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Karl Taylor Compton

Karl Taylor Compton was a prominent American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1930 to 1948. Karl Taylor Compton was born in Wooster, Ohio, on September 14, 1887, the eldest of three brothers and one sister, Mary, his father, Elias Compton, was from an old American Presbyterian family, his mother, Otelia Augspurger Compton, was from an Alsatian and Hessian Mennonite family that had immigrated to the United States. He came from a remarkably accomplished family in which his brother Arthur became a prominent physicist and sister Mary a missionary. Beginning in 1897, Compton's summers were spent camping at Otsego Lake, Michigan while attending Wooster public schools in fall and summer, he took hard labor jobs starting at age eleven to help pay for college, working carrying hods for construction projects, as a farm hand, mule skinner, a book canvasser, in tile and brick factories and surveyed the first mile of paved road in Ohio. In 1902, Compton skipped a grade and went into Wooster University's preparatory department for the last two years of high school.

In 1908, he graduated from Wooster cum laude with a bachelor of philosophy degree in 1909 his master's thesis A study of the Wehnelt electrolytic interrupter was published in Physical Review. During 1909–1910 he was an instructor in Wooster's chemistry department before entering a graduate program at Princeton University. There he received the Porter Ogden Jacobus Fellowship, worked with Owen Willans Richardson and jointly published several papers on electrons released by ultraviolet light, electron theory and on the photoelectric effect. Richardson went on to receive the Nobel Prize in some of the areas. In 1912, Compton received his Ph. D. from Princeton summa cum laude. In June 1913, Compton married Rowena Raymond, they moved to Reed College in Portland, where Compton was an instructor in Physics. In 1915, he returned to Princeton as an associate professor of physics, he took a consultancy at the General Electric Corporation. He contributed to the war effort with the Signal Corps. In December 1917, Compton was attached to the US Embassy in Paris as an associate science attaché.

After the Armistice of 1918, the end of World War I Compton returned home to Princeton, his wife and three-year-old daughter Mary Evelyn. In June 1919, Compton was made a full professor, worked in the Palmer Laboratory where his gift for teaching was legendary, his research was in the area of electronics and spectroscopy in subject areas such as passage of photoelectrons through metals, the motion of electrons in gases, theory of the electric arc and emission spectra of mercury vapor, collisions of electrons and atoms. Rowena died in the fall of 1919. In 1921, Compton married Margaret Hutchinson, with whom he had a daughter, a son, Charles Arthur. In 1927, Compton was named Director of Research at the Palmer Laboratory and Cyrus Fogg Brackett professor. In 1929 he was appointed head of the department. Over one hundred papers were published in his name during his time at Princeton. In 1923, Compton was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society and in 1924 a member of the National Academy of Sciences for which he was chairman of the Section of Physics.

He was named vice-president of the American Physical Society in 1925 and in 1927 became its president. Compton was a fellow of the Optical Society of America, a member of the American Chemical Society, the Franklin Institute and other professional engineering societies. In 1930, Compton accepted an invitation from the MIT Corporation to be president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an engineering school, redefining the relationship between engineering and science, he took office at the beginning of the Great Depression in America, a time of economic turmoil and a time when science was under attack as a source of social ills and national despair. Compton was to strengthen basic scientific research at the Institute while becoming a spokesman for science and technology. During Compton's service as President, the organization went through a revolutionary change, he developed a new approach to education in science and engineering, the influence of, felt far beyond MIT. He was active in the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, its president in 1938.

He was a leader in establishing new standards for the accreditation of engineering criteria through his role as chairman of the Committee on Engineering Schools of the Engineer's Council for Professional Development. He believed in broad-based education for scientists and engineers, responsive to the needs of the time, that science should be an element of industrial progress. In the early 1930s, Compton joined with members of the APS to form the American Institute of Physics. While he was chairman of the AIP board during 1931–1936, the organization became a federation of several disparate societies for developing subject areas in physics, it sponsored publication of research results in the expanding study of physics during that era. In 1948, Compton resigned his post as President of MIT and was elected president of the MIT Corporation, he held that position until his death on June 22, 1954. In 1933, U. S. President Roosevelt asked Compton to chair a new Scientific Advisory Board; this put him into a forefront of scientists that perceived a need for reliable scientific advice at the highest levels of government.

