MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
Las Vegas Valley
The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U. S. state of Nevada. The state's largest urban agglomeration, it is the heart of the Las Vegas–Paradise-Henderson, NV MSA; the Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a 600 sq mi basin area surrounded by mountains to the north, south and west of the metropolitan area. The Valley is home to the three largest incorporated cities in Nevada: Las Vegas and North Las Vegas. Five unincorporated towns governed by the Clark County government are part of the Las Vegas Township and constitute the largest community in the state of Nevada; the names Las Vegas and Vegas are interchangeably used to indicate the Valley, the Strip, the city, as a brand by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority to denominate the region. The Valley is affectionately known as the "ninth island" by Hawaii natives and Las Vegans alike, in part due to the large number of people from Hawaii who live in and travel to Las Vegas. Since the 1990s the Las Vegas Valley has seen rapid growth, tripling its population of 741,459 in 1990 to 2,227,053 estimated in 2018.
The Las Vegas Valley remains one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, in its short history has established a diverse presence in international business, urban development and entertainment, as well as one of the most iconic and most visited tourist destinations in the world. In 2014, a record breaking 41 million visited the Las Vegas area, producing a gross metropolitan product of more than $100 billion; the first reported non-Native American visitor to the Las Vegas Valley was the Mexican scout Rafael Rivera in 1829. Las Vegas was named by Mexicans in the Antonio Armijo party, including Rivera, who used the water in the area while heading north and west along the Old Spanish Trail from Texas. In the 19th century, areas of the valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas, or meadows, hence the name Las Vegas; the area was settled by Mormon farmers in 1854 and became the site of a United States Army fort in 1864, beginning a long relationship between southern Nevada and the U.
S. military. Since the 1930s, Las Vegas has been identified as a gaming center as well as a resort destination targeting adults. Nellis Air Force Base is located in the northeast corner of the valley; the ranges that the Nellis pilots use and various other land areas used by various federal agencies, limit growth of the valley in terms of geographic area. Businessman Howard Hughes arrived in the late 1960s and purchased many casino hotels, as well as television and radio stations in the area. Legitimate corporations began to purchase casino hotels as well, the mob was run out by the federal government over the next several years; the constant stream of tourist dollars from the hotels and casinos was augmented by a new source of federal money from the establishment of what is now Nellis Air Force Base. The influx of military personnel and casino job-hunters helped start a land building boom, now leveling off; the Las Vegas area remains one of the world's top entertainment destinations. The valley is contained in the Las Vegas Valley landform.
This includes the cities of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, the unincorporated towns of Summerlin South, Spring Valley, Sunrise Manor, Enterprise and Whitney. The valley is technically located within the larger metropolitan area, as the metropolitan area covers all of Clark County including parts that do not fall within the valley; the government of Clark County has an "Urban Planning Area" of Las Vegas. This definition is a rectangular area, about 20 mi from east to west and 30 miles from north to south. Notable exclusions from the "Urban Planning Area" include Red Rock, Blue Diamond, Mount Charleston; the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department is the largest police department in the valley and the state and exercises jurisdiction in the entire county. There are 3,000 police officers that cover the city of Las Vegas; the department does not exercise primary jurisdiction in areas with separate police forces such as North Las Vegas, Boulder City, Nellis Air Force Base and the Paiute reservation.
The Las Vegas Valley lies in the Mojave Desert. The surrounding land is desert with mountains in the distance; the Las Vegas Valley lies in a high-altitude portion of the Mojave Desert, with a subtropical hot-desert climate. The Valley averages less than 5 in of rain annually. Daily daytime summer temperatures in July and August range from 100 °F to 110 °F, while nights range from 72 °F to 80 °F. Low humidity, tempers the effect of these temperatures, though dehydration, heat exhaustion, sun stroke can occur after a limited time outdoors in the summer; the interiors of automobiles prove deadly to small children and pets during the summer and surfaces exposed to the sun can cause first- and second-degree burns to unprotected skin. July and August can be marked by "monsoon season", when moist winds from the Gulf of California soak much of the Southwestern United States. While not only raising humidity levels, these winds develop into dramatic desert thunderstorms that can sometimes cause flash flooding.
