John Ross (Royal Navy officer)
Sir John Ross was a British Royal Navy officer and Polar explorer. He was the uncle of Sir James Clark Ross, who explored the Arctic with him, led expeditions to Antarctica. John Ross was born in Balsarroch, West Galloway, Scotland, on 24 June 1777, the son of the Reverend Andrew Ross of Balsarroch, Minister of Inch in Wigtownshire, Elizabeth Corsane, daughter of Robert Corsane, the Provost of Dumfries, his family home was at Stranraer. In 1786, aged only nine, Ross joined the Royal Navy as a first-class volunteer and was assigned to HMS Pearl, it soon sailed to the Mediterranean Sea, where it remained until 1789. He served aboard HMS Impregnable for several months before a transfer to the merchant marine for eight years. In September 1799 he was recalled to the Navy and appointed midshipman on HMS Weazel, which shortly joined in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. Short periods of service on HMS Clyde and HMS Diligence followed, during which he acted as a lieutenant. From 1803, he served on various vessels.
This included a period on HMS Grampus and HMS Victory, the flagship of the commander of the Baltic fleet, Rear Admiral James Saumarez. During his service, Ross was wounded several times, the most severe of these being in 1806 when boarding a Spanish vessel. In late 1808, Ross was seconded to the Swedish Navy. In 1812, he was promoted to commander. In 1818, Ross received the command of an Arctic expedition organised by the British Admiralty, the first of a new series of attempts to solve the question of a Northwest Passage; this entailed sailing to the Bering Strait. He was to note the currents, the state of ice and magnetism and to collect specimens he found on the way; the expedition left London in April, with Ross commanding HMS Isabella and accompanied by HMS Alexander under Lieutenant William Edward Parry. He sailed counter-clockwise around Baffin Bay repeating the observations made by William Baffin two hundred years before. In August, he entered Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island.
He sailed a number of miles west but went no further, for he was misled by a mirage which appeared to show mountains at the end of the strait. He named the apparent mountains "Croker Mountains", in honour of John Wilson Croker first secretary of the Admiralty, he returned to England despite the protests of several of his officers, including Parry and Edward Sabine who thought he should have more examined the "mountains". The account of his voyage published a year brought to light their disagreement, the ensuing controversy over the existence of Croker Mountains ruined his reputation; this expedition failed to discover much, new. Its main effect was to open a route for whale ships to the northern Baffin Bay and provoke Parry to re-explore Lancaster Sound and find a major portion of the Northwest Passage. Ross attained the rank of captain on his return to Scotland and about this time built the house North West Castle, in Stranraer, south-west Scotland. In 1829, his lieutenant on the previous expedition, returned to the Arctic and sailed 600 miles west beyond the "Croker Hills", thereby discovering the Parry Channel—the main axis of the Northwest Passage.
To redeem his reputation Ross proposed to use a shallow-draft steamship to break through the ice. The Admiralty was not interested, but he was able to convince the gin-magnate Felix Booth to finance a second expedition, his ship was Victory, a side-wheel steamer with paddles that could be lifted away from the ice and an experimental high-pressure boiler built by John Ericsson.(The engine caused trouble and during the first winter, it was dumped on the shore. It carried four officers: John Ross, James Clark Ross, William Thom, surgeon George McDiarmid and 19 men; the goal was Prince Regent Inlet at the west end of Baffin Island where Parry had lost his ship in 1825. Ross left the Thames on 23 May 1829. Baffin Bay was unusually ice-free and on 6 August, he passed the point where he had turned back 10 years before. On 11 August he turned south into Prince Regent Inlet, on 13 August reached Fury Beach where Parry had abandoned his ship; the hulk was gone but there were heaps of stores on the beach, some of which he took.
Continuing south he became the first European in the Gulf of Boothia, but by the end of September, he was blocked by ice 200 miles south of Fury Beach. He took winter quarters at Felix Harbour at the eastern tip of the Boothia Peninsula. In January 1830 a group of Netsilik Inuit provided food and information. For one of them, the ship's carpenter made a wooden leg. In the spring of 1830, James Clark Ross made several trips west into the interior. On 9 April, he reached the west side of the Boothia Peninsula and in May crossed over ice to the northwest shore of King William Island, assuming it was part of the mainland, it was mid-September. The crew sawed through the shore ice and warped the ship into open water, but it was soon caught in the ice. October was spent warping and sawing the ship into Sheriff Bay where they spent their second winter only 3 miles from Felix Harbour. No Inuit arrived until the following April 1831. James Clark Ross crossed the Boothia Peninsula and on 1 June 1831, became the first European to reach the North Magnetic Pole.