The start of World War II motivated the start of the National Defense Research Committee, created in 1940 unde

Adriaan Bonsel

Adriaan Bonsel was a Dutch composer. He was born in Hilversum and died at the age of 92 in Amersfoort, Netherlands. Bonsel studied composition with Jan Koetsier. Bonsel was principal flautist of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra at its inception in 1945, he was a co-founder of the Radio Philharmonic Sextet. He was a professor of flute at Utrecht Conservatory and the conductor of the Faso Flute Ensemble. Bonsel composed works that were commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education and Sciences, the AVRO, the Dutch Radio Union, the Dutch Pipers Guild, the Johan Wagenaar Foundation, among others, his students include Mirjam Professor of Flute at University of Freiburg. Suite for flute and string orchestra Folkloristische Suite for winds and percussion, part of the repertoire of the Eastman Wind Ensemble. Jozef in Dothan Symphony No. 2 for orchestra Souvenir for flute solo Elegie for viola solo Mijn moeder Kenau Mariken van Nimweghen Een moeilijk mens Vrede - oorlog - vrede? Suite populaire for orchestra Suite for bamboo flute ensemble and string orchestra In 1947, Bonsel was awarded the Music Prize of the City of Amsterdam for his Suite for Flute and String Orchestra.

In 1983, he won a composition competition in Würzburg, for his Suite Populaire. Adriaan Bonsel page at Muziekschatten

Soap Bubble Nebula

The Soap Bubble Nebula, or PN G75.5+1.7, is a planetary nebula in the constellation Cygnus, near the Crescent Nebula. It was discovered by amateur astronomer Dave Jurasevich using an Astro-Physics 160 mm refractor telescope with which he imaged the nebula on June 19, 2007 and on July 6, 2008; the nebula was independently noted and reported to the International Astronomical Union by Keith. B. Quattrocchi and Mel Helm who imaged PN G75.5+1.7 on July 17, 2008. NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: The Soap Bubble Nebula SkyandTelescope.com - Celestial Scenes - Soap Bubble Nebula The Soap Bubble Nebula that's generating astronomical excitement among star gazers Planetary Nebula in the Milky Way - Soap Bubble in Space Dave Jurasevich's website

William Bruce Mumford

William Bruce Mumford was a North Carolinian native and resident of New Orleans, hanged for tearing down a United States flag during the American Civil War. On April 25, 1862, as Union Navy ships approached Confederate New Orleans, Commodore David Farragut ordered two officers to send a message to Mayor John T. Monroe requesting removal of Confederate flags from the local customhouse and city hall and their replacement with U. S. flags. Monroe refused. On April 26 Capt. Henry W. Morris sent ashore Marines from the USS Pocahontas to raise the U. S. flag over the mint. Morris did so without any order from Farragut, still trying to receive an official surrender from the mayor; as the Marines raised the flag, a number of locals gathered around in anger. The Marines told them. However, a group of seven individuals, including Mumford, decided to remove the flag from the mint; the Pocahontas fired and Mumford was injured by a flying piece of brick. With cheers from local onlookers, he carried the flag to the mayor at city hall, but onlookers tore at it as he walked, reducing it to a stub.

Three days Union Army Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler, the commander of the Union ground forces, heard about the incident and decided to arrest and punish Mumford; when the Union Army occupied the city on May 1, Mumford was arrested and charged with "high crimes and misdemeanors against the laws of the United States, the peace and dignity thereof and the Law Martial." On May 30 he was tried before a military tribunal and convicted though there was no clear attempt to determine whether the city was occupied when the event occurred. On June 5 Butler issued the following Special Order No. 70: William B. Mumford, a citizen of New Orleans, having been convicted before a military commission of treason and an overt act thereof, tearing down the United States flag from a public building of the United States, after said flag was placed there by Commodore Farragut, of the United States navy: It is ordered that he be executed according to sentence of said military commission on Saturday, June 7, inst. between the hours of 8 a.m. and 12 a.m. under the directions of the provost-marshal of the District of New Orleans, for so doing this shall be his sufficient warrant.