Winters in the Las Vegas Valley are chilly, but sunny. Winter highs in December and January range from 52 °F to 60 °F, while nighttime lows range from 34 °F to 42 °F (
Anthony Frank Hawk is an American professional skateboarder and owner of the skateboard company Birdhouse. Hawk is well known for completing the first documented 900 and for his licensed video game titles, published by Activision, he is considered to be one of the most successful and influential pioneers of modern vertical skateboarding. In 2002, he created the "Boom Boom HuckJam", an extreme sports exhibition and tour, launched in Las Vegas. Throughout his career, Hawk has made numerous appearances in films, other media, his own series of video games, he has been involved in various philanthropic activities, including his own Tony Hawk Foundation that helps to build skateparks in underprivileged areas. In 2014, Hawk was named one of the most influential skateboarders of all time by FoxWeekly. Tony Hawk was born on May 12, 1968 in San Diego, California to Nancy and Frank Peter Rupert Hawk, was raised in San Diego; when Hawk was young, he was described as being "hyperactive", his mother says that he was "so hard on himself and expected himself to do so many things."
One time, Hawk struck out in baseball and was so distraught that he hid in a ravine and had to be "physically coaxed out" by his father. His frustration with himself was so harsh that his parents had him psychologically evaluated at school; the results were that Tony was "gifted", he tested with an intelligence quotient of 144, school advisers recommended placing him in advanced classes. Hawk attended Jean Farb Middle School from 1980 to 1981, returned for the show, Homecoming with Rick Reilly, where he set up a ramp and did a demonstration, his parents supported his skateboarding because it served as an outlet for his excessive energy, as Hawk's skills developed, he became a professional skateboarder at age fourteen. Hawk was the National Skateboard Association world champion for twelve consecutive years. On June 27, 1999, Hawk was the first skater to land a "900", a trick involving the completion of two-and-a-half mid-air revolutions on a skateboard. After completing the trick, Hawk commented, "This is the best day of my life."
In 2011, Hawk was still able to land the trick and posted a video on his Twitter account stating, "I'm 43 and I did a 900 today." On June 27, 2016, at age 48, Hawk performed what he claimed will be his final 900. In a video posted on the YouTube channel RIDE Channel, Hawk says "Spencer was there on my first one, now he was there on my last. Bye." after landing a 900. Hawk was invited to President Barack Obama's June 2009 Father's Day celebration and skated in the hallways of the nearby Old Executive Office Building, on the White House grounds; this marked the first time someone skateboarded on the White House grounds with permission from officials. In 2009, Hawk was inducted into the Skateboarding Hall of Fame at its inaugural ceremony; as of January 2012, Hawk is sponsored by Birdhouse, Lakai Footwear, Independent and Nixon. Hawk was sponsored by Theeve. Following an invitation from his former sponsor, Hawk assembled a group of vert skateboarders to perform, in 2012, the first-ever vert demonstration to have occurred in India.
While in India, the group visited Mahatma Gandhi's house, the skateboarders were greeted by a excited young audience and the 540-degree maneuver was executed during the skateboarding demonstration—the Indian trip was published on Hawk's RIDE YouTube channel on February 4, 2013. All contest results are covered in Thrasher Magazine and can be checked at the Thrasher Magazine Archives. Only first places were counted. Boom Boom HuckJamIn 2002, Hawk started a show tour, featuring freestyle motocross, BMX, it started in Las Vegas and on to 31 cities around the U. S. and to Six Flags amusement parks. Video game series A video game series based on his skateboarding, with the title Tony Hawk's Pro Skater, debuted in 1999. Since the series has spawned 18 titles so far, including ten main series titles, four spin-offs, four repackages. Hawk's role in the series was usurped by customizable player characters in installments, but he has remained a prominent character. In the fifth game in the series, Underground, he is a minor non-player character whom the player meets in Tampa and skates against.
