Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state. Other languages spoken include Urdu, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu Nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.35 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹210,000. Karnataka has the nineteenth highest ranking among Indian states in human development index. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.

The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.

The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, e

Alfred Deller

Alfred George Deller, CBE, was an English singer and one of the main figures in popularising the return of the countertenor voice in Renaissance and Baroque music during the 20th century. He is sometimes referred to as the "godfather of the countertenor", his style in singing lute song, with extensive use of rubato and extemporised ornamentation, was seen as radical and controversial in his day but is now considered the norm. Deller was an influential figure in the renaissance of early music: an early proponent of "original instrument performance" and one of the first to bring this form to the popular consciousness through his broadcasts on the BBC, he founded the Stour Music Festival in 1962, one of the first and most important early music festivals in the world. Deller was born in a seaside resort in Kent; as a boy, he sang in his local church choir. When his voice broke, he continued singing in his high register settling as a countertenor. Deller was employed as a lay clerk at Canterbury Cathedral from 1940 to 1947, before joining the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral.

From this choral tradition, Deller emerged as a soloist as a result of the admiration of the composer Michael Tippett, who heard him while at Canterbury and recognised the unique beauty of his voice. Tippett introduced him to the public as a countertenor, rather than a male alto, he became better known with a radio broadcast of Henry Purcell's Come ye Sons of Art on the BBC's Third Programme when this station was launched in 1946. He concentrated on popularising and recording the music of English Baroque and Renaissance music by composers such as John Dowland and Purcell. Throughout the 19th century, it was only in the tradition of all-male cathedral choirs that the countertenor voice had survived. Deller's voice sounded remarkably high. Misconceptions about the countertenor voice were common at the time Deller was first gaining significant notice as a singer, only a matter of decades after the last castrati had died. In 1948, Deller formed the Deller Consort, a group dedicated to informed performance.

The group recorded music from as early as the 13th century and expanded popular notions of the Baroque repertoire, producing high-quality authentic period performances of the works of Bach, Purcell and folk songs. Membership of the Deller Consort changed over the years, it included various baritones and tenors, as well as sopranos April Cantelo, Honor Sheppard and Mary Thomas. From 1964, Alfred Deller's son Mark was a member. In 1972, the Deller Consort performed for the Peabody Mason Concert series in Boston; as well as directing the Consort, Deller conducted some performances with chamber orchestras, although his technical ability as a conductor attracted some adverse comment. In 1960, Deller sang the role of Oberon in the first production of Benjamin Britten's opera A Midsummer Night's Dream. Britten wrote this role with Deller in mind, although he was dropped from staged revivals of the work against the composer's wishes because of poor acting technique; the smallness of his voice was a negative factor in the casting process at Covent Garden.

He did record the opera, with the composer conducting in 1967. The 1960 premiere, broadcast by the BBC, is now commercially available and finds Deller in fresher voice. Lutenist Desmond Dupré performed with him as a guitarist. In years, he worked with lutenist Robert Spencer and harpsichordists Harold Lester and William Christie, his recordings include the lute songs of Dowland, operas by Handel, Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream and semioperas by Purcell, traditional English folk songs, works by Thomas Tallis, the Bach alto repertoire. He recorded for HMV, Vanguard Classics, Harmonia Mundi. Deller sang John Blow and Henry Purcell Odes like “Sound the trumpet” from Come Ye Sons of Art with the other great male alto of the day, John Whitworth, favoured by critic Richard Lawrence for his magnificent voice. On 16 July 1979, Deller died whilst working in Italy after a heart attack. Deller and his wife are buried in the churchyard of All Saints' Church, Boughton Aluph, Kent. Deller married Kathleen Margaret Lowe in 1937.

