Badrinath is a holy town and a nagar panchayat in Chamoli district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is one of the four sites in India's Char Dham pilgrimage and gets its name from the temple of Badrinath. Badri refers to a berry, said to grow abundantly in the area, nath means "Lord" / "Lord of" as per context in which it is referred. Badri is the Sanskrit name for the Indian Jujube tree, which has an edible berry; some scriptural references refer to Jujube trees being abundant in Badrinath. Badrinath was re-established as a major pilgrimage site by Adi Shankara in the 7th century. In earlier days, pilgrims used to walk hundreds of miles to visit Badrinath temple; the temple has been destroyed by earthquakes and avalanches. As late as the First World War, the town consisted only of the 20-odd huts used by the temple's staff, but the site drew thousands each year and up to 50,000 on its duodecennial festivals. In recent years its popularity has increased still more, with an estimated 600,000 pilgrims visiting during the 2006 season, compared to 90,676 in 1961.
The temple in Badrinath is a sacred pilgrimage site for Vaishnavites. Badrinath is gateway to several mountaineering expeditions headed to mountains like Nilkantha; the Badrinath temple is the main attraction in the town. According to legend Shankar discovered a black stone image of Lord Badrinarayan made of Saligram stone in the Alaknanda River, he enshrined it in a cave near the Tapt Kund hot springs. In the sixteenth century, the King of Garhwal moved the murti to the present temple; the temple is 50 ft tall with a small cupola on top, covered with a gold gilt roof. The facade is built with arched windows. A broad stairway leads up to a tall arched gateway, the main entrance; the architecture resembles a Buddhist vihara, with the brightly painted facade more typical of Buddhist temples. Just inside is the mandapa, a large pillared hall that leads to the garbha grha, or main shrine area; the walls and pillars of the mandapa are covered with intricate carving. According to the Bhagavata Purana, "There in Badrikashram the supreme being, in his incarnation as the sages Nara and Narayana, had been undergoing great penance since time immemorial for the welfare of all living entities."
The Badrinath area is referred to as Badarikaashram in Hindu scriptures. It is a place sacred to Vishnu in Vishnu's dual form of Nara-Narayana. Thus, in the Mahabharata, addressing Arjuna, says, "Thou wast Nara in a former body, with Narayana for thy companion, didst perform dreadful austerity at Badari for many myriads of years."One legend has it that when the goddess Ganga was requested to descend to earth to help suffering humanity on the request of suryavansh king bhagiratha, the earth was unable to withstand the force of her descent. Therefore, the mighty Ganga was split with Alaknanda one of them. Another Legend explains both name and sitting posture as this place was full of Badri bushes and Vishnu meditating for, beloved Lakshmi stood next to him sheltering him from scorching sunlight turned into a Badri herself called'BADRI VISHAL' and her lord became the BadriNath; the mountains around Badrinath are mentioned in the Mahabharata, when the Pandavas were said to have expired one by one, when ascending the slopes of a peak in western Garhwal called Swargarohini..
The Pandavas passed through Badrinath and the town of Mana, 4 km north of Badrinath, on their way to Svarga. There is a cave in Mana where Vyasa, according to legend, wrote the Mahabharata; the area around Badrinath was celebrated in Padma Purana as abounding in spiritual treasures. This place is considered holy in Jainism as well. In Jainism, Himalaya is called Ashtapad because of its eight different mountain range Gaurishankar, Badrinath, Drongiri, Narayan and Trishuli. Adinath has got Nirvan on Kailash mountain situated in the Himalayan range and according to Jain faith, From badrinath numerous jain Muni got Moksha by doing Tapsya. According to Shrimadbhagwat, at this place Rishabhdev’s father Nabhirai and mother Marudevi had done hard Tap after Rishabhdev’s Rajyabhishek and taken Samadhi. Today footprint of Nabhirai at Neelkanth mountain attracts everybody towards him. Badrinath has an average elevation of 3,100 metres, it is on the banks of the Alaknanda River. The town lies between the Narayana mountain ranges 9 km east of Nilkantha peak.