In August, the ship only got four miles before being trapped in Victoria Harbour. By January 1832 it was clear. Ross's plan was to drag the ship's boa
Michelstadt in the Odenwald is a town in the Odenwaldkreis in southern Hesse, Germany between Darmstadt and Heidelberg. It has a population of around 16,000. Michelstadt is the biggest town in the borders on the district seat of Erbach. Michelstadt borders in the north on the municipality of Brombachtal, the town of Bad König and the municipality of Lützelbach, in the east on the town of Klingenberg, the market municipalities of Laudenbach and Kleinheubach, the town of Miltenberg, the market municipality of Weilbach, the town of Amorbach and the market municipality of Kirchzell, in the south on the town of Erbach, in the west on the municipalities of Mossautal and Reichelsheim. Michelstadt's Stadtteile, besides the main town called Michelstadt, are Rehbach, Steinbuch, Vielbrunn, Weiten-Gesäß and Würzberg. Michelstadt had its first documentary mention in 741 from Mayor of the Palace Carloman, Charlemagne’s uncle. Michelstadt is one of the oldest settlements in the inner Odenwald, its castle grew out of a Frankish baronial estate.
This was built into a refuge for the local inhabitants. As a royal estate, Prince Carloman donated it in 741 to Saint Boniface’s pupil Burchard, the first Bishop of Würzburg; this donation was meant for Bishop Burchard for the Michelnstat area passed back to the Frankish Crown upon Burchard’s death in 791. In 815, the Michlinstat area was donated once again. In recognition of his great merit as confidant at Charlemagne’s court, Einhard acquired the main town and all land within two leagues from Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, as a freehold. Einhard built the Einhardsbasilika. In 819, he bequeathed his Odenwald holdings to Lorsch Abbey and in so doing defined the boundaries of the Mark Michelstadt. Upon Einhard’s death on 14 March 840, the monastery came into its inheritance. In the 17th century, the first houses outside the town wall were built. In 1773, a new town gate was called the Neutor. In the 19th century, the gate towers were all torn down one after the other. In 1806, along with the County of Erbach, passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
The building of the railway line and its completion through to Darmstadt in 1870 and Eberbach in 1881 brought Michelstadt a sharp economic upswing. Out of what was once a small farming community grew a sizeable town with important industrial operations on the foundation of the centuries-old ironworking. A new economic era began. From the clothweavers’ and dyers’ guild grew a cloth factory. Ivory carving was a starting point for businesses in the souvenir industry and plastics processing. In 1962, the town hosted the second Hessentag state festival. In 2007, a decision to merge the town with the neighbouring town of Erbach was thwarted by a civic vote; the municipal election held 2006 and 2016 yielded the following results: The voter turnout in 2016 was 49,7 %. The mayor, Stephan Kelbert, in office since 16 September 2009, was elected on 8 March 2009 with a share of 52.7% in the first round of voting. Rumilly, Haute-Savoie, France Hulst, Zeeuws Vlaanderen, Netherlands The town's arms might be described thus: Per fess azure two mullets Or and Or diapered.
Michelstadt was granted these arms in 1541 along with its new seal by Count Georg of Erbach. The diapering in the lower half of the escutcheon is unhistoric, only appeared in the 17th century. Indeed, the escutcheon on the Town Hall, pictured in this article, does not show it; the mullets come from the Counts' arms. Except for the diapering, the arms have not changed since the 16th century. Mühlhäuser, the leading provider of transport solutions in tunnel construction Kleinkunstbühne Patat Michelstädter Theatersommer, yearly open-air plays in the historic Kellereihof Theaterkarren e. V. Odenwald, since 1998 regular events with changing groups and producers Odenwald- und Spielzeug-Museum Museumsmühle Michelstadt – historic mill from 1420 Landesrabbiner Dr. l. E. Lichtigfeld-Museum Privates Elfenbeinmuseum Ulrich Seidenberg Motorrad-Museum Michelstadt's Old Town features many timber-frame houses. Worthy of mention are the following buildings, some within the old town, others in the surrounding countryside: The historic Town Hall, the Diebsturm at the town wall, the Kellereihof in the town wall ring, the late Gothic town church, the Einhards-Basilika, the palace of the Counts at Erbach-Fürstenau, Jagdschloss Eulbach with an English landscape garden and a Roman bath and castra part of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes.