They had three children. Another son, trained as a music teacher during the 1960s and taught at Guildford Cathedral choir school becoming its headmaster. Deller was a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In Canterbury Cathedral, a tablet in the south quire aisle commemorates his work. On 31 May 2012, All Saints' Church, Boughton Aluph held a concert to celebrate Deller's 100th birthday. There was an exhibition of paintings and drawings by John Ward, who illustrated many of the early programmes for the music festival. After the concert, the countertenor James Bowman planted a tree in memory of Deller in the churchyard where he is buried. Deller made at least 136 recordings from 1949 to his death in 1979, his first were for HMV - His Master's Voice Recordings 1949-1954. Followed 13 years with Vanguard Records 1954-1967, under the labels The Bach Guild in Europe and Amadeo in the US. Following a concert in Avignon in 1967 where Del

San Joaquin and Sierra Nevada Railroad

The San Joaquin and Sierra Nevada Railroad was built as a 3 ft narrow gauge that ran from Bracks Landing to Woodbridge and Lodi and east to the Sierra Nevada foothill town of Valley Springs. The railroad was incorporated on March 28, 1882 and construction was completed on April 15, 1885; the railroad was built as a common carrier with copper mining being its primary traffic. The track was built using 35/40 lb steel rails. On March 15, 1888 the San Joaquin & Sierra Nevada was consolidated into Southern Pacific Railroad's subsidiary, the Northern Railway Company. In 1897, the Northern Railway abandoned the track between Woodbridge and Brack's Landing and converted the rest of the line to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge; the following year, the Northern Railway was consolidated into the Southern Pacific. In 1925/1926, Southern Pacific extended the branch line 8 miles east into the Sierras to its ending point known as Kentucky House; the last 4 miles of the branch at Kentucky House were sold to the Calaveras Cement Company on April 28, 1929.

The Calaveras Cement Company closed the plant at Kentucky House in 1984. Prior to 1984, the SP was operating three freight trains per week between Kentucky House; the branch was listed in Southern Pacific timetables as the Kentucky House Branch and interchanged at Lodi with the SP mainline that ran from Stockton - Sacramento. After the cement plant closed, the branch was used to store railroad freight cars; the tracks were removed. The line from Woodbridge to Lodi is known as the Woodbridge Branch and terminates near the General Mills plant in Lodi. Note: Southern Pacific were track mile distance from Oakland, California. Brack's Landing connection with shipping on the California Delta/Mokelumne River located on Brack Tract - Woodbridge Road 5 miles east of Interstate 5. Woodbridge Lodi End Woodbridge Branch, begin Kentucky House Branch Depot CCT Crossing Roma Spur Victor Lockeford Depot Clements Wallace Helisma Norval Valley Springs Depot Toyon MacNider Kentucky House Calaveras Cement plant SJ&SN engine #1 was named "Ernie Birdsall" and was a narrow gauge 2-4-2 T built in early 1881 by Baldwin Locomotive Works.

It was used in Nevada for one year before being brought over to California. Frederick Birdsall was President of the SJ&SN. Engine #2 was named "B. F. Langford" and was a narrow gauge Porter 0-6-2 built in July 1882, it was acquired by SJ&SN's successor, the Northern Railway and renumbered Northern Ry #1024. Engine #3 was named "Jacob Brack" after the landowner at the western terminus of the railroad. #3 was built in August 1882 by Porter and was a 0-4-4 T. It was acquired by SJ&SN's successor, the Northern Railway and renumbered Northern Ry #1025. Engine #4 was built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in August 1881 and was a narrow gauge 4-4-0, it was renumbered Northern Railway #1026. Engine #5 was built by Pittsburgh Locomotive And Car Works in July 1880 and was a 2-6-0, it was renumbered Northern Railway #1027. Fickewirth, Alvin A.. California railroads: an encyclopedia of cable car, common carrier, industrial, logging, motor road, streetcar and terminal railroads in California. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books.

ISBN 0-87095-106-8. Stindt, Fred A.. American Shortline Railway Guide. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-290-9. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - California and Nevada. Kent, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. ISBN 1-874745-08-0. Johnson, Mark. "Kentucky House Branch - Southern Pacific". Abandoned Railroads. Retrieved November 2, 2006