The Willenburg called the Schlössle, is a ruined hill castle near Schiltach in the county of Rottweil in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The castle lies around 2 kilometres outside Schiltach at 656.1 m above sea level above the old pass road to Rottweil, the so-called Schiltacher Steige, in the direction of Aichhalden in the Black Forest. The ruin is the remmant of a high medieval castle, forgotten, but was rediscovered in 1959 by the Friends of Nature from Schiltach following speculation of its existence, it was built around 1100, its owners being either the first dukes of Tech, who were a side line of the House of Zähringen, or the dukes of Zähringen, themselves. The Willenburg was built to cater for travellers. Road tolls were raised here. So the Willenburg may be seen as the predecessor to the castle and town of Schiltach, which took on these functions in 1250. A town with its associated castle was able to carry out these tasks more effectively. From that time the Willenburg fell into decay.
So in the Late Middle Ages it was being referred to as the Willenburg Burgstall, which indicates a lost or levelled castle. During excavations between 1959 and 1970 the foundations and wall sections of a castle were uncovered whose dimensions were 36 by 20 metres. Pieces of pottery were found that enabled the castle to be dated. Today the wall remains, ramparts and a 30.3-metre-deep castle well are visible. The Museum am Markt in Schiltach has an exhibition about the excavations on the Willenburg. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters – Grundriss-Lexikon. Sonderausgabe, Flechsig Verlag, Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-88189-360-1, p. 670
Falkenstein Castle (Höllental)
Falkenstein Castle is a ruined hill castle near Freiburg im Breisgau on the territory of the present-day municipality Breitnau in the county of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The castle site lies in a triangle formed by the entrance of the Höllental valley – the Lower Höllental and the Engenbach valley, not far from the Buchenbach village of Falkensteig, 617.6 m above sea level on a rocky crag, difficult to get to today. Of the castle itself only a few wall remains are left, it is one of the less well preserved ruins in the Breisgau. The castle may have been built around 1200 on a steep eminence at the lower entrance to the Höllental known as the Falkensteige, by a Zähringen ministerialis family, its founders came from the Wittental valley from the lords of Weiler and Blankenberg and are first recorded from 1137 to 1148 as the lords of Falkenstein. In the ensuing period they rose to become one of the circle of important aristocratic families in the Breisgau.
The valley was named Falkensteiner Tal after them and their castle, only changed to Höllental on. The castle was supposed to guard the important communication route through the valley which linked the Breisgau to the Baar region and Lake Constance; the lords of the castle soon reigned over an area that extended up the valley to Hinterzarten and Titisee. Other castles built by the Falkensteins were Falkenbühl Castle, Bickenreute near Kirchzarten and Bubenstein Castle called Neufalkenstein. After the toll road, which had brought the Falkensteins substantial revenue, met with competition from the route through the Wagensteig valley built in 1310-1379, according to legend, the knights are said to have operated more and more as robber barons. In a conflict between an aristocratic coalition under the leadership of Count Eberhard II of Württemberg against the Swabian League, Werner von Falkenstein, on the orders of his overlord, blocked roads and plundered the League's citizens. Affected by the economic decline of the low nobility in the late 14th century, it was financial pressure that drove the Falkensteins to extend this approach to innocent travellers.
This behaviour was the reason that, on 6 December 1388, Freiburg attacked and destroyed Falkenstein Castle. Other historians blame its destruction, however, on Freiburg's hunger for power; the castle chapel survived the demise of the castle. In 1460, it is first mentioned as St. Nicholas' Chapel. In 1606 it was moved into the valley by today known as the Rotbach; the irregular and inaccessible castle site rises through four levels. For simplicity, it will be described under four sections. First, is the lower ward whose fragmented wall remains are up to six metres high and three metres thick, run from the southwest side of the castle rock up to, along, its northern flank. Here, there are more substantial, staggered sections of wall and what is assumed to be the old entrance area and castle gate above the Engenbach valley and present day entrance at its western tip. Second, there is an adjoining neck ditch, about 20 metres long, 4 to 6 metres wide and up to 12 metres deep, cutting through the ridge to the northeast.
