click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Karlheinz Stockhausen

Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. A critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music", he is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance into serial composition, for musical spatialization. He was educated at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and the University of Cologne studying with Olivier Messiaen in Paris and with Werner Meyer-Eppler at the University of Bonn. One of the leading figures of the Darmstadt School, his compositions and theories were and remain influential, not only on composers of art music, but on jazz and popular music, his works, composed over a period of nearly sixty years, eschew traditional forms. In addition to electronic music—both with and without live performers—they range from miniatures for musical boxes through works for solo instruments, chamber music and orchestral music, to a cycle of seven full-length operas.

His theoretical and other writings comprise ten large volumes. He received numerous prizes and distinctions for his compositions and for the scores produced by his publishing company, his notable compositions include the series of nineteen Klavierstücke, Kontra-Punkte for ten instruments, the electronic/musique-concrète Gesang der Jünglinge, Gruppen for three orchestras, the percussion solo Zyklus, the cantata Momente, the live-electronic Mikrophonie I, Stimmung for six vocalists, Aus den sieben Tagen, Mantra for two pianos and electronics, Inori for soloists and orchestra, the gigantic opera cycle Licht. He died of sudden heart failure on 5 December 2007 at his home in Kürten, Germany. Stockhausen was born in the "castle" of the village of Mödrath; the village, located near Kerpen in the Cologne region, was displaced in 1956 to make way for lignite strip mining, but the castle itself still stands. Despite its name, the building is not a castle at all, but rather was a manor house built in 1830 by a local businessman named Arend.

Because of its imposing size, locals began calling it Burg Mödrath. From 1925 to 1932 it was the maternity home of the Bergheim district, after the war it served for a time as a shelter for war refugees. In 1950, the owners, the Düsseldorf chapter of the Knights of Malta, turned it into an orphanage, but it was subsequently returned to private ownership and became a private residence again. In 2017, an anonymous patron purchased the house and opened it in April 2017 as an exhibition space for modern art, with the first floor to be used as the permanent home of the museum of the WDR Electronic Music Studio, where Stockhausen had worked from 1953 until shortly before WDR closed the studio in 2000, his father, Simon Stockhausen, was a schoolteacher, his mother Gertrud was the daughter of a prosperous family of farmers in Neurath in the Cologne Bight. A daughter, was born the year after Karlheinz, a second son, Hermann-Josef followed in 1932. Gertrud played the piano and accompanied her own singing but, after three pregnancies in as many years, experienced a mental breakdown and was institutionalized in December 1932, followed a few months by the death of her younger son, Hermann.

From the age of seven, Stockhausen lived in Altenberg, where he received his first piano lessons from the Protestant organist of the Altenberger Dom, Franz-Josef Kloth. In 1938 his father remarried, his new wife, had been the family's housekeeper. The couple had two daughters; because his relationship with his new stepmother was less than happy, in January 1942 Karlheinz became a boarder at the teachers' training college in Xanten, where he continued his piano training and studied oboe and violin. In 1941 he learned that his mother had died, ostensibly from leukemia, although everyone at the same hospital had died of the same disease, it was understood that she had been a victim of the Nazi policy of killing "useless eaters". The official letter to the family falsely claimed she had died 16 June 1941, but recent research by Lisa Quernes, a student at the Landesmusikgymnasium in Montabaur, has determined that she was gassed along with 89 other people at the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Hesse-Nassau on 27 May 1941.

Stockhausen dramatized his mother's death in hospital by lethal injection, in Act 1 scene 2 of the opera Donnerstag aus Licht. In the autumn of 1944, he was conscripted to serve as a stretcher bearer in Bedburg. In February 1945, he met his father for the last time in Altenberg. Simon, on leave from the front, told his son, "I'm not coming back. Look after things". By the end of the war, his father was regarded as missing in action, may have been killed in Hungary. A comrade reported to Karlheinz that he saw his father wounded in action. Fifty-five years after the fact, a journalist writing for the Guardian newspaper stated unequivocally, though without offering any fresh evidence, that Simon Stockhausen was killed in Hungary in 1945. From 1947 to 1951, Stockhausen studied music pedagogy and piano at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and musicology and Ger