On June 7, a little before noon, Mumford was taken to be hanged in the courtyard of the mint itself, a place that Butler had decided "according to the Spanish custom" would be the ideal place. Many people came to the spot, Mumford was allowed to give a final speech in which he spoke of his patriotism for the Confederacy and his love for what he considered the true meaning of the U. S. flag, a symbol he had fought under in the Seminole Wars and the Mexican–American War. After he was hanged, on June 18, Confederate Governor of Louisiana Thomas Overton Moore issued a statement declaring Mumford a hero and a model. Robert E. Lee demanded that Union Gen. Henry Wager Halleck explain how execution could have occurred for a crime committed before New Orleans was occupied. Confederate President Jefferson Davis issued a proclamation stating that Benjamin Butler should be considered a criminal and worthy of hanging. On Butler assisted Mumford's wife and helped her find a job in Washington. Mumford was buried in a vault in Cypress Grove Cemetery, New Orleans.

His remains were transferred to the Confederate Monument at Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans, by the Ladies’ Confederate Memorial Association on January 11, 1950. Broadwater, Robert P. "William B. Mumford became a Southern hero for defying Union sailors in New Orleans", America's Civil War, November 2005, Vol. 18, Issue 5. P. 20. Roehl, Marjorie. "He was a rebel with a cause to the bitter end." The Times-Picayune 10 May 1987: p. G11. William Bruce Mumford at Find a Grave

HMCS Fundy (MCB 145)

HMCS Fundy was a Bay-class minesweeper, constructed for the Royal Canadian Navy during the Cold War. The minesweeper entered service in March 1954 and was transferred that month to the French Navy. Renamed La Dunkerquoise, the ship was converted to a territorial patrol vessel in 1973 and remained in service until 1984. La Dunkerquoise was discarded in 1986; the Bay class were designed and ordered as replacements for the Second World War-era minesweepers that the Royal Canadian Navy operated at the time. Similar to the Ton-class minesweeper, they were constructed of aluminum framing. Displacing 390 long tons standard at 412 long tons at deep load, the minesweepers were 152 ft long with a beam of 28 ft and a draught of 8 ft, they had a complement of ratings. The Bay-class minesweepers were powered by two GM 12-cylinder diesel engines driving two shafts creating 2,400 brake horsepower; this gave the ships a range of 3,290 nautical miles at 12 knots. The ships were equipped with minesweeping gear; the ship's keel was laid down on 19 June 1951 by Saint John Shipbuilding at their yard in Saint John, New Brunswick.

Named for a bay located between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Fundy was launched on 9 December 1953. The ship was commissioned on 19 March 1954. Fundy remained in Canadian service for only a few weeks as the vessel was paid off on 31 March 1954; the minesweeper was renamed La Dunkerquoise. The ship was commissioned into the French Navy on 21 May 1954, she served as a minesweeper until 1973 when the minesweeping gear was removed and La Dunkerquoise transferred to the Pacific Ocean for duty as an overseas territories patrol vessel. The vessel remained in service until 1984 and was paid off on 15 October 1986; the ship was stricken in 1986. Arbuckle, J. Graeme. Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.

ISBN 1-55750-132-7. Macpherson, Ken; the Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1. Moore, John, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships, 1981–1982. New York: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-531-03977-3

Biomphalaria alexandrina

Biomphalaria alexandrina is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails and their allies. This species occur in Egypt Biomphalaria alexandrina lives in freshwater, for example in irrigation canals. In captivity, Biomphalaria alexandrina can be fed on boiled leaves of lettuce. Biomphalaria alexandrina serves as an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni There is a known hybrid Biomphalaria glabrata × Biomphalaria alexandrina, from Egypt. A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of species in the genus Biomphalaria: Kamel, E. G.. "The egg mass and growth rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina under laboratory conditions". Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 14: 377–384