Third, is a small middle ward on a six-metre-high rock step rising above the lower ward - which lies to its west and north - on the upper part of the castle rock, extending northeast to a point above the neck ditch. Fourth, is the upper ward or inner ward on the ascending, elongated rocky ridge, up to 55 metres long, between 12 and 16 metres wide and runs from southwest to northeast. Among other large sections of surviving wall at the south and southwestern tip are: a wall about ten metres long and three metres high facing the valley, believed to belong to the castle kitchen. Max Miller: Handbuch der Historischen Stätten Deutschlands, Bd. 6: Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, 1965. H. Mayer: Falkenstein und die Falkensteiner, in: Breisgauer Chronik 6, 1914. Alfons Zettler, Thomas Zotz: Die Burgen im mittelalterlichen Breisgau. Halbband 1. A - K. Nördlicher Teil. Ostfildern. In. Archäologie und Geschichte. Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Heft 14. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen, 2003, ISBN 3-7995-7364-X, pp. 57–62.
Arthur Hauptmann: Burgen einst und jetzt. Burgen und Burgruinen in Südbaden. Verlag des Südkuriers, 2nd vol. Konstanz, 1984. Die Burg Falkenstein Entry on Burg Falkenstein im Höllental in EBIDAT, the databank of the European Castles Institute Artist's impression by Wolfgang Braun
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing - used for affection. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment, it is a form of amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, from a title, although there may be overlap in these concepts. "Moniker" means a nickname or personal name.. The compound word ekename meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303; this word was derived from the Old English phrase eaca "an increase", related to eacian "to increase". By the 15th century, the misdivision of the syllables of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename". Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained stable since. To inform an audience or readership of a person's nickname without calling them by their nickname, English nicknames are represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names.
However, it is common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or in the body of the text, such as in an obituary. The middle name is eliminated in speech. Like English, German uses quotation marks between the last names. Other languages may use other conventions; the latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names. In Viking societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn which were used in addition to, or instead of the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname often entailed a formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts known in Old Norse as nafnfestr. Slaves have used nicknames, so that the master who heard about someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as practising capoeira was illegal for decades.
In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is based on a shortening of a person's proper name. However, in other societies, this may not be the case. For example: "my nickname is farmer Phil" In Indian society, for example people have at least one nickname and these affection names are not related to the person's proper name. Indian nicknames often are a trivial word or a diminutive. In Hispanic culture, a nickname is used for a term of endearment and family love, for example: "Papi", it is a colloquial term for “daddy” in Spanish, but in many Spanish-speaking cultures in the Caribbean, it is used as a general term of affection for any man, whether it's a relative, friend, or love. In Australian society, Australian men will give ironic nicknames. For example, a man with red hair will be given the nickname'Blue' or'Bluey'. A tall man will be called ` an obese person ` Slim' and so on. In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname'Clark' will be nicknamed'Nobby': the surname'Miller' will have the nickname'Dusty': the surname'Adams' has the nickname'Nabby'.
There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed'Jock', an Irishman'Paddy' or'Mick', a Welshman may be nicknamed'Taffy'; some nicknames referred to a person's physical characteristics, such as'Lofty' for a short person, or'Curly' for a bald man. Traditional English nicknaming - for men rather than women - was common through the first half of the 20th century, was used in the armed services during World War I and World War II, but has become less common since then. In Chinese culture, nicknames are used within a community among relatives and neighbors. A typical southern Chinese nickname begins with a "阿" followed by another character the last character of the person's given name. For example, Taiwanese politician Chen Shui-bian is sometimes referred as "阿扁". In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may connote one's occupation or status.
For example, the landlord might be known as Towkay to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔. Among Cantonese-speaking communities, the character "仔" may be used in a similar context of "Junior" in Western naming practices. Many writers, performing artists, actors have nicknames, which may
Revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history; the revolutions were bourgeois revolutions and democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries; some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, the regrouping of established government forces. The uprisings were led by ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long.
Tens of thousands of people were killed, many more were forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, the introduction of representative democracy in the Netherlands; the revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century and the Austrian Empire. The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, new values and ideas such as popular liberalism and socialism began to emerge.
Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor. Large swaths of the nobility were discontented with royal near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not carried out, occurred in Greater Poland. Next, the middle classes began to agitate. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working in Brussels, had written Manifesto of the Communist Party at the request of the Communist League. Following the March insurrection in Berlin, they began agitating in Germany, they issued their "Demands of the Communist Party in Germany" from Paris in March. The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, agreed on many of the specific aims, their participations in the revolutions, differed. While much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower classes.
The revolts first erupted in the cities. The population in French rural areas had risen causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities. Many in the bourgeoisie distanced themselves from the working poor. Many unskilled labourers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization. Revolutionaries such as Karl Marx built up a following; the liberalisation of trade laws and the growth of factories had increased the gulf among master tradesmen, journeymen and apprentices, whose numbers increased disproportionately by 93% from 1815 to 1848 in Germany. Significant proletarian unrest had occurred in Lyon in 1831 and 1834, Prague in 1844. Jonathan Sperber has suggested that in the period after 1825, poorer urban workers saw their purchasing power decline steeply: urban meat consumption in Belgium and Germany stagnated or declined after 1830, despite growing populations; the economic crisis of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847.