Impressed with the player's skills, Hawk grants them entry into a skate competition. He appears in Moscow to teach them the "360 Varial Heelflip Lien" move. Hawk and other skaters are playable near the end of the game when they skate in a promotional video for the player's skate team, in all gameplay modes except the story mode, he appeared as a kid in the Backyard Sports series Backyard Skateboarding. Amusement park ridesA series of amusement park rides known as Tony Hawk's Big Spin were built in three Six Flags parks in 2007 and 2008; the ride was billed as the "Tony Hawk experience" and was designed to have the look and feel of a giant red-and-black skatepark. It offered a full "extreme sports" experience, with monitors in the queue lines displaying highlights of the history of action sports and a large spinning Tony Hawk figure crowning the ride. In 2010 Six Flags cancelled its license and the rides were renamed to Pandemonium; the ride at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom was moved to Six Flags Mexico in 2012 to make way for a new ride known as Superman: Ultimate Flight.
Additionally, a water park ride called Tony Hawk's Halfpipe was opened at Six Flags America in Bowie, Maryland. RIDE ChannelIn January 2012, Hawk launched RIDE Channel. In the welcome video, Hawk explained:... I'm proud to announce the launch of our new YouTube channel—it's called "RIDE." I've teamed up wi
Thomas Edward Sizemore Jr. is an American film and television actor and producer. He is known for his supporting roles in films such as Born on the Fourth of July, Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, Passenger 57, True Romance, Natural Born Killers, Strange Days, Saving Private Ryan, Red Planet, Black Hawk Down, Pearl Harbor, for voicing Sonny Forelli in the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, playing Anthony Sinclair in the revival television series Twin Peaks. Sizemore was born in Michigan, his mother, was a member of the city of Detroit ombudsman staff, his father, Thomas Edward Sizemore, Sr. was a lawyer and philosophy professor. He was raised Roman Catholic. Sizemore has stated that his maternal grandfather was of Native American ancestry, he attended Michigan State University for one year, as well as Wayne State University. Sizemore earned a master's degree in theatre from Temple University in 1986, he subsequently moved to New York City to pursue an acting career. One of Sizemore's earliest film appearances was in Oliver Stone's Born on the Fourth of July.
Other early roles included Lock Up, Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, Point Break, True Romance, Natural Born Killers and Strange Days. Sizemore starred in the independent drama film Love Is Like That with actress and model Pamela Gidley and had a supporting role in Kevin Costner's Wyatt Earp as Bat Masterson. For his performance in Heart and Souls, he was nominated for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor. A succession of well-received supporting parts followed, notably including his portrayal of Michael Cheritto in the heist film Heat. Sizemore's first major leading role was as Vincent D'Agosta in The Relic. Sizemore had a recurring role on the television series China Beach as an enlisted man named Vinnie, in love with Dana Delany's character. Sizemore continued to play leading and character parts in many films, notably Devil in a Blue Dress, Bringing Out the Dead and Witness Protection. Saving Private Ryan has proven to be his most commercially successful project to date, bringing in $217,000,000 at the box office.
In the early 2000s, Sizemore appeared in actions films such as Pearl Harbor, starring Ben Affleck, Ridley Scott's Black Hawk Down. He had a voice role as Sonny Forelli in the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. Sizemore starred in Ticker, an action film directed by Albert Pyun, with Steven Seagal and Dennis Hopper, he starred in the well-reviewed but short-lived television drama series Robbery Homicide Division. He appeared prominently in the Mel Gibson-produced Paparazzi and played an undercover cop in Swindle, opposite Sherilyn Fenn; that same year, he starred in The Genius Club, playing a terrorist who taunts seven geniuses into solving the world's problems in one night. He went on to a leading role in the action/thriller film Splinter with Edward James Olmos; the next year, television network VH1 aired a six-episode reality TV series called Shooting Sizemore, depicting the actor's life as he struggled to regain his career in the midst of battling long-standing addictions to methamphetamine and heroin.
