click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Karl Dönitz

Karl Dönitz was a German admiral during the Nazi era who succeeded Adolf Hitler as the German head of state in 1945. As Supreme Commander of the Navy since 1943, he played a major role in the naval history of World War II, he was controversially convicted of war crimes following the war. He began his career in the Imperial German Navy before World War I. In 1918, he was commanding UB-68. Dönitz was taken prisoner. While in a prisoner of war camp, he formulated what he called Rudeltaktik. At the start of World War II, he was the senior submarine officer in the Kriegsmarine, known as Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote. In January 1943, Dönitz achieved the rank of Großadmiral and replaced Grand Admiral Erich Raeder as Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. Dönitz was the main enemy of Allied naval forces in the Battle of the Atlantic. From 1939–1943 the U-boats fought but lost the initiative from May 1943. Dönitz ordered his submarines into battle until 1945 to relieve the pressure on other branches of the Wehrmacht.

648 U-boats were lost—429 with no survivors. A further 215 were lost on their first patrol. Around 30,000 of the 40,000 men to serve on U-boats perished. On 30 April 1945, after the death of Adolf Hitler and in accordance with Hitler's last will and testament, Dönitz was named Hitler's successor as head of state, with the title of President of Germany and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. On 7 May 1945, he ordered Alfred Jodl, Chief of Operations Staff of the OKW, to sign the German instruments of surrender in Reims, France. Dönitz remained as head of the Flensburg Government, as it became known, until it was dissolved by the Allied powers on 23 May. By his own admission, Dönitz was a dedicated supporter of Hitler. Following the war, Dönitz was indicted as a major war criminal at the Nuremberg Trials on three counts: conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, he was found not guilty of committing crimes against humanity, but guilty of committing crimes against peace and war crimes against the laws of war.

He was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. Dönitz was born in Grünau near Berlin, Germany, to Anna Beyer and Emil Dönitz, an engineer, in 1891. Karl had an older brother. In 1910, Dönitz enlisted in the Kaiserliche Marine. On 27 September 1913, Dönitz was commissioned as a Leutnant zur See; when World War I began, he served on the light cruiser SMS Breslau in the Mediterranean Sea. In August 1914, the Breslau and the battlecruiser SMS Goeben were sold to the Ottoman Navy, they began operating out of Constantinople, under Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, engaging Russian forces in the Black Sea. On 22 March 1916, Dönitz was promoted to Oberleutnant zur See, he requested a transfer to the submarine forces, which became effective on 1 October 1916. He attended the submariner's school at Flensburg–Mürwik and passed out on 3 January 1917, he served as watch officer on U-39, from February 1917 onward as commander of UC-25. On 2 July 1918, he became commander of UB-68. On 4 October, after suffering technical difficulties, Dönitz was forced to surface and scuttled his boat.

He was captured by the British and remained a prisoner of war until 1919, in 1920 he returned to Germany. On 27 May 1916, Dönitz married a nurse named Ingeborg Weber, the daughter of German general Erich Weber, they had three children whom they raised as Protestant Christians: daughter Ursula and sons Klaus and Peter. Both of Dönitz's sons were killed during the Second World War. Peter was killed on 19 May 1943. Hitler had issued a policy stating that if a senior officer such as Dönitz lost a son in battle and had other sons in the military, the latter could withdraw from combat and return to civilian life. After Peter's death Klaus was forbidden to have any combat role and was allowed to leave the military to begin studying to become a naval doctor, he returned to sea and was killed on 13 May 1944. The boat was sunk by the French destroyer La Combattante, he continued his naval career in the naval arm of the Weimar Republic's armed forces. On 10 January 1921, he became a Kapitänleutnant in the new German navy.

Dönitz commanded torpedo boats, becoming a Korvettenkapitän on 1 November 1928. On 1 September 1933, he became a Fregattenkapitän and, in 1934, was put in command of the cruiser Emden, the ship on which cadets and midshipmen took a year-long world cruise as training. In 1935, the Reichsmarine was renamed Kriegsmarine. Germany was prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles from possessing a submarine fleet; the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935 allowed submarines and he was placed in command of the U-boat flotilla Weddigen, which comprised three boats. On 1 September 1935, he was promoted to Kapitän zur See. Dönitz opposed Raeder's views that surface ships should be given priority in the Kriegsmarine during the war, but in 1935 Dönitz doubted U-boat suitability in a naval trade war on account of their slow speed; this phenomenal contrast with Dönitz's warti