With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848. The situation in the German states was similar. Parts of Prussia were beginning to industrialize. During the decade of the 1840s, mechanized production in the textile industry brought about inexpensive clothing that undercut the handmade products of German tailors. Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural feudalism, but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these and pressed for greater change. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted of bread and potatoes; as a result of harvest failures, food prices soared and the demand for manufactured goods decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. During the revolution, to address the problem of unemployment, workshops were organized for men interested in construction work. Officials set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded.
Artisans and unemployed workers destroyed industrial machines when they threa
Hirsau Abbey known as Hirschau Abbey, was once one of the most important Benedictine abbeys of Germany. It is located in the Hirsau borough of Calw on the northern slopes of the Black Forest mountain range, in the present-day state of Baden-Württemberg. In the 11th and 12th century, the monastery was a centre of the Cluniac Reforms, implemented as "Hirsau Reforms" in the German lands; the complex was not rebuilt. A Christian chapel at Hirsau dedicated to Saint Nazarius had been erected in the late 8th century; the monastery itself was founded in about 830 by the Rhenish Franconian count Erlafried of Calw at the instigation of his relative, Bishop Notting of Vercelli, who gave it the relics of Saint Aurelius of Riditio, an Armenian bishop who had died about 475, brought from Milan among other treasures. It was settled by a colony of fifteen monks descending from Fulda Abbey, disciples of Rabanus Maurus and Walafrid Strabo, under one abbot Liudebert or Lutpert. Count Erlafried endowed the new foundation with extended lands and other gifts, made a solemn donation of the whole into the hands of Lutpert, on condition that the Rule of Saint Benedict should be observed.
A first aisleless church, dedicated to Saint Aurelius, was not completed until 838, when it was consecrated by Archbishop Odgar of Mainz, who at the same time translated the relics from their temporary resting place to the new church. Abbot Lutpert died in 853, having brought about a substantial increase both in the possessions of the abbey and in the number of the monks under his rule. Regular observance flourished under him and his successors and a successful monastic school was established. Over about a hundred and fifty years, under the care of the Counts of Calw, it enjoyed great prosperity, became an important seat of learning. However, towards the end of the 10th century the ravages of pestilence, combined with the greed of its patrons and the laxity of the community, brought it to ruin. In 988 a severe plague devastated the neighbourhood and carried off sixty of the monks including the abbot, Hartfried. Only a dozen were left to elect a successor, they divided into two parties; the more fervent chose one Conrad, whose election was confirmed by the Bishop of Speyer, but some of the others, who favoured a more relaxed rule, elected an opposition abbot in the person of Eberhard, the cellarer.
For some time the dispute ran high between their respective followers. The Count of Calw supported the claims of Eberhard, but neither party would give way to the other and in the end the count brought in an armed force to settle the quarrel; the result was that the abbey was pillaged, the monks dispersed, the valuable library destroyed. The count became master of the property and the abbey remained empty for over sixty years, during which time the buildings fell into a ruinous state. In 1049 Pope Leo IX, uncle of Count Adalbert of Calw and grandson of the spoliator, came to Hirschau, required Adalbert to restore the abbey; the count had the abbey church rebuilt in the style of a Roman basilica with an attached cloister: He renovated the premises, but so that they were not refurbished until 1065, when the monastery was resettled by a dozen monks from the renowned Einsiedeln Abbey in Swabia, with Abbot Frederick at their head. It was however Frederick's successor who revived and surpassed the former renown and prosperity of the abbey.
This was the famous William of Hirsau, a monk descending from St. Emmeram's Abbey in the Bavarian capital Regensburg, appointed abbot in 1069; when he came the condition of the monastery was far from satisfactory. The monks were living in cramped conditions, as the buildings were still incomplete and furthermore affected by floods of the Nagold river. Count Adalbert still retained possession of some of the monastic property, together with a certain amount of unhelpful influence over the community, regular discipline was much relaxed. Abbot William's zeal and prudence by degrees remedied this unsatisfactory state of affairs and inaugurated a period of great prosperity, both spiritual and temporal. During the Investiture Controversy that shook the Holy Roman Empire, he secured the independence of the abbey from the Counts of Calw and placed its finances on a sound footing. William completed the buildings begun and from 1082 afterwards added to them, as the needs of the increasing community required, a new monastery complex on a high plateau on the opposite side of the Nagold river.
