Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, political theorist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Marx studied law and philosophy at university, he married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum, his best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual and political history, his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory. Marx's critical theories about society and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes that control the means of production and the working classes that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system known as socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, his work has been both lauded and criticised, his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, subsequent economic thought.
Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science. Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Henriette Pressburg, he was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ethnically Jewish, his maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx. His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education, he became a lawyer with a comfortably Upper middle class income. Prior to his son's birth, after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation in the Rhineland, Herschel converted from Judaism to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel. Non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire.
A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, at that time being an absolute monarchy. In 1815, Heinrich Marx began working as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra, his wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg married Lion Philips and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London. Little is known of Marx's childhood; the third of nine children, he became the eldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Marx and his surviving siblings, Hermann, Louise and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825. Marx was educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father.
By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance. In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field. Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest", Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police. Marx joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society, at one point serving as club co-president. Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's B
Eilidh Margaret Barbour is a Scottish television presenter and reporter. In 2017, she was named as the main presenter for BBC's golf coverage, replacing Hazel Irvine in the role. In 2005, Barbour graduated from the University of Stirling, having read Film and Media Studies, with an emphasis on audio and video production, she moved to South Korea for a year to teach English, before returning to Scotland with the intention of finding a job within broadcasting. Her persistence paid off, as six months she got a job with STV editing their football and rugby highlights, she took various reporting jobs, before becoming the presenter of STV Rugby for the 2011–12 season, which focused on the Scottish rugby teams in the Pro12. Barbour has presented the results and international highlights on BBC Scotland's Sportscene. In November 2014, Barbour came to national attention, when she was a pitchside reporter during a first round FA Cup match in a special episode of Final Score. From 2016 onwards, she has been a regular reporter for Final Score.
In 2016, she filled in for Dan Walker as presenter for Football Focus, in Rio de Janeiro covering the Olympics. The following year, she became the presenter of The Women's Football Show. In 2017, Barbour was named as the main presenter for BBC's golf coverage, replacing Hazel Irvine, a major influence on her career. Barbour's father had always played golf, she started to take the sport up in her teenage years, around the same time when her mother wanted to learn as well. Incidentally, she had written to Irvine for career advice. In December 2018 Barbour joined the presenting team for Match of the Day 2 when she stood in for regular host, Mark Chapman. In June 2019 she was part of the BBC presenter team for the Women's World Cup hosting, among others, the quarter final between Germany and Sweden. In December 2019, Barbour was the presenter for the first Premier League game to be shown live on Amazon Prime Video, Crystal Palace vs. Bournemouth. Barbour is a lifelong supporter of St. Johnstone. Eilidh Barbour on IMDb
Poetry Northwest was founded as a quarterly, poetry-only journal in 1959 by Errol Pritchard, with Carolyn Kizer, Richard Hugo, Edith Shiffert and Nelson Bentley as co-editors. The first issue was 32 pages and included the work of Richmond Lattimore, May Swenson, Philip Larkin, James Wright, William Stafford. During the magazine's four decades, it gained an international reputation for publishing some of the best poetry by established and up-and-coming poets in the United States and beyond including Stanley Kunitz, Thom Gunn, Philip Larkin, May Swenson, Theodore Roethke, John Berryman, Czesław Miłosz, Harold Pinter, Joyce Carol Oates, Raymond Carver, Robert Pinsky, Annie Dillard, Richard Wilbur, Jorie Graham, Michael S. Harper, James Dickey, Mary Oliver, Wendell Berry and Anne Sexton. In 1963, Poetry Northwest became a publication of the University of Washington. In 1964, Kizer became the sole editor of the magazine and would hold that post until 1966 when she resigned to become the Literature Director at the National Endowment for the Arts.
David Wagoner assumed the role of a position he would hold for 36 years. In 2002, after several years of dire financial circumstances, Poetry Northwest — at the time one of the longest-running poetry-only publications in the country — temporarily ceased publication. In 2005, the University of Washington appointed poet David Biespiel as the magazine's new editor, with the agreement that the editorial offices of the magazine would relocate to the Attic Institute in Portland, Oregon; the new series resumed publication in March 2006 and re-established its reputation as one of the most important and lively poetry magazines in the United States. In 2010, David Biespiel stepped down as editor and poet Kevin Craft was appointed the sixth editor in the magazine's history; the editorial offices subsequently moved to Everett Community College in Everett, north of Seattle. Kevin Craft served as editor until 2016, when Aaron Barrell and Erin Malone were appointed co-editors. Poetry Northwest awards two prizes each year for the best work published in its pages.
Since 1963, it has awarded the Theodore Roethke Prize. Poetry Northwest