Oceans (Pearl Jam song)

"Oceans" is a song by the American rock band Pearl Jam. Featuring lyrics written by vocalist Eddie Vedder and music co-written by Vedder, guitarist Stone Gossard, bassist Jeff Ament, "Oceans" was released in 1992 as the fourth single from the band's debut album, Ten. Remixed versions of the song can be found on the "Even Flow" the 2009 Ten reissue. "Oceans" features lyrics written by vocalist Eddie Vedder and music co-written by Vedder, guitarist Stone Gossard, bassist Jeff Ament. Vedder on the song: I remember for "Oceans", someone asked me to put change in the parking meter for them. I went and did that and I came back and was locked out, it was drizzling and I wasn't dressed for an outing in the rain. I had a scrap of paper and a pen in my pocket, they were playing this song. All I could hear was the bass coming through the wall, this window, boarded up. So I wrote the song to the bass. I wasn't listening to hear the song at first; when I heard a break, I'd start pounding on the door...trying to get out of the rain.

So as I was doing that, I thought, fuck it, I might as well write something. Gossard on the song: We wrote it, we played it and Ed sang it, another thing that he does. I'd never seen anyone engage with song writing the same way. Here's the song, let me play it for you, it goes like this. Okay, theres a change here, let's do he would sing it. I'd hear the melodies and I'd think, okay, he's gonna write words or whatever and I realized that he had written the words right there. I couldn't understand. Since I've met a lot of people that can do it so it was an eye opener but he does it better than anyone I've seen do it. Drummer Dave Krusen on the song: We tracked drum kit on that song. I added three tympani parts. I remember. Someone commented how cool it sounded like that, so we kept it that way. I'm glad; when the band joined the album's mixer, Tim Palmer, in June 1991 in Dorking, England for mixing, Palmer overdubbed a pepper shaker and a fire extinguisher as percussion on the track. Palmer said, "The reason I used those items was purely because we were so far from a music rental shop and necessity became the mother of invention."

"Oceans" was performed in open D tuning. The song is texturally different from the rest of the album. Ament said, "When we were picking songs for Ten we thought it was important to pick the weirder moments, like "Oceans", because we wanted to be able to explore those areas down the line."Gossard on the song: I love "Oceans". That sums up why I get excited about song writing. It's like open D tuning where the first chord's just straight across and it's just two fingers that come on and off to create the whole thing and it moves down one position and it moves back up, it has a tiny little change in it but it's got three big movements. What I love about music is aesthetic chords. It's a simple arrangement. "Oceans" was inspired by Vedder's affinity for surfing. Following Pearl Jam's performance of the song at the band's 1992 MTV Unplugged performance, Vedder stated, " a little love song I wrote about my surfboard... It was to someone named Beth who I'll see tomorrow." While the "Oceans" single was released commercially to international markets in 1992, the commercial single was not released in the United States until June 27, 1995 and was only available as a more expensive import version beforehand.

Outside the United States, the single for "Oceans" was released commercially in Australia and the United Kingdom. "Oceans" was a moderate top 20 success in New Zealand. In March 2009, "Oceans" was made available as downloadable content for the Rock Band series as a master track as part of the album Ten; the drum kit, tracked by Dave Krusen was included on this release. The music video for "Oceans" was directed by Josh Taft, who had directed the "Alive" and "Even Flow" music videos for the band; the video was filmed in Hawaii in September 1992. The black-and-white video features scenes of the band members and other people in Hawaii, including Vedder surfing, Gossard driving, people swimming and running, small planes flying, it features performance footage of the band filmed in Maui, Hawaii at War Memorial Gymnasium. The video was only released to areas outside of the United States in late 1992; the video was not released in the United States as the band felt Ten was too big. The video clip for "Oceans" can be found on the Touring Band 2000 DVD as one of the Special Features.