The Sts Peter and Paul's abbey church, modelled on Cluny II finished about 981 under Abbot Majolus, was consecrated in 1091. The convent followed the next year, when it moved into the adjacent new monastic compound designed according to the Plan of Saint Gall, while old St Aurelius was converted into a priory. William refounded the monastic school for which the abbey had been famous throughout Germany, but the abbot's greatest work and that for which his name is best remembered, was the reformation that he effected within the community itself. Cluny was at the height of its fame and William sent some of his monks there to learn the Cluniac customs and rule, after which the Cluniac discipline was introduced at Hirsau. By his Constitutiones Hirsaugienses, a new religious order, the Ordo Hirsaugiensis, was formed. Known as the Hirsau Reforms, the adoption of this rule revitalised Benedictine monasteries throughout Germany, such as those of Zwiefalten, Blaubeuren Petershausen, Saint Peter and Saint George in the Black Forest in Swabia, as well as the Thuringian monastery of Reinhardsbr
In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a circular hole through, placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when a moment is applied by gravity or torque to the wheel about its axis, thereby making together one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads; the English word wheel comes from the Old English word hweol, from Proto-Germanic *hwehwlan, *hwegwlan, from Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlo-, an extended form of the root *kwel- "to revolve, move around". Cognates within Indo-European include Icelandic hjól "wheel, tyre", Greek κύκλος kúklos, Sanskrit chakra, the latter two both meaning "circle" or "wheel"; the invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. This implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia after the invention of agriculture and of pottery, during the Aceramic Neolithic.
4500–3300 BCE: Copper Age, invention of the potter's wheel. Precursors of wheels, known as "tournettes" or "slow wheels", were known in the Middle East by the 5th millennium BCE; these were made of stone or clay and secured to the ground with a peg in the center, but required significant effort to turn. True potter's wheels were in use in Mesopotamia by 3500 BCE and as early as 4000 BCE, the oldest surviving example, found in Ur, dates to 3100 BCE; the first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia, the Northern and South Caucasus, Eastern Europe, so the question of which culture invented the wheeled vehicle is still unresolved. The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle is on the 3500–3350 BCE Bronocice clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland. In nearby Olszanica 5000 BCE 2.2 m wide door were constructed for wagon entry. This barn was 40 m long with 3 doors; the oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia is now dated within two standard deviations to 3340–3030 BCE, the axle to 3360–3045 BCE.
Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known. They both are dated to c. 3200–3000 BCE. In China, the wheel was present with the adoption of the chariot in c. 1200 BCE, although Barbieri-Low argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, c. 2000 BCE. In Britain, a large wooden wheel, measuring about 1 m in diameter, was uncovered at the Must Farm site in East Anglia in 2016; the specimen, dating from 1,100–800 BCE, represents the most complete and earliest of its type found in Britain. The wheel's hub is present. A horse's spine found; the wheel was found in a settlement built on stilts over wetland, indicating that the settlement had some sort of link to dry land. Although large-scale use of wheels did not occur in the Americas prior to European contact, numerous small wheeled artifacts, identified as children's toys, have been found in Mexican archeological sites, some dating to about 1500 BCE, it is thought that the primary obstacle to large-scale development of the wheel in the Americas was the absence of domesticated large animals which could be used to pull wheeled carriages.
The closest relative of cattle present in Americas in pre-Columbian times, the American Bison, is difficult to domesticate and was never domesticated by Native Americans. The only large animal, domesticated in the Western hemisphere, the llama, a pack animal but not physically suited to use as a draft animal to pull wheeled vehicles, did not spread far beyond the Andes by the time of the arrival of Columbus. Nubians from after about 400 BCE used wheels as water wheels, it is thought. It is known that Nubians used horse-drawn chariots imported from Egypt; the wheel was used, with the exception of the Horn of Africa, in Sub-Saharan Africa well into the 19th century but this changed with the arrival of the Europeans. Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle; some of the earliest wheels were made from horizontal slices of tree trunks
The Karlsruhe Schlossgarten called Schlosspark, is a landscape park situated north of the Karlsruhe Palace in the center of Karlsruhe. It respresents an extension of the palace grounds to the north, serves the people as a local holiday spot and is used for events; the Schlossgarten lays in the center of the radial urban layout of the city on the north side of the palace on the former territory of the Hardtwald, which adjoins the garden to the north. The palace garden is part of the landscape conservation area Landschaftsschutzgebiet Nördliche Hardt, which extends to the city limits and passes in the neighbouring district of Karlsruhe into the landscape conservation area Landschaftsschutzgebiet Hardtwald nördlich von Karlsruhe north of Karlsruhe. Thus, a 15-kilometer-long protected park and woodland area begins directly at Karlsruhe’s city center, designated as habitat Hardtwald zwischen Graben und Karlsruhe, a special area of conservation between Graben-Neudorf and Karlsruhe. Of these, about 500 m belong to the palace garden.
