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Karlstad

Karlstad is a city, the seat of Karlstad Municipality, the capital of Värmland County, the largest city in the province Värmland in Sweden. The city had 61,492 inhabitants in 2015 with 90,882 inhabitants in the wider municipality in 2017, is the 21st biggest municipality in Sweden. Karlstad has a cathedral. Karlstad is built on the river delta where Sweden's longest river, Klarälven, runs into Sweden's largest lake, Vänern, it has the second largest lake port in the country after Västerås. Karlstad is associated with sunshine and the symbol for Karlstad is a smiling sun. Karlstad is reputed to be one of the sunniest towns in Sweden and a local waitress, known as "Sola i Karlstad" for her sunny disposition, is commemorated with a statue. On Karlstad's largest islet, there was a place of counsel called Tingvalla in the medieval age, which had roots from the Viking Age before 1000 AD, it was used as a market place. Karlstad was granted its city charter on March 5, 1584, by the Swedish Duke Charles, who would be crowned King Charles IX of Sweden.

The city derives its name from the King – Karlstad means Charles' city. The Duke granted Karlstad the right as a governmental seat in the region, gave it a substantial amount of land; the Duke built his own house in the city, referred to as Kungsgården. Karlstad's Cathedral was built on the location Kungsgården in 1724–1730 by Christian Haller. Most significant coup d'état in modern Swedish history had its beginning in Karlstad. During the night of 7 March 1809, major general Georg Adlersparre used the part of the western army, stationed in Värmland to occupy Karlstad. From there proclaimed a revolution, during 9 March, he and his soldiers began their march toward the capital to end the reign of king Gustav IV Adolf. Karlstad has suffered four major fires. Only the cathedral and a few houses remained after the last fire on July 2, 1865. Karlstad was thereafter rebuilt according to a grid pattern with wide streets surrounded by trees. In 1905, the agreement to dissolve the union between Norway and Sweden was negotiated and signed in Karlstad.

The official language, Swedish, is the native language of a big majority and spoken by most people in Karlstad. Immigration has established five notable minority languages: Arabic Somalian Sorani Persian Bosnian + Serbian + Croatian Several upper secondary schools offer the most common range of courses available throughout Sweden, including the IB Diploma Programme; the majority of students in Värmland need to commute or move to Karlstad for their upper secondary education. Tertiary education is offered by Karlstad University, granted university status in 1999. Värmlands Folkblad and Nya Wermlands-Tidningen are both located in Karlstad, with county-wide circulations. Ice hockey is a popular spectator sport in Karlstad; the most popular club is Färjestad BK. The team plays in the Swedish Hockey League and their home arena is Löfbergs Arena; the club has won the Swedish Championship several times, most in 2011, is the most successful ice hockey club in Sweden since the foundation of Elitserien in 1975.

Several other ice hockey clubs exist and Karlstad is represented in the 1st Division of ice hockey by the team Skåre BK. The 2010 Men's World Inline Hockey Championships was hosted by Karlstad, with Löfbergs Arena as the primary site of the tournament. Traditionally, bandy has been the most popular winter sport in Karlstad, the city is the home of two of the most successful clubs in Sweden, IF Boltic and IF Karlstad-Göta. Boltic reached 10 Swedish finals in a row from 1979 to 1988, they won the first 7 and the one in 1988. They won in 1995. In 2000, the two clubs merged into BS BolticGöta, now the major bandy club in Karlstad. After a successful season in Allsvenskan 2009/2010 the team qualified for Elitserien, but was again relegated for the 2011/2012 season; the home arena, Tingvalla Ice Stadium, built in 1967, is claimed to be one of Europe's largest artificially frozen areas and is awaiting a decision by the municipality to become renovated and transformed into an indoor ice rink. Afghans living in Karlstad has taken a liking to the sport and set up an Afghanistan national bandy team, based in the city.