Michelstadt's timber-frame town hall, whose image was used on a Deutsche Post stamp, was built in 1484 in the late Gothic style and remodelled on the inside many times. The town hall's main floor served from the beginning as a market hall, was built using jettying; the back wall was part of the graveyard wall, upon which the ground floor's upper bressumer was laid. To this day it is unknown who the master builder was, although it is assumed that the driving force behind the project could have been Schenk Adolar von Erbach and Bishop Johann von Dalberg; the town church, completed in 1490, was built to replace a Carolingian stone church by Einhard, itself built on the site of a former wooden church
Georg von Neumayer
Georg Balthazar von Neumayer, was a German polar explorer and scientist, a proponent of the idea of international cooperation for meteorology and scientific observation. Born in Kirchheimbolanden, Neumayer finished his education in geophysics and hydrography in Munich, Bavaria in 1849. To obtain practical experience he made a voyage to South America, after his return gave a series of lectures at Hamburg on Maury's theories of the ocean, recent improvements in navigation, he decided to go to Australia, shipped as a sailor before the mast, arrived at Sydney in 1852. After trying his fortune on the goldfields, Neumayer gave lectures on navigation to seamen, spent some time in Tasmania at the observatory in Hobart, he returned to Germany in 1854 convinced that Australia offered a great field for scientific exploration, obtained the support of the King of Bavaria and encouragement from leading British scientists. He sailed again for Australia and arrived in Melbourne in January 1857, he asked the government of Victoria to provide him with a site for an observatory, about £700 for a building, about £600 a year for expenses.
He had brought with him a collection of magnetical and meteorological instruments valued at £2000, provided by the King of Bavaria. Neumayer suggested as a suitable site a block of land not far from the present position of the observatory, but this was not granted, he was, allowed the use of the buildings of the signal station on Flagstaff Hill creating the Flagstaff Observatory for Geophysics and Nautical Science at what is now Flagstaff Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. From 1 March 1858 he carried on the systematic registration of nautical data. A few weeks he added regular observations on atmospheric electricity and changes in the magnetic elements. Between 1858 and 1863, he, a team of assistants, extracted data from hundreds of ship logbooks, analysed to find the best route of maximum speed and safety for sailing ships travelling between Europe and Australia. To obtain the logbooks he placed advertisements in the Victorian Government Gazette, posted signs at the Melbourne Customs House, requesting the masters of arriving vessels to deposit their logbooks at his offices in the Flagstaff Observatory with a promise they would be returned within four days.
More than 600 logs were examined and the information extracted was analysed and the conclusions published in the second half of a book published in 1864. William John Wills, second-in-command of the Burke and Wills expedition succeeded J. W. Osborne as Neumayer's assistant at the Flagstaff Observatory until the expedition departed from Melbourne on 20 August 1860. Neumayer was a member of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria which organised the Expedition. Neumayer joined the Expedition at Swan Hill, he remained with Burke and Wills as far as the Darling River at Bilbarka, before returning to the settled districts of Victoria. He published in 1860, Results of the Magnetical and Meteorological Observations from March 1858 to February 1859, did a large amount of travelling in Victoria in connection with his magnetic survey of the colony, he published his Results of the Meteorological Observations 1859-1862 and Nautical Observations 1858-1862 in 1864, in the same year returned to Germany.
In 1867 he brought out his Discussion of the Meteorological and Magnetical Observations made at the Flagstaff Observatory, in 1869 appeared his valuable Results of the Magnetic Survey of the Colony of Victoria—1858-1864. He organized the "Gazelle Expedition." and was director of the hydrographic organisation "Deutsche Seewarte". He chaired the International Polar Commission in 1879 together with Karl Weyprecht, founding the first International Polar Year 1882/83 and the Antarctic Year 1901. In 1895, von Neumayer had established the German Commission for South Polar Exploration, which culminated in the First German Antarctica Expedition in 1901, the so-called Gauss expedition. In 1890 he co-authored the first cloud atlas. Polar explorer Roald Amundsen came to study under Neumayer in 1900. In the same year, Neumayer was designated a Commander of the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown. Neumayer died in 1909 in Neustadt an der Weinstraße, he gave his name to the German Polar Research Station in Antarctica, the now abandoned "Neumayer Station".
This year-round manned station is covered with ice and snow and is situated in the Weddell-Sea area. The successor was the Neumayer Station II, abandoned itself; the only station in use now is the Neumayer Station III. Research topics are permanent observations of the Earth's magnetic field, seismological registrations, infrasonic and air chemistry investigations. Georg Neumayer, "Die internationale Polarforschung". Georg Neumayer, "Auf zum Südpol". Georg Neumayer, "Description and system of working of the Flagstaff Observatory". In J. Macadam, Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria: From January to December 1858 inclusive. Vol. III.. Georg Neumayer, "Results of the Magnetic Survey of the Colony of Victoria. Executed during the years 1858-1864". Edward Heis and George Neumayer, "On Meteors in the Southern Hemisphere". R. W. Home, "Neumayer and the search for a global physics", Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 123 2011, pp. 2–10. Douglas Morr
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight and foot has proven difficult; some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in c. 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia on the Mediterranean coast. Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and Cornwall circumnavigating the British Isles. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule farther to the north.