Badrinath is located 62 km northwest of 301 km north of Rishikesh. From Gaurikund to Badrinath by road is 233 km; as of 2001 India census, Badrinath had a population of 841. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Badrinath has an average literacy rate of 89%. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Badri Narayanan temple Vasudhara Falls Baynes, T. S. ed. "Badrinath", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 229 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Badrinath", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, Cambridge University Press, p. 190 Official website of Shri Badarinath - Shri Kedarnath Badrinath travel guide from Wikivoyage
Dehradun spelled Dehra Dun, is the interim capital of Uttarakhand, a state in India. Located in the Garhwal region, it lies 236 kilometres north of India's capital New Delhi and 168 kilometres from Chandigarh, it is one of the "Counter Magnets" of the National Capital Region being developed as an alternative centre of growth to help ease the migration and population explosion in the Delhi metropolitan area and to establish a smart city at Dehradun. During the days of British Raj, the official name of the town was Dehra. At present, Gairsain, a hill-town between Garhwal and Kumaon regions and centrally located in Uttarakhand, is being developed as permanent capital of the state. Dehradun is located in the Doon Valley on the foothills of the Himalayas nestled between the river Ganges on the east and the river Yamuna on the west; the city is famous for its picturesque landscape and milder climate and provides a gateway to the surrounding region. It is well connected and in proximity to Himalayan tourist destinations such as Mussoorie, Auli and the Hindu holy cities of Haridwar and Rishikesh along with the Himalayan pilgrimage circuit of Chota Char Dham.
Dehradun Municipal Corporation is locally known as Nagar Nigam Dehradun. Other urban entities involved in civic services and city governance and management include Mussoorie Dehradun Development Authority, Special Area Development Authority, Jal Sansthan, Jal Nigam among others. Dehradun is known for its Basmati rice and bakery products. Dehradun is made up of two words: Dehra is derived from the word Dera, meaning camp or temporary settlement. Dun or Doon in Garhwali language refers to a valley that lies between the middle Himalayas and the "Shivaliks". Other prominent Doon valleys are Patli Doon and Pinjore Doon; when Guru Ram Rai, son of Guru Har Rai, came to this region with his followers, he established a camp here for them. Around this time, the modern city of Dehradun started to develop; this is when the word Dehra was linked to Dun, thus the city was named Dehradun. In Skanda Purana, Dun is mentioned as a part of the region called Kedarkhand, the abode of Shiva. In ancient India during the Mahabharata epic era, Dronacharya the great teacher of Kauravas and Pandavas, lived here hence the name, "Dronanagari".
Some historians believe. The history of the city of Uttarakhand, Dehradun is linked to the story of Mahabharata, it is believed that after the battle between Ravana and Lord Rama, Lord Rama and his brother Lakshmana visited this site. Dronacharya known as ‘Dronanagari’ on the name of legendary Royal guru to the Kauravas and Pandavas in the epic Mahabharata, is believed to have been born and resided in Dehradun. Evidences such as ancient temples and idols have been found in the areas surrounding Dehradun which have been linked to the mythology of Ramayana and Mahabharata; these relics and ruins are believed to be around 2000 years old. Furthermore, the location, the local traditions and the literature reflect this region's links with the events of Mahabharata and Ramayana. After the battle of Mahabharata, the Pandavas had influence on this region as the rulers of Hastinapura with the descendants of Subahu ruled the region as subsidiaries. Rishikesh is mentioned in the pages of history when Lord Vishnu answered the prayers of the saints, slaughtered the demons and handed the land to the saints.
The adjoining place called. In the seventh century this area was known as Sudhanagara and was described by the Chinese traveller Huen Tsang. Sudhanagara came to be recognised as the name of Kalsi. Edicts of Ashoka have been found in the region along the banks of river Yamuna in Kalsi indicating the wealth and importance of the region in ancient India. In the neighbouring region of Haripur, ruins were discovered from the time of King Rasala which reflect the region's prosperity. Before the name of Dehradun was used, the place is shown on old maps as Gooroodwara. Gerard's map names the place as "Dehra or Gooroodwara". Surrounding this original Sikh temple were many small villages that are now the names of parts of the modern city. Dehradun itself derives its name from the historical fact that Ram Rai, the eldest son of the Seventh Sikh Guru Har Rai, set up his "Dera" in "dun" in 1676. This'Dera Dun' on became Dehradun; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was impressed by the miraculous powers of charismatic Ram Rai.