Karlstad is a regular host of start and special stages for the Swedish Rally. The competition is held annually in Värmland. Several football clubs exist, the highest-ranking team is QBIK; the club was founded in 1978, entered the premier division of women's football, Damallsvenskan, in 2005. The team plays in the 1st Division, but has several players in the Swedish national team, their home ground is Tingvalla IP, the facility is becoming the home ground for the football team Karlstad BK, that plays in the men's Division 1 Norra, having gained promotion following a successful 2010 season. The third highest-ranking football team is Carlstad United; the club was founded in 1998 by an alliance of seven local football clubs, with the aim of providing Karlstad with an elite football team. The club was accepted by the Swedish Football Association in 1999 and the team is playing in the men's Division 2 Norra Götaland. FBK Karlstad play in Division 3 Västra Svealand. American football is played on Tingvalla IP.

The Carlstad Crusaders play in Superserien, the highest level and since the founding of the club in 1990, the team has attended ei

1997 French legislative election

A French legislative election took place on 25 May and 1 June 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic. It was the consequence of President Jacques Chirac's decision to call the legislative election one year before the deadline. In March 1993, the right won a large victory in the legislative election and a comfortable parliamentary majority. Two years the RPR leader Jacques Chirac was elected President of France promising to reduce the "social fracture". However, the programme of welfare reforms proposed by his Prime Minister Alain Juppé caused a social crisis in November and December 1995; the popularity of the executive duo decreased. In spring 1997, President Chirac tried to take the left-wing opposition by surprise by dissolving the National Assembly; the first opinion polls indicated a re-election of the right-wing majority. The "Plural Left" coalition, composed of the Socialists, the Communists, the Greens, the Citizens' Movement and the Left Radicals, proposed a program of social reforms to reduce unemployment and legislation to limit the length of the work week to 35 hours.

Prime Minister Juppé's unpopularity, as well as the unpopularity of his government's policies, contributed to the left's triumph. In the first round, the left-wing coalition obtained more votes than the incumbent parliamentary majority. After he was blamed for the situation, Juppé announced he would resign if the right kept their majority in the runoff vote. For all that, the "Plural left" obtained the majority of the seats; however the Socialist Party needed its allies to form a majority. For the first time, the ecologists were represented in the Parliament; the participation of the National Front's candidates in the second round increased the defeat of the "Presidential majority". This was the first time since 1877 that a President of France lost a legislative election which he had called; the Socialist leader Lionel Jospin became Prime Minister of the third "cohabitation". It finished with the 2002 French presidential election, which Jospin lost the election in the first round

Ernst Bertheau

Ernst Bertheau was a German orientalist and theologian, known for his exegetical studies of the Old Testament. From 1832 he studied theology and oriental languages in Berlin continued his education at the University of Göttingen as a pupil of Heinrich Ewald, Karl Gieseler and Friedrich Lücke. In 1839 he obtained his habilitation for Old Testament exegesis and oriental languages at Göttingen, where in 1843 he became a full professor. At the university, he gave lectures on exegesis and theology of the Old Testament and instructions in Arabic and Syriac. Among his numerous writings was an edition of the Syrian grammar of Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus, titled Gregorii Bar Hebraei qui et Abulpharaǵ Grammatica linguae Syriacae, he was the author of the following: Die sieben Gruppen mosaischer Gesetze in den drei mittleren Büchern des Pentateuchs, 1840 – The seven groups of Mosaic laws in the three middle books of the Pentateuch. Zur Geschichte der Israeliten: zwei Abhandlungen, 1842 – On the history of the Israelites: two essays.

Die Sprüche Salomo's, 1843 – The Proverbs of Solomon. Das Buch der Richter und Rut, 1845 – The Books of Judges and Ruth. Die Bücher der Chronik, 1854 – The Books of Chronicles. Die Bücher Numeri, und Josua, 1861 – The Book of Numbers and Joshua. Die Bücher Esra, Nechemia und Ester, 1862 – The Books of Ezra and Esther