After six days of sailing, he reached land at the edge of a frozen sea, described what is believed to be the aurora and the midnight sun. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. While no one knows how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle, his tales were regarded as fantasy by Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. The first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who lost his route due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands; this led to a wave of colonization. Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast, his report spurred Erik the Red, an outlawed chieftain, to establish a settlement there in 985. While they flourished these settlements foundered due to changing climatic conditions.
They are believed to have survived until around 1450. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better hunting grounds. Modern scholars debate the precise location of the new lands of Vinland and Helluland that they discovered; the Scandinavian peoples pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea; the Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533. They explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia, they founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between Asia. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century.
By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. This route, known as Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, the trade depot of Mangazeya, was an early precursor to the Northern Sea Route. Exploration to the north of the Arctic Circle in the Renaissance was both driven by the rediscovery of the Classics and the national quests for commercial expansion, hampered by limits in maritime technology, lack of stable food supplies, insufficient insulation for the crew against extreme cold. A seminal event in Arctic exploration occurred in 1409, when Ptolemy's Geographia was translated into Latin, thereby introducing the concepts of latitude and longitude into Western Europe. Navigators were better able to chart their positions, the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced; the Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole.
One disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice and Antonio Zeno made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558. The Northwest Passage connects the Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. John Cabot's initial failure in 1497 to find a Northwest Passage across the Atlantic led the British to seek an alternative route to the east. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. In 1576 - 1578, he took three trips to. Frobisher Bay is named after him. In July 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher's, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown.
On August 8, 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage
William Parry (explorer)
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was an English explorer of the Arctic, known for his 1819 expedition through the Parry Channel the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, he reached 82°45′N, setting the record for human exploration Farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′N by Sir Albert Hastings Markham in 1875. Parry was born in Bath, the son of Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby, he was educated at King Edward's School. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Sir William Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, he took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night.
From 1813 to 1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross; this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island; as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams, they carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he headed for Lancaster Sound, he kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back.
Continuing west they passed 110 ° W. Blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island, somewhere near 107- or 108° W. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F; the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. Parry planted them in his cabin; the leaves seemed to help. There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay, it was the first of August. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back.
It was too late in the season and new ice was beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. Luck had been on their side. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821. In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding HMS Fury accompanied by HMS Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher and chaplain, William Hooper and diarist, lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements; the two vessels were nearly identical.
They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles; the goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton had found impassable in 1742, he passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay which he re-checked and found land-locked. He ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at the southeast corner of Winter Island. From the Inuit he learned. In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, ice-filled, they waited for the ice to clear. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had app
James Clark Ross
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica. Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage, it was during this trip that a small party led by James Ross located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle. In 1834, Ross was promoted to captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay, they accepted his offer, he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836.
The crossing was difficult, by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, William Torr, crushed in the ice in December 1835, he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–1839, except for his voyage with Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Sir Edward Sabine. Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded HMS Erebus on his own Antarctic expedition and charted much of the continent's coastline. Captain Francis Crozier was second-in-command of commanding HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, invited along as assistant ship's surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels—an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.
In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called variously the Barrier or the Great Ice Barrier named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour; the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55° W, explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to him to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. Ross's ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843, he was awarded the Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations in 1843, knighted in 1844, elected to the Royal Society in 1848. In 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin; the others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the expedition aboard HMS Plover and HMS Herald through the Bering Strait.
He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Sir Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge, he thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it. The next summer he was blocked by ice and returned to England, he was married to Lady Ann Coulman. He died at Aylesbury five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, London, his closest friend was Francis Crozier. He lived in the ancient House of the Abbots of St. Albans in Buckinghamshire, he is buried with his wife in Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus. Ross, played by British actor Richard Sutton, is a secondary character in the 2018 AMC television series The Terror, portrayed in a fictionalized version of his 1848 search for Franklin's lost expedition, as well as in the 2007 Dan Simmons novel on which the series is based.