The series covered an ongoing legal appeal of his conviction for an assault of former Hollywood madam Heidi Fleiss. In the same year, the actor starred in the Indie drama film Oranges with Tom Arnold and Jill Hennessy, directed by Syrian director and producer Joseph Merhi. Sizemore performed in two films that screened at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival and American Son, he was prolific that year, starring in The Last Lullaby, The Flyboys with Stephen Baldwin, action film Stiletto with Tom Berenger and Michael Biehn, drama film Toxic with Costas Mandylor, the Canadian drama A Broken Life with Ving Rhames. He went on to appear in five episodes of the television series Crash with Dennis Hopper and the comedy film Super Capers. Sizemore starred in the indie horror film C. L. A. S. S. and co-starred with Vincent D'Onofrio in the comedy-drama film Chlorine. Sizemore starred alongside martial arts actor Mark Dacascos in the action movie Shadows in Paradise, followed by an appearance as a trucker in an episode of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia.
Sizemore appeared alongside the Insane Clown Posse in the comedy film Big Money Rustlas and the drama 513 with Michael Madsen. Sizemore has roles in the films Suing the Devil and White Knight, as well as the adventure film The Age of Reason, he saw a career resurgence when he was cast as a series regular in the USA Network action program Shooter, starring Ryan Phillippe. He went on to receive positive notices for the drama thriller Calico Skies. In 2017, he appeared as insurance agent Anthony Sinclair in David Lynch's revival miniseries Twin Peaks, portrayed FBI Agent Bill Sullivan in the drama film Mark Felt: The Man Who Brought Down the White House. Sizemore fronted the Hollywood rock band Day 8. Formed in 2002, the band recorded a four-song EP produced and recorded by Bradley Dujmovic and former Snot/Soulfly guitarist Mike Doling. Called "The Bystanders", the group included guitarist and co-writer Rod Castro, Alan Muffterson, Tyrone Tomke and Michael Taylor. Sizemore married actress Maeve Quinlan in 1996, but divorced in 1999 because of issues associated with his drug problems.
In 2010, Sizemore appeared as a patient/castmember on VH1's third s
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and specialized gear; the definition of extreme sports is not exact and the origin of the terms is unclear, but it gained popularity in the 1990s when it was picked up by marketing companies to promote the X Games and when the Extreme Sports Channel and the Extreme Sports Company launched. More the used definition from research is "a competitive activity within which the participant is subjected to natural or unusual physical and mental challenges such as speed, depth or natural forces and where fast and accurate cognitive perceptual processing may be required for a successful outcome" by Dr. Rhonda Cohen. While use of the term "extreme sport" has spread everywhere to describe a multitude of different activities which sports are considered'extreme' is debatable. There are, several characteristics common to most extreme sports.
While they are not the exclusive domain of youth, extreme sports tend to have a younger-than-average target demographic. Extreme sports are rarely sanctioned by schools for their physical education curriculum. Extreme sports tend to be more solitary than many of the popular traditional sports. Activities categorized by media as extreme sports differ from traditional sports due to the higher number of inherently uncontrollable variables; these environmental variables are weather and terrain related, including wind, snow and mountains. Because these natural phenomena cannot be controlled, they affect the outcome of the given activity or event. In a traditional sporting event, athletes compete against each other under controlled circumstances. While it is possible to create a controlled sporting event such as X Games, there are environmental variables that cannot be held constant for all athletes. Examples include changing snow conditions for snowboarders and ice quality for climbers, wave height and shape for surfers.
Whilst traditional sporting judgment criteria may be adopted when assessing performance, extreme sports performers are evaluated on more subjective and aesthetic criteria. This results in a tendency to reject unified judging methods, with different sports employing their own ideals and indeed having the ability to evolve their assessment standards with new trends or developments in the sports. While the exact definition and what is included as extreme sport is debatable, some attempted to make classification for extreme sports. One argument is. A passenger in a canyon jet boat ride will not fulfill the requirements, as the skill required pertains to the pilot, not the passengers. "Thrill seeking" might in these cases be a more suitable qualification than "extreme sport". Extreme sports may be subdivided into: These sports require the use of snow, ice or water sports and rolling sports. Another subdivision can be made along motorized and non motorized vehicle sports, resulting in the following matrix.