He asked the contemporary Maharaja of Garhwal. A Gurudwara was built in Dhamawala; the construction of the present building of Darbar Shri Guru Ram Rai Ji Maharaj was completed in 1707. There are portraits of gods, saints and religious stories on the walls. There are pictures of flowers and leaves and birds, similar faces with pointed noses and big eyes on the arches which are the symbol of the colour scheme of Kangra-Guler art and Mughal art. High minarets and round pinnacles are the models of the Muslim architecture; the huge pond in the front measuring 230 x 80 feet had dried up for want of water over the years. People had been dumping rubbish. Dehradun was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni during his campaigns into India followed by Timur in 1368, Rohilla chief Najib ad-Dawlah in 1757 and Ghulam Qadir in 1785. In 1806 Nepalese King Prithvi Narayan Shah united many of the Indian territories that now fell under places such as Almora, Kumaon, Sirmur, Shimla and Dehradun. On the western front Ga
Almora is a municipal board and a cantonment town in the Almora district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Almora district. Almora is located on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills of the Himalaya range, at a distance of 363 km from the national capital New Delhi and 415 km via Saharanpur Rd, 351 km via NH109 and 388.6 km via Ambala- Dehradun- Haridwar Rd from the state capital Dehradun. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, Almora has a population of 35,513. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya, Almora enjoys a year-round mild temperate climate. Almora was founded in 1568 by King Kalyan Chand, however there are accounts of human settlements in the hills and surrounding region in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Almora was the seat of Chand kings, it is considered the cultural heart of the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. Almora got its name from Bhilmora, a kind of sorrel, a short plant found there, used for washing the utensils of the sun temple at Katarmal.
The people bringing the Bhilmora/kilmora were called Bhilmori/Kilmori and "Almori" and the place came to be known as "Almora". When king Bhishm Chand laid the foundation of the town, he had named it Alamnagar. Prior to that, Almora was known as'Rajapur' during the early phase of Chand rule; the name'Rajpur' is mentioned over a number of ancient copper plates. There is still a place called Rajpur in Almora. Almora was founded in 1568 by Kalyan Chand during the rule of the Chand dynasty. Prior to that the region was under the control of Katyuri King Bhaichaldeo who donated a part of Almora to Sri Chand Tiwari. According to local tradition, the earliest inhabitants in Almora were Tewaris who were required to supply Sorrel daily for cleansing the vessels of sun temple at Katarmal. Ancient lore mentioned in Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata present primordial accounts of human settlements in the City; the Sakas, the Nagas, the Kiratas, the Khasas and the Hunas are credited to be the most ancient tribes.
The Kauravas and Pandavas of the Hastinapur royal family were the next important princes from the plains who are said to have affected the conquest of these parts. After the Mahabharata war the district seems to have remained for some time under the sway of the kings of Hastinapur whose authority was never more than nominal; the actual rulers were the local chiefs of whom the Kulindas were strong in the southern and western part of the city. The Khasas were another ancient people who belonged to an early Aryan stock and were scattered in those times, they gave this region Khasamandala. The next age's silent of them may be the ones signaling many petty states, rivaling each-other for supremacy and chartering the inauguration of the noted and enduring dynasty of Chands. Earlier to this, the Katyuris are recorded as the dominant clans in stone engravings; the Chand dynasty from their inception in 953 A. D. to their ouster in the late 18th century present a saga of strife, with horrifying series of wars with rulers of Garhwal culminating in the destruction of this prosperous land and establishment of inglorious Gurkha rule.
This dynasty was peculiar in that it made Almora the seat of strongest hill power in 1563 A. D. From that time onwards, the limits of kingdom of Kumaon extended over the entire tracts of districts of Almora and Nainital. Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked the Garhwal kingdom, in 1688, king Udyot Chand erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwer and Parbateshwer, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti; the Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice. In 1791, the Gorkhas of Nepal while expanding their kingdom westwards across Kali River and overran Almora. In the meantime, the British were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from over-running the whole of the northern frontier; the Gorkha rule lasted for twenty-four years. Due to their repeated intrusion into British territories in the Terai from 1800 onwards, Lord Moira, the Governor-General of India, decided to attack Almora in December 1814, marking the beginning of the Anglo-Gorkha war.
The war that broke out in 1814, resulted in the defeat of the Gorkhas and subsequently led to the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816. According to the treaty, Nepal had to cede all those territories which the Gorkhas had annexed to the British East India Company. After the war, the old Lal Mandi fort, near Almora was renamed ‘Fort Moira’. Unlike the neighboring hill stations like Nainital and Shimla which were developed by the British, Almora was developed much before by the Chand kings; the place where the present cantonment is located was known as Lalmandi. Presently where the collectorate exists, the'Malla Mahal' of Chand kings was located; the site of present District Hospital used to be'Talla Mahal' of Chand rulers. Almora had a Population of 8596 in 1901. Almora is located at 29.5971°N 79.6591°E / 29.5971. Almora is situated 365 km north-east the national capital New Delhi and 415 km south-east the state capital Dehradun, it lies in the revenue Division Kumaon and is located 63 km north of Nainital, the administrative headquarters of Kumaon.