The Ross seal, one of the four Antarctic phocids, first described during the Ross expedition The James Ross Strait, Ross Bay, Ross Point, Rossoya in the Arctic are all named after him. RRS James Clark Ross is a British Antarctic Survey research ship; the crater Ross on the Moon is named after him. Ross's gull, a small gull, the only species in its genus, that breeds in the high arctic of northernmost North America and northeast Siberia Ross Dependency, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in the Antarctic are all named after him. European and American voyages of scientific exploration E. C. Coleman, The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration From Frobisher to Ross. ISBN 0752436600. Ray Edinger, Fury Beach: The Four-Year Odyssey of Captain John Ross and the Victory. ISBN 0425188450. "Ross, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to James Clark Ross at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about James Clark Ross at Internet Archive
August Heinrich Petermann
Augustus Heinrich Petermann was a German cartographer. Petermann was born in Germany; when he was 14 years old he started grammar school in the nearby town of Nordhausen. His mother wanted him to become a clergyman, but his excellence in the drawing of maps and his love for geographic readings made his choice of another career inevitable. Heinrich Berghaus, with support of Alexander von Humboldt had started ‘Geographische Kunstschule’ in 1839 in Potsdam, close to Berlin, following the example of the school for engravers at the Archives Militaires Generales in Paris. During its existence Berghaus's academy offered only three courses, only a few students attended: 1839–1844: August Petermann, Heinrich ‘Henry’ Lange, Otto Göcke, who died one year of tuberculosis 1844–1847: Amandus Sturmhöfel and Theodor Schilling 1845–1850: Hermann Berghaus, his nephewPetermann's father, August Rudolf Petermann, registrar at Bleicherode, could not pay for the further education of his son; when he read the advertisement for Berghaus’ school he send his son's maps and other work for evaluation.
One of the maps, drawn when he was 16, shows South America, was published in the journal, to carry his name. Berghaus must have recognized the quality of his work, therewith his potential and soon took him in as a foster-son; as he had a large family to feed, however, he requested an annual subsidy of 60 thaler from the king to support Petermann, which request was granted. During the 3rd course Berghaus treated his nephew Hermann Berghaus the same way. Only Lange paid for the courses, the rest following them at Berghaus's own expense. Petermann started in Potsdam at 7 August 1839; the education with Berghaus could be called scientifically cartographic, comprising mathematical geography, physical geography and political geography. Physical training was more aimed at surveying and engraving. Berghaus's pupils learned only the rudiments of surveying less than he himself had learned: their work in this area can be seen in the plan of Potsdam, they were not topographers and only used topography as published in the large-scale maps of that era as a general basis for their more generalised works.
They were taught more to draft and engrave middle-scale geographic maps of states, continents etc. or their parts, small-scale generalised school maps, applied geography and cartography as shown in their collaboration on the Physikalischer Atlas and the maritime atlas. During their study lithography, though not cutting as fine a portrayal as copper engraving, was on the rise because it was much cheaper. Though some experiments were made by Berghaus, e.g. for geological maps, by mixing copper engraving for the line- and other features and lithography for coloured polygons, there was no technology which could replace the exquisite expression copper engravings could reach. So the students learned this art. Only at the end of his life did Petermann became more enthusiastic for lithography, which had advanced by then. Up to and including the 10th edition of the Stieler Handatlas the Perthes institute, where he worked from 1854 onwards, used copperplate engravings as the basis for its maps; some 460 copperplates of this edition are preserved in the Perthes collections in Gotha.
Berghaus had been riding numerous hobbyhorses without much success, but now he could put them to work with his pupils. He successfully disseminated many of his ideas and concepts. Moreover, his students somehow learned better than he to limit their endeavours in order to bring more of them to full fruition. Though the school itself had but few students, its residency in Potsdam, connected by rail to Berlin, the fame of Berghaus attracted many geographers and explorers. Petermann spoke of his encounters with von Humboldt and has drawn several maps for his Atlas von Asien, on which the rendering of the Asiatic mountain-chains was of a quality corresponding to the current view of the geographic sciences; because of all these contacts the students were confronted with many opinions and views on the state of science and the world that would not have been part of their curriculum. Besides, we may take Poggendorff when he sees Petermann as ‘private secretary and librarian of H. K. W. Berghaus’ in the years 1839–45, so we can assume that Petermann was at least quite up to date on many affairs to do with geography and cartography, for Berghaus had large collections of maps and notes to draw on.
During and after their training, students were obliged to take part in most of the school's enterprises. In the years 1839–1848 the school produced maps for Stieler's school atlas, Berghaus's Physikalischer Atlas, school atlases, the Atlas von Asien, the Prussian atlas, the maritime atlas. August Petermann gained commercial insight during his years in the cartography business in Edinburgh and London from 1845 to 1854, he would have been obliged to work in