The phrase is. The implication of the phrase was that the word "sport" defined an activity in which one might be killed; the other activities being termed "games". The phrase may have been invented by either writer Barnaby Conrad or automotive author Ken Purdy; the Dangerous Sports Club of Oxford University, England was founded by David Kirke, Chris Baker, Ed Hulton and Alan Weston. They first came to wide public attention by inventing modern day bungee jumping, by making the first modern jumps on 1 April 1979, from the Clifton Suspension Bridge, England, they followed the Clifton Bridge effort with a jump from the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco and with a televised leap from the Royal Gorge Suspension Bridge in Colorado, sponsored by and televised on the popular American television program That's Incredible! Bungee jumping was treated as a novelty for a few years became a craze for young people, is now an established industry for thrill seekers; the Club pioneered a surrealist form of skiing, holding three events at St. Moritz, Switzerland, in which competitors were required to devise a sculpture mounted on skis and ride it down a mountain.
The event reached its limits when the Club arrived in St. Moritz with a London double-decker bus, wanting to send it down the ski slopes, the Swiss resort managers refused. Other Club activities included. In recent decades the term extreme sport was further promoted after the Extreme S
Fairview is a city in Multnomah County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 8,920. Members of the Multnomah tribe of Chinookan Indians lived in a village near the Columbia River when the Lewis and Clark Expedition visited the area in 1806. By the 1840s and 1850s, white settlers began hay and livestock operations in what would become eastern Multnomah County. Railroad tracks extended to the area by the 1890s, and, as the population grew, residents began referring to the locale as Fairview because of the pleasing views of the nearby river, the Columbia River Gorge, Mount Hood. Since another community named Fairview existed on the Oregon Coast, the community's first post office was named Cleone until the coastal post office closed and the name was transferred to Fairview. In the mid-1980s the city attempted to merge-in a large section of unincorporated territory in eastern Multnomah County; the plan would have created a city of about 120,000 residents, which at the time would have ranked as the second most populous city in Oregon, behind only Portland.
In September 1985, the Oregon Supreme Court ruled that the attempt was invalid as state law required two cities to start any attempt at consolidation, only Fairview had initiated this attempt. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.58 square miles, of which, 3.09 square miles is land and 0.49 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,920 people, 3,544 households, 2,274 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,886.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,786 housing units at an average density of 1,225.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.1% White, 4.6% African American, 1.1% Native American, 5.5% Asian, 1.0% Pacific Islander, 9.7% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population. There were 3,544 households of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.8% were non-families.
26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 35 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,561 people, 2,831 households, 1,936 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,360.8 people per square mile. There were 3,116 housing units at an average density of 972.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.21% White, 3.44% Asian, 3.04% African American, 0.83% Native American, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 10.51% from other races, 5.59% from two or more races. 16 % of the population were Latino of any race. L There were 2,831 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families.
22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,931, the median income for a family was $43,317. Males had a median income of $37,342 versus $25,909 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,006. About 13.5% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over. House District 49 encompasses the city of Fairview, as well as surrounding cities of Troutdale, Wood Village, parts of Gresham, it is represented by Democrat Chris Gorsek.
As part of House District 49, Fairview is part of Senate District 25 represented by Democrat Laurie Monnes Anderson. Fairview is served by the Reynolds School District. Fairview Elementary, Salish Ponds Elementary, Woodland Elementary, Reynolds Middle School are located in the city. Fairview is served by two Trimet bus lines: 21-Sandy Blvd/233th And 77-Broadway/Halsey. Interstate 84 U. S. Route 30 City of Fairview Entry for Fairview in the Oregon Blue Book