It has an average elevation of 1,861 m above mean Sea Level. Almora is situated on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills of the Central Himalaya range in the shape of a horse saddle shaped hillock; the eastern portion of the ridge is known as Tal
Allahabad known as Prayagraj, known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division; the city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state and sixteenth in the country; the 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested.
The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam of the Ganga and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was called Kaushambi by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since the city has been a political and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbarnama mentions. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there, called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there renaming it Ilahabas by 1584, changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan. In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a independent ruler.
He was, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day; the city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2. Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council; the city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh. Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city; the name is a sandhi of the words Pra, meaning'first' and Yag, meaning'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India; the word Prayag means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is called the "Emperor of Five Prayags". After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584 changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist; because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.
James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death, it has been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha. Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu and Muslim. Over the years, a number of attempts were made by the BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh. The rename succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government changed the name of the city to Prayagraj; the city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still used.
Prayāga is first mentioned in the Agni Purana and in Manusmriti, as the place where Brahma attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE
Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and as the supreme God in his own right, he is the god of compassion and love in Hinduism, is one of the most popular and revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar; the anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical and mythological texts, they portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, as the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends, shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.
The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism; these sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi and Manipuri dance, he is a pan-Hindu god, but is revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal and Junagadh in Gujarat, in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Nathdwara in Rajasthan, Guruvayur in Kerala. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has spread to the Western world and to Africa due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness; the name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue". The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening"; the name is interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".
As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is known by various other names and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; some names for Krishna hold regional importance. Krishna is with some common features, his iconography depicts him with black, dark, or blue skin, like Vishnu. However and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material out of which he is formed, both in India and in southeast Asia. In some texts, his skin is poetically described as the color of Jambul. Krishna is depicted wearing a peacock-feather wreath or crown, playing the bansuri. In this form, he is shown standing with one leg bent in front of the other in the Tribhanga posture, he is sometimes accompanied by a calf, which symbolise the divine herdsman Govinda. Alternatively, he is shown as a romantic and seductive man with the gopis making music or playing pranks.
In other icons, he is a part of battlefield scenes of the epic Mahabharata. He is shown as a charioteer, notably when he is addressing the Pandava prince Arjuna character, symbolically reflecting the events that led to the Bhagavad Gita – a scripture of Hinduism. In these popular depictions, Krishna appears in the front as the charioteer, either as a counsel listening to Arjuna, or as the driver of the chariot while Arjuna aims his arrows in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Alternate icons of Krishna show him as a baby, a toddler crawling on his hands and knees, a dancing child, or an innocent-looking child playfully stealing or consuming butter, holding Laddu in his hand or as a cosmic infant sucking his toe while floating on a banyan leaf during the Pralaya observed by sage Markandeya. Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha in Odisha, Vithoba in Maharashtra, Shrinathji in Rajasthan and Guruvayoorappan in Kerala. Guidelines for the preparation of Krishna icons in design and architecture are described in medieval-era Sanskrit texts on Hindu temple arts such as Vaikhanasa agama, Vishnu dharmottara, Brihat samhita, Agni Purana.
Early medieval-era Tamil texts contain guidelines for sculpting Krishna and Rukmini. Several statues made according to these guidelines are in the collections of the Government Museum, Chennai; the earliest text containing detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahabharata, which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic; the eighteen chapters of the sixth book of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield. The Harivamsa, a appendix to the Mahabharata contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth; the Chandogya Upanishad, estimated to have been composed sometime between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, has been another source of speculation regarding Krishna in ancient India. The
The Pindari Glacier is a glacier found in the upper reaches of the Kumaon Himalayas, to the southeast of Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot. The glacier flows to the south for a short distance of about 3 km,0.25 km in breadth and gives rise to the Pindari River which meets the Alakananda at Karnaprayag in the Garhwal district. The trail to reach the glacier crosses the villages of Saung, crosses over the Dhakuri Pass, continues onto Khati village, Dwali and Zero Point, the end of the trail. Though most of the trail is along the banks of the Pindari River, the river is hidden until after Khati; the Pindari Glacier trail provides for a 90 km round-trip trek that most people find comfortable to complete in six days. The Pindari Glacier is famous for other adventure sports like ice climbing and mountain biking. A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating.