The irregular shape of the Schlossgarten is bordered by a stone wall. In the south, the garden borders the palace, in the southwest it borders the Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe. In the west and the north, the Schlossgarten owns a circular border to the Ahaweg; the eastern boundary runs straight in extension of the Friedrichstaler Allee and on the southern section it runs circular around the palace. The Fasanengarten and its own little castle are located to the east of the Schlossgarten; the typical Karlsruhe shape which resembles a folding fan can only be found in the Schlossgarten. The Richard-Willstäter-Allee, the Blankenlocher Allee, the Blue Ray, as well as the Moltkestrasse all lead as paths from the palace tower through the garden. Further paths begin outside of the garden. In direct vicinity of the palace garden you can find the Campus Süd of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the German Federal Constitutional Court; the palace garden was laid out by Margrave Karl Wilhelm, who founded Karlsruhe in 1715.
A baroque garden was laid out not behind but in front of the palace, unusual for the 18th century. Exotic plants tulips, were planted on today's palace square. From 1731 to 1746, court gardener Christian Thran laid out today's palace garden in French Baroque style behind the palace. Karl Wilhelm's successor, his grandson Grand Duke Karl Friedrich, took over the government in 1746 and had areas of the garden redesigned by the court gardeners Johann Bernhard Saul and Philipp Ludwig Müller. Between 1767 and 1773, the western part was laid out as a Chinese garden with a garden house at its center. An artificial valley could be seen from a terrace and has been preserved along with a cave until today, as it now borders the orangery. From 1787 on, Friedrich Schweickardt took over the transformation of the palace garden into an English landscape garden. In 1789, a court joinery was set up in the castle garden. At the end of the 18th century, the garden was temporarily open to the public, although some regulations had to be followed.
On the promenades, for example, it was forbidden to smoke tobacco and to let pigs and geese roam freely. From 1808 on, the botanical garden was created. In 1856, the court gardener Karl Mayer began to redesign the rear garden of the palace, between 1864 and 1873, the palace garden lake was created. In 1884 the Weinbrenner-Tempel was moved from the Erbprinzengarten to the northwestern part of the Schlossgarten. On the occasion of the Bundesgartenschau in 1967, the palace garden was renovated and further developed in the style of an English landscape park; the Schlossgartensee was redesigned and the Schlossgartenbahn was put into operation. The original plan was to operate the railway only during the Bundesgartenschau, but it was not dismantled again afterward. In 2001, a ribbon of 1645 blue majolica tiles was laid from the palace tower to the majolica manufactory on the north-western edge of the palace garden due to the 100th anniversary of the manufactory. In 2015, many events took place in the palace garden as part of the 300th city anniversary.
For this purpose, a wooden pavilion designed by Jürgen Mayer was erected as a temporary building among other things. The large part of the palace garden is laid out as an English landscape garden. There are large meadows and numerous groups of trees, a lake and the 2.7 km long palace garden railway. The park is a cultural monument in accordance with the transitional regulation in § 28 of the Baden-Württemberg Law for the Protection of Monuments and Sites and accommodates further protected individual monuments: Johann Peter Hebel Monument, bust of Fridolin Fechtig, neo-Gothic cast-iron architecture by Karl Joseph Berckmüller Hermann and Dorothea Sculpture Group by Carl Johann Steinhäuser Säulenbrunnen Weinbrenner-Tempel Großherzog-Karl-Friedrich-Denkmal Seepferd-Brunnen The new design includes the Blue Ray, a band of blue majolica tiles between the castle tower and the majolica manufactory, a bronze chair by Stefan Strumbel set up in 2015; the palace garden is accessible as a recreational access to the lawns is permitted.
With its size, central location and neat design, it serves as a venue for events, some of them large and lasting several days: City anniversaries Opera performances Bierbörse Medieval Fantasy Spectaculum Schloss und Schlossgarten Karlsruhe. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten. ISBN 978-3422030626 Schlossgarten Karlsruhe in German Wikimed