"Oceans" was first performed live at the band's May 17, 1991 concert in Seattle, Washington at the Off Ramp Café. Pearl Jam performed the song for their appearance on MTV Unplugged in 1992. Live performances of "Oceans" can be found on various official bootlegs and the live album Live in NYC 12/31/92. A performance of the song is included on the MTV Unplugged DVD included in the Ten reissue. Eddie Veddervocals Mike McCready – lead guitar Stone Gossard – rhythm guitar Jeff Amentbass guitar Dave Krusen – drums Tim Palmer – fire extinguisher and pepper shaker "Oceans" – 2:44 "Why Go" – 3:30 "Deep" – 4:24 "Alive" – 5:46Live tracks recorded by VARA Radio on June 8, 1992 at Pinkpop Festival in the Netherlands. "Oceans" on YouTube "Oceans" on YouTube Lyrics at p

Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham

Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazhagam or TMMK is a Muslim non-governmental organisation established in the state of Tamil Nadu in India in 1995. The TMMK has described itself in news releases as "a mass based" organisation; the objective of TMMK is to protect the rights of the Muslim community in a democratic manner. TMMK has its branch offices in several villages of the state, it has its foreign offices in Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries has more than 1 lakh members. It was involved in Tsunami relief work and does social services including blood donation camps, eye camps and free ambulance services to poor, it TMMK invites public to hold peaceful demonstrations for demanding rights of Muslims. In February 2005, the TMMK urged the then-Chief Minister Jayalalithaa Jayaram to direct the Wakf Board to send all its communications only in the Tamil language to the administrators of mosques. A March 2007 rally organised by the TMMK in New Delhi drew support from the Association of Indian Muslims of America.

The TMMK has campaigned for the reservation of seats in educational institutions and the ear-marking of entrepreneurship schemes for Muslims in Tamil Nadu as per the recommendations of the Sachar Committee. The Tamil Nadu Thawheedh Jamaath has been termed "a breakaway group" of the organisation; every year TMMK observes the anniversary of Babri Masjid demolition in a peaceful manner. These protests draw huge number of people from across the Tamil Nadu state and demand the arrest of 68 perpetrators including Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Balasaheb Thackeray, LK Advani and Murli Manohar Joshi as implicated by Liberhan commission; the organisation has stages many protests for the protection Tamil Nadu fishermen and dalits. In early 2009, a new political party Manithaneya Makkal Katchi was launched after an amendment to the bylaws; the party contested in the parliamentary election the same year in 4 constituencies and polled 68,346 votes. But in the 2011 Assembly election, MMK won 2 of 3 seats contested.

TMMK has condemned several acts of terrorism in foreign lands. When the Al-Qaeda released a video related to Indian sub-continent, TMMK condemned it and advised Indian Muslims to ignore such hate messages; the leader of TMMK said “this will only help security agencies in country to further target Muslim youth in case a terrorist act does take place.” In several occasion, TMMK has condemned Israel for its brutality against Palestinian People. It has raised voices for UN intervention to stop genocide of Palestinians. TMMK has protested the genocide of Tamil people in Sri Lanka. After the 1998 Coimbatore bombings and the communal violence that ensued from it, members of the TMMK were arrested following the banning of the related Jihadist group al-Umma who were directly behind the blasts. Leaders of the Jihad Committee and the TMMK were arrested in a statewide crackdown. Among those arrested were the TMMK president M. H. Jawahirulla and treasurer S. M. Bakkar. Over the next few days, many activists of the TMMK were arrested at Keezhakkarai, Dindigul, Thanjavur, Nagercoil and Udumalpet as a precautionary measure.

On 6 December 2003, 450 activists of the TMMK were arrested for attempting stage a protest rally. Similar arrests were made earlier in 2000. Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham website

Malachy E. Mannion

Malachy Edward Mannion is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. Mannion was born in 1953 in Montreal, Canada, he graduated from the Scranton Preparatory School in 1972. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1976 from the University of Scranton, he received his Juris Doctor in 1979 from the Pace University School of Law. He began his career as an associate at the law firm of Pykett & Aronwald. From 1980 to 1986, he served as an Assistant District Attorney in the Nassau County District Attorney's Office, he spent most of the period from 1986 to 2001 serving as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Middle District of Pennsylvania, except from 1993 to 1997, during which he was a partner at the law firm of Hourigan, Spohrer & Quinn PC. Mannion was appointed a United States Magistrate Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania on January 4, 2001, serving until his appointment as district judge.