There are significant findings on Pindari glacier. In 1906 first survey was done by G.de P. Cotter. Next in 1958 survey was done by Amber P Tiwari and Jangpangi in connection with International Geophysical Year, they had recorded about the retreat of its snout by 1,040 m since 1906. There was further retreat of 200 m. In 1966, as a result of the survey of Pindari glacier, most significant feature had been noticed, regarding the separation of the Chhanguch branch, until 1958, a tributary to the Pindari glacier. After separation, both glaciers have two independent ice caves. Within eight years, several thousand cubic meters of ice have melted away with the retreat of Chhanguch branch. List of glaciers Kafni Glacier A trip report on the Pindari Glacier Trek Images from Pindari Glacier, Zerop Point and above Travel article on Pindari & Kafni Glacier Trek
Jim Corbett National Park
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett, a well known hunter and naturalist; the park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative. The park has ecological characteristics. An ecotourism destination, it contains 488 different species of plants and a diverse variety of fauna; the increase in tourist activities, among other problems, continues to present a serious challenge to the park's ecological balance. Corbett has been a haunt for tourists and wildlife lovers for a long time. Tourism activity is only allowed in selected areas of Corbett Tiger Reserve so that people get an opportunity to see its landscape and wildlife. In recent years the number of people coming here has increased dramatically. Presently, every season more than 70,000 visitors come to the park. Corbett National Park comprises 520.8 km2 area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions, grasslands and a large lake.
The elevation ranges from 1,300 to 4,000 ft. Winter nights are cold but the days are bright and sunny, it rains from July to September. Dense moist deciduous forest consists of sal, peepal and mango trees. Forest covers 73% of the park, 10% of the area consists of grasslands, it houses 50 species of mammals, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species. Some areas of the park were part of the princely state of Tehri Garhwal; the forests were cleared by the Environment and Forests Department to make the area less vulnerable to Rohilla invaders. The Raja of Tehri formally ceded a part of his princely state to the East India Company in return for their assistance in ousting the Gurkhas from his domain; the Boksas—a tribe from the Terai—settled on the land and began growing crops, but in the early 1860s they were evicted with the advent of British rule. Efforts to save the forests of the region began in the 19th century under Major Ramsay, the British Officer, in-charge of the area during those times; the first step in the protection of the area began in 1868 when the British forest department established control over the land and prohibited cultivation and the operation of cattle stations.
In 1879 these forests were constituted into a reserve forest. In the early 1900s, several Britishers, including E. R. Stevans and E. A. Smythies, suggested the setting up of a national park on this soil; the British administration considered the possibility of creating a game reserve there in 1907. It was only in the 1930s. A reserve area known as Hailey National Park covering 323.75 km2 was created in 1936, when Sir Malcolm Hailey was the Governor of United Provinces. Hunting was not allowed in only timber cutting for domestic purposes. Soon after the establishment of the reserve, rules prohibiting killing and capturing of mammals and birds within its boundaries were passed; the reserve was renamed in 1954–55 as Ramganga National Park and was again renamed in 1955–56 as Corbett National Park. The new name honors naturalist, Jim Corbett; the park fared well during the 1930s under an elected administration. But, during the Second World War, it suffered from excessive timber cutting. Over time, the area in the reserve was increased—797.72 km2 were added in 1991 as a buffer zone to the Corbett Tiger Reserve.
The 1991 addition included the entire Kalagarh forest division, assimilating the 301.18 km2 area of Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary as a part of the Kalagarh division. It was chosen in 1974 as the location for launching Project Tiger, an ambitious and well known wildlife conservation project; the reserve is administered from its headquarters in the district of Nainital. Corbett National Park is one of the thirteen protected areas covered by the World Wide Fund For Nature under their Terai Arc Landscape Program; the program aims to protect three of the five terrestrial flagship species, the tiger, the Asian elephant and the great one-horned rhinoceros, by restoring corridors of forest to link 13 protected areas of Nepal and India, to enable wildlife migration. The park is located between 29 ° 25' and between 78 ° 44' and 79 ° 07' E longitude; the altitude of the region ranges between 1,040 m. It has numerous ravines, minor streams and small plateaus with varying aspects and degrees of slope; the park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.
It protects parts of the Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests and Himalayan subtropical pine forests ecoregions. It has a humid highland climate; the present area of the reserve is 1,318.54 square kilometres including 520 square kilometres of core area and 797.72 square kilometres of buffer area. The core area forms the Jim Corbett National Park while the buffer contains reserve forests as well as the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary; the reserve, located along a valley between the Lesser Himalaya in the north and the Shivaliks in the south, has a sub-Himalayan belt structure. The upper tertiary rocks are exposed towards the base of the Shiwalik range and hard sandstone units form broad ridges. Characteristic longitudinal valleys, geographically termed Doons, or Duns can be seen formed along the narrow tectonic zones between lineaments; the weather in the park is tempera