Punta La Marmora

Punta La Marmora is a mountain in the Gennargentu range, Sardinia. The mountain belongs to Ogliastra and Nuoro provinces, in the Barbagia mountain area of inner Sardinia. With its summit at an elevation of 1,834 m, it is the highest peak on the island. Dedicated to the Piedmontese geographer Alberto Ferrero della Marmora, it is included in the communal territories of Desulo and Arzana. Punta La Marmora is situated just east of the approximate center of Sardinia and the summit offers good views of the entire island. On a clear day most of the coastline and all the surrounding peaks are visible. List of European ultra prominent peaks List of Italian regions by highest point Peakbagger

Camilla Ah Kin

Camilla Ah Kin is an Australian actress known for her work on Holding the Man, Ali & the Ball and Going Home, most Channel 9 Comedy series Here Come the Habibs. Ah Kin is a graduate of the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, her work includes film and TV as a performer. In 1992 she received a cultural scholarship from the government of France to study at L’ecole Internationale du Theatre Jacques Lecoq in Paris, she has completed Master of Arts with the Department of Performance Studies at the University of Sydney. Ah Kin has appeared in productions for companies including Bell Shakespeare, Sydney Theatre Company, Melbourne Theatre Company, WA Theatre Company, Ensemble Theatre and Griffin, she has worked as a director and teacher. In 2015 she was featured on the Australian romantic drama film Holding the Man. In 2016, Ah Kin was chosen to portray Mariam Habib in a leading role on Here Come the Habibs. Halifax f.p. Blue Heelers Murder Call Going Home All Saints Stories from the Golf Stupid Stupid Man Ali & the Ball Tough Nuts: Australia's Hardest Criminals Rake Holding the Man Here Come the Habibs

Park Lane College Leeds

Park Lane College Leeds was the largest further education college in Leeds, West Yorkshire and provided further and adult education to over 45,000 students. It operated out of over 40 sites across Leeds. On 1 April 2009 Park Lane College merged with Leeds Thomas Danby and the Leeds College of Technology to form the new Leeds City College; the three main Park Lane sites are now known as the Park Lane Campus, Horsforth Campus and Keighley Campus of the new college. Park Lane College was established in 1966, to provide commercial and general education for the citizens of Leeds. In 1992, the College was incorporated and inherited control of the local education authority's dispersed, community-based provision. In 1998, it merged with Airedale and Wharfedale College, which became the Park Lane College Leeds Horsforth Centre. On 1 August 2007, Park Lane College Leeds merged with Keighley College to form Park Lane College Leeds & Keighley taking the total number of students to 45,000. Park Lane College had three main campuses in the Leeds City Centre and Keighley, operated out of over 40 other sites across Leeds.

In September 2004, Park Lane opened a new 7 storey extension at the City Centre Site. The award-winning design has an environmental focus and created an additional 60 classrooms on the College's main site; the College launched a number of other new facilities and departments including the Creative Arts Academy, Hair & Beauty Therapy, the Animal Centre, the PLCL Business School. The College budget totalled over £43 million; the total number of students at Park Lane was 45,000 for the academic year 2006/7. Partnerships and community organisations enabled the College to meet the needs of excluded and other disadvantaged groups. Extensive basic skills provision formed a key element in the College's response to social inclusion; the College signed a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ with Leeds Metropolitan University in November 2004, after this time developed over 21 foundation degrees in subjects such as Animal Health & Welfare, Contemporary Music Production and e-Technology. Park Lane met with employers from industries covered by courses and had links with over 2,500 companies.

Relationships included Leeds Rugby, Bradford City Football Club, Radio Aire, Halifax Building Society and the Yorkshire Post Newspapers. Leeds City College website Park Lane College Leeds Ofsted reports

New Park School

New Park School was an independent preparatory school in St Andrews, Scotland. The school was founded in 1933 by Cuthbert Dixon a teacher at Merchiston Castle School; the school was situated at a residential area of St Andrews. In addition, the school owned playing fields at Priory Acres off the Canongate, on the other side of the Kinness Burn. In 1986, part of the playing fields were put on the market for residential development; the school continued to use the remaining playing fields until it closed in 2005. The school had 13 boys, all of whom were day pupils. Within a few years the school had expanded, by 1938 there were 20 pupils including 10 boarders. Numbers continued to increase in the post-war period. In the 1970s, New Park admitted its first girls. By the time the school closed in 2005, there were equal numbers of boys and girls; as times changed, boarding became less popular, by the mid-1990s boarding at New Park had ceased. When the other preparatory school in St Andrews, the girls-only St Leonards Junior School began accepting boys, New Park struggled to recruit new pupils.

St Leonards suffered from a decline in pupil numbers, talks between the schools continued for several years. In March 2005 it was announced that New Park would merge with St Leonards Junior School, to form St Leonards-New Park; the merged school would use the St Leonards campus. The announcement was met with a mixed reaction from New Park parents. St Leonards have announced a major redevelopment of their Junior School, which will change its name from St Leonards-New Park to St Leonards Junior School; the project, commencing in June 2011, will cost £2.5m, is being funded by the New Park Educational Trust. The New Park name will be used for the redeveloped area of the St Leonards site; the original New Park site was sold for development. The money raised is managed by the New Park Educational Trust, which supports local educational projects; the Trust still owns the original house, converted into flats for rental to families involved in education in St Andrews. 1933–1949 Cuthbert Dixon 1949–1969 Roderick Macleod 1969–1976 Adrian Blocksidge 1976–1984 Alan Elliott 1984–1995 Michael Wareham 1995–2005 Andrew Donald

North Carolina Highway 68

North Carolina Highway 68 is a north–south state highway in North Carolina. It serves as a connector between Interstate 40 / U. S. Route 421 and Piedmont Triad International Airport. On its routing from Thomasville to Stokesdale, NC 68 passes through urban High Point, the western outskirts of Greensboro, the town of Oak Ridge; the segment from just north of the I-40/US 421 interchange to Pleasant Ridge Road in Guilford County is a limited access freeway. Beginning in the south at Business I-85/US 29/US 70, the route travels north out of Thomasville in Davidson County as National Highway, a name which referred to the former routing of US 29/70 along this segment. Crossing from Davidson County into neighboring Guilford County and the city of High Point, NC 68 is cosigned with English Road. One mile within the city limits, NC 68 turns left onto Westchester Drive, a boulevard that bypasses High Point's downtown area. Arriving at the Main Street interchange, NC 68 continues onto another boulevard. After passing Oak Hollow Mall, I-74, the Wendover Avenue interchange, NC 68 and Eastchester Drive continue north into neighboring Greensboro.

Shortly after entering Greensboro, NC 68 meets Interstate 40/US 421, becomes a limited access freeway after a traffic signal at Triad Center Drive. Continuing north as a divided four-lane highway, NC 68 has junctions with W. Market Street and I-73, the exit for Piedmont Triad International Airport; the road downgrades to an undivided primary road at the Pleasant Ridge Road junction. From there, the route heads north through the heart of Oak Ridge, North Carolina, passing the Oak Ridge Military Academy at the route's intersection with NC 150. After crossing the Haw River into Stokesdale, NC 68 crosses US 158 and joins NC 65 for a short 1-mile concurrency, before splitting to the northeast en route to its northern terminus at US 220 in Rockingham County; this interchange doubles as the current northern terminus of I-73 though no direct access is provided between I-73 and NC 68. The first NC 68 was an original state highway that traversed from NC 60, in Millers Creek, northwest through Glendale Springs and Crumpler, before crossing into Virginia.

By 1928, NC 68 was rerouted west of Jefferson onto new primary routing west to the Tennessee state line. In 1929, all of NC 68 was replaced by an extension of NC 16; the second and current NC 68 was established in 1930 as a new primary routing from US 70/US 170/NC 10, northeast of High Point, to NC 65, in Stokesdale. In 1936, NC 68 was rerouted south through High Point to US 29A/US 70A. In 1941, NC 68 was extended north on new primary routing to US 220. In 1952, NC 68 was extended north to its current terminus with US 220, replacing part of old US 220. Between 1950-1953, NC 68 was extended south to English Street. In 1956 or 1957, NC 68 was extended to its current southern terminus, sharing a concurrency with US 29A/US 70A, until 1991. In 1982, NC 68 was placed on new freeway connecting I-40 and the Piedmont Triad International Airport, its old alignment along Bull Road a secondary road. Future NCDOT plans call for the construction of a new four-lane highway connecting NC 68 and US 220. Starting with a new interchange with I-73, improvements will be made along a short section of existing NC 68 before going northwest onto new construction that will bypass east of Oak Ridge and connect with US 220 in Summerfield.

This section will become part of I-73. North of Oak Ridge, safety improvements are to be done between East Harrell Road and Bartonshire Drive; the estimated cost is $1.96 million. Property acquisition is expected to start in December 2014. Media related to North Carolina Highway 68 at Wikimedia Commons NCRoads.com: N. C. 68