Additionally, he held the office of Chief Magistrate Judge of the District Court from 2001 to 2012. On May 17, 2012, President Obama nominated Mannion to serve as a United States District Judge for the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania, to the seat vacated by Judge Richard Caputo, who took senior status in 2009; the Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on his nomination on June 27, 2012, reported it to the floor on July 19, 2012. The Senate confirmed his nomination by unanimous consent on December 21, 2012, he received his commission on December 27, 2012. Malachy E. Mannion at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Malachy Mannion at Ballotpedia

Ibukun Awosika

Ibukunoluwa Abiodun Awosika is a Nigerian business woman and motivational speaker. She serves as Chairman of First Bank of Nigeria. Born as the third child of seven children in Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State, Ibukun completed her primary and secondary school education at St. Pauls African Church Primary School and Methodist Girls' High School, Yaba before she proceeded to the University of Ife where she graduated with a B. Sc in Chemistry, she holds post graduate and MBA certificates upon the completion of several business programmes at the Lagos Business School and IESE Business School. While on her compulsory one-year National Youth Service Corps service, Ibukun worked as an audit trainee at Akintola Williams & Co. upon her love for architecture before she left for Alibert Nigeria Ltd. as showroom manager. In her quest to be independent, she established a furniture manufacturing company called Quebees Limited in 1989 before it evolved into The Chair Centre Limited and SOKOA Chair Centre Limited following a venture merge with SOKOA S.

A and Guaranty Trust Bank in 2004. A fellow of the African Leadership Initiative and Aspen Global Leadership Network, Ibukun is a member of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group, member of the board of Nigerian Sovereign Wealth Fund and former Chairperson, Board of Trustees of Women in Management and Public Service. In 2011, she co-founded the Afterschool Graduate Development Centre, a career centre established in order to checkmate the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. On September 7, 2015, Ibukun became the first woman to be appointed Chairman of First Bank of Nigeria following the resignation of Prince Ajibola Afonja. Ibukun Awosika is member of IESE's International Advisory Board, she sits on the board of Digital Jewel Limited and Cadbury Nig Plc. In 2008, Ibukun was among five Nigerian entrepreneurs who appeared in the first African version of the Dragon's Den, she hosts a T. V programme called Business His Way; the "Girl" Entrepreneurs Business His Way Ibukun Awosika is married to Abiodun Awosika with whom she has three children.

Folorunso Alakija Grace Alele-Williams Ade A Olufeko Official website

2015 Cricket World Cup Pool A

Pool A of the 2015 Cricket World Cup took place from 14 February to 14 March 2015. The group consisted of co-hosts Australia and New Zealand, along with them, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Scotland; this phase of the tournament was played as a full round-robin between all seven teams, with the top four teams, New Zealand, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, advancing to the quarter-finals. Advanced to knockout stage; the opening game of the 2015 Cricket World Cup saw hosts New Zealand playing Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka elected to field. Kumar Sangakkara moved into second place in the list of players with the most runs in ODI matches, overtaking Ricky Ponting. Australia were put in to bat by England. After opener Aaron Finch was dropped in the first over without having scored, Australia raced away to 52, before David Warner and Shane Watson were dismissed off consecutive balls in the eighth over. In the 11th over, the dismissal of Steve Smith left Australia at 70/3. Captain George Bailey joined Finch and the two added 146 runs in 26 overs for the fourth wicket.

Finch was run out for 135 and soon Bailey was sent back for 55. Glenn Maxwell and Mitchell Marsh put on 53 runs in 7 overs for the sixth wicket before Marsh fell and the Australian score read 281/6 in the 46th over. Brad Haddin shared a partnership of 61 runs off just 27 balls with Maxwell. In the final over of the innings, Steven Finn removed Haddin for a 14-ball 31 and Maxwell for a 40-ball 66 off consecutive balls. Finn completed the hat-trick getting the wicket of Mitchell Johnson off the final ball, Australia finished at 342/9. England's chase started with Mitchell Starc breaking the opening stand of 25, following which Marsh picked the next five wickets. England were reduced to 92/6, before James Taylor and Chris Woakes steadied the innings with a 92-run partnership. After Woakes fell for 37, Australia picked two more wickets off consecutive overs. From 195/9, England could add 36 runs for the last wicket before a controversial run out ended their innings. Taylor remained unbeaten on 98. Finch won the Man of the Match award for his knock.

New Zealand captain Brendon McCullum put Scotland in to bat. Trent Boult and Tim Southee picked up two wickets each within the first five overs of the innings which left Scotland at 12/4. Both Matt Machan and Richie Berrington scored fifties before being dismissed by Corey Anderson. Scotland's lower order offered little resistance and their innings ended in 36.2 overs at 142. Anderson and Daniel Vettori picked 3 wickets each for New Zealand. In reply, New Zealand lost wickets at regular intervals from the start and were 66/3 in the 11th over. Kane Williamson and Grant Elliott put on 40 runs for the fourth wicket, before Williamson fell for 38. Scotland picked another three wickets in quick time to leave New Zealand 137/7 in the 24th over. Vettori scored an unbeaten 8 from 4 balls and New Zealand went on to win the match by 3 wickets. Boult was awarded the Man of the Match for his bowling figures of 6-1-21-2 in Scotland's innings. England captain Eoin Morgan, after winning the toss, elected to bat first.

England were bowled out for 123 in the 34th over, having lost their last seven wickets for 19 runs in eight overs. New Zealand fast bowler Tim Southee picked up 7/33 in his 9 overs, the third-best haul in World Cup history. Joe Root, who scored 46, was the only England batsman to show some resilience. New Zealand's chase got off to a brisk start due to their captain Brendon McCullum who scored the fastest World Cup fifty reaching the landmark in just 18 balls. New Zealand had made 105 in 7 overs without losing a wicket. McCullum was dismissed off the first ball of the eighth over for 77, the other opener, Martin Guptill fell to the bowling of Chris Woakes in the tenth over. New Zealand consolidated the innings following this and went on to win the game by 8 wickets with more than 37 overs to spare. Southee won the Man of the Match for his bowling efforts. Sri Lankan captain Angelo Mathews elected to field. Afghanistan got off to a solid start before both their openers were dismissed off consecutive overs and the score read 40/2 in the tenth over.

Asghar Stanikzai and Samiullah Shenwari built a steady third-wicket partnership, broken when Afghanistan had reached 128 in the 28th over. Following this, Afghanistan started losing wickets at regular intervals to the Sri Lankan pace bowlers before being bowled out for 232 in 49.4 overs. Lasith Malinga and Mathews picked 3 wickets each for Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka's innings got off to a disastrous start as both openers fell for ducks within the second over. In the sixth over, they lost the wicket of Kumar Sangakkara with the score at 18/3, they slipped into further trouble when Dimuth Karunaratne was dismissed in the 12th over with the Sri Lankan total still at 51. Mahela Jayawardene and Mathews added 126 runs for the fifth wicket. Mathews was run out for 44 and Jayawardene was dismissed soon after completing his 19th ODI hundred. Thisara Perera, who came in to bat with Sri Lanka in a precarious position of 178/6, struck an unbeaten 47 from 26 balls to guide his team to a four-wicket win with ten balls to spare.

Jayawardene was awarded the Man of the Match for his innings of 100 from 120 balls. Australian captain Michael Clarke elected to bat first. Australia got off to a brisk start. However, Shane Watson and David Warner were dismissed off consecutive balls with the score at 80; this triggered a collapse, with Trent Boult picking up five wickets in the first three overs of his second spell. Australia were left struggling at 106/9 at the end of 22 ove