The Karoo is a semi desert natural region of South Africa. No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is not defined; the Karoo is defined by its topography and climate, above all, its low rainfall, arid air, cloudless skies, extremes of heat and cold. The Karoo hosted a well-preserved ecosystem hundreds of million years ago, now represented by many fossils; the ǃ’Aukarob formed an impenetrable barrier to the interior from Cape Town, the early adventurers, explorers and travelers on the way to the Highveld unanimously denounced it as a frightening place of great heat, great frosts, great floods, great droughts. Today, it is still a place of great heat and frosts, an annual rainfall of between 50 and 250 mm, though on some of the mountains it can be 250 to 500 mm higher than on the plains. However, underground water is found throughout the Karoo, which can be tapped by boreholes, making permanent settlements and sheep farming possible; the xerophytic vegetation consists of aloes, mesembryanthemums, euphorbias and desert ephemerals, spaced 50 cm or more apart, becoming sparse going northwards into Bushmanland and, from there, into the Kalahari Desert.

The driest region of the Karoo, however, is its southwestern corner, between the Great Escarpment and the Cederberg-Skurweberg mountain ranges, called the Tankwa Karoo, which receives only 75 mm of rain annually. The eastern and north-eastern Karoo are covered by large patches of grassland; the typical Karoo vegetation used to support large game, sometimes in vast herds. Today, sheep thrive on the xerophytes, though each sheep requires about 4 ha of grazing to sustain itself; the Karoo is distinctively divided into the Great Karoo and the Little Karoo by the Swartberg Mountain Range, which runs east-west, parallel to the southern coastline, but is separated from the sea by another east-west range called the Outeniqua–Langeberg Mountains. The Great Karoo lies to the north of the Swartberg range; the only sharp and definite boundary of the Great Karoo is formed by the most inland ranges of Cape Fold Mountains to the south and south-west. The extent of the Karoo to the north is vague and imperceptibly into the arid Bushmanland towards the north-west.

To the north and north-east, it fades into the savannah and grasslands of Griqualand West and the Highveld. The boundary to the east grades into the grasslands of the Eastern Midlands; the Great Karoo is itself divided by the Great Escarpment into the Upper Karoo and the Lower Karoo on the plains below at 700–800 m. A great many local names, each denoting different subregions of the Great Karoo, some more or more known than others. In the Lower Karoo, going from west to east, they are the Tankwa Karoo, the Moordenaarskaroo, the Koup, the Vlakte, the Camdeboo Plains; the Hantam, Kareeberge and uweveldare the better known subregions of the Upper Karoo, though most of it is known as the Upper Karoo in the north. The Little Karoo’s boundaries are defined by mountain ranges to the west and south; the road between Uniondale and Willowmore is considered, by convention, to form the approximate arbitrary eastern extremity of the Little Karoo. Its extent is much smaller than that of the Great Karoo. Locally, it is called the Klein Karoo, Afrikaans for Little Karoo.

The Great Karoo straddles the 30° S parallel on the west of the continent, in a similar position to other semidesert areas on earth and south of the equator. It is furthermore in the rainfall shadow of the Cape Fold Mountains along the western coastline; the western "Lower Karoo" contain remnants of the Cape Fold Mountains which give it a moderate hilly appearance, but further east, the Lower Karoo becomes a monotonously flat plain. The "Upper Karoo" has been intruded by dolerite sills, creating multiple flat-topped hills, or Karoo Koppies, which are iconic of the Great Karoo; the vegetation of the Upper is similar to the Lower Karoo, so few people make a distinction between the two. The main highway and railway line from Cape Town to the north enter the Lower Karoo from the Hex River Valley just before Touws River and follow a course about 50 km south of the Great Escarpment up to Beaufort West. Thereafter, they ascend the Great Escarpment along a broad valley to Three Sisters on the Central Plateau and the Upper Karoo.

Turning north from the N1 between Touws River and Beaufort West, at Matjiesfontein, the road ascends the Great Escarpment through the Verlatenkloof Pass to reach Sutherland, at 1456 m above sea level, reputedly the coldest town in South Africa with average minimum temperatures of -6.1 °C during winter. Parts of the eastern Mpumalangan Highveld do at times experience lower temperatures than Sutherland, but not as as Sutherland does. Snowfalls are not infrequent during the southern winter months; the South African Astronomical Observatory has an emplacement of telescopes about 20 km east of the town, on a small plateau 1798 m above sea level, is home to the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. To the north, still on the Plateau, 75 km north-west of Carnarvon, seven radio dishes form part of the Square Kilometer Array which will, 2500 in total, be scattered in other parts of South Africa and Australia, to survey the southern skies at radio frequencies.

Our galaxy, the Milky Way, one of the main targets of this enterprise


Tipacoque is a municipality and town in Boyacá Department, located on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, part of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Tipacoque is situated on the western flank of the Chicamocha river canyon, it is part of the Northern Boyacá Province. Tipacoