call it
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii and the land Bohemia. The Czech diaspora is found in numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, Italy. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group, the West Slavs have origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period. The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period and they formed an independent principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty. According to mythology, the father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech. The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks, the Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having much higher than the other way around.
Czech people have a history of coexistence with Germanic people. The Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, the Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism. The Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the tribes in the late 9th century. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown, according to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-, the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The name Bohemia is Germanic, English used that name until after the establishment of Czechoslovakia, the population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line,34. 2% of Czech males belong to R1a, which is particularly common in a large region extending from South Asia and Southern Siberia to Central Europe and Scandinavia.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin, presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, according to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech who settled at the Říp Mountain. The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century, in 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben
August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben was a German poet. He is best known for writing Das Lied der Deutschen, its third stanza now being the anthem of Germany. Hoffmann was born in Fallersleben in Lower Saxony, in the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the son of a merchant and mayor of his native city, he was educated at the classical schools of Helmstedt and Braunschweig, and afterwards at the universities of Göttingen and Bonn. His original intention was to study theology, but he devoted himself entirely to literature. In 1823 he was appointed custodian of the university library at Breslau and he was made extraordinary professor of the German language and literature at that university in 1830, and ordinary professor in 1835. Hoffmann was deprived of his chair in 1842 in consequence of his Unpolitische Lieder, during his exile, he traveled in Germany and Italy, and lived for two or three years in Mecklenburg, of which he became a naturalized citizen. After the revolution of 1848 he was enabled to return to Prussia, where he was restored to his rights, and received the salary attached to a promised office not yet vacant.
He married in 1849, and during the ten years lived first in Bingerbrück, afterwards in Neuwied, and in Weimar. In 1860 he was appointed librarian to Victor I, Duke of Ratibor at the castle of Corvey near Höxter on the Weser. Hoffmann von Fallersleben was one of the most popular poets of his time, in politics he ardently sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, and he was among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who prepared the way for the outbreak of 1848. As a poet, however, he acquired distinction chiefly by the ease, although he had not been scientifically trained in music, he composed melodies for many of his songs, and a considerable number of them are sung by all classes in every part of Germany. Among the best known is the patriotic Das Lied der Deutschen which starts with the words Deutschland, Deutschland über alles and is set to a 1797 tune by Joseph Haydn, the lyrics were written in 1841 on the island of Helgoland, in British possession. The text of the song expresses the pan-German sentiments common in revolutionary republicans of the period and were highly inflammatory in the princedoms of the German-speaking world and this sentiment was, of course, considered high treason.
The phrase über alles did not refer to militant ideas of conquest of foreign countries, but to the need for loyalty to a united Germany to replace all other regional loyalties. The best of his writings is his Gedichte, but there is great merit in his Alemannische Lieder, Rheinleben, and in his Fünfzig Kinderlieder. In 1868-1870 Hoffmann published in 6 vols. an autobiography, Mein Leben, Aufzeichnungen und Erinnerungen and his Gesammelte Werke were edited by H. Gerstenberg in 8 vols. His Ausgewählte Werke by H. Benzmann, see Briefe von Hoffmann von Fallersleben und Moritz Haupt an Ferdinand Wolf, J. M. Wagner, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, 1818-1868, and R. von Gottschall, Porträts und Studien. Deutschlandlied Sequence of Saint Eulalia This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hoffmann
Emmy Destinn was a Czech operatic soprano with a strong and soaring lyric-dramatic voice. She had a career both in Europe and at the New York Metropolitan Opera, Destinn was born Emílie Pavlína Věnceslava Kittlová in Prague, in what was the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At first Destinn devoted herself to studying the violin, and intended to shine as a virtuoso on that instrument, when she was well on in her teens, her voice was so rich and full that she changed her mind and determined upon an operatic career. Her voice teacher since age thirteen had been Marie Maria von Dreger Loewe-Destinn, and she was let go after the short engagement at the Dresden Opera and declined by Prague National Theatre in 1897. Destinn debuted on 19 July 1898 at the Berlin Court Opera as Santuzza in Cavalleria rusticana and she made such progress that the intendant of the Berlin Court Opera engaged her at once when she was brought to her notice. She was merely nineteen at the time, but her voice and her engagement in Berlin lasted till 27 October 1909.
She sang in 54 operas, including 12 premieres, the most famous of which was Salome by Richard Strauss and her fame became international in 1901 when she was invited to sing the part of Senta in Der Fliegende Holländer at Germanys Bayreuth Festspielhaus. She returned to sing the role the next year. Destinn made her London debut at Covent Gardens Royal Opera House on 2 May 1904 and she appeared there in several operas for the next two seasons, including the London premiere of Madama Butterfly with Caruso. Her Metropolitan Opera debut came in 1908 with a performance of Aida. Two years at the Met, she created the role of Minnie in the premiere of Puccinis La fanciulla del West, again opposite Caruso, and under the direction of Arturo Toscanini. She excelled in the French part of Carmen, in which she was said to rival Calvé, destins career suffered a fatal blow in World War I. She returned to her homeland after the start of the war in 1914 and she was interned at her chateau for the remainder of the conflict.
Destinn returned to Czechoslovakia, where she married Joseph Halsbach, a Czech air-force officer and she retired from the stage in 1926 and died from a stroke in České Budějovice, Czechoslovakia a month before her 52nd birthday. She is interred in the Vyšehrad cemetery in Prague, Destinn was a versatile artist and besides being a singer she was a poet and playwright—though nothing she achieved in other professions has rivalled her reputation as a singer. Her voice can still be heard on CD reissues of the many 78-rpm gramophone records which she made during her prime, destinns likeness appeared in 1996 on the 2,000 Czech koruna banknote. The main-belt asteroid 6583 Destinn is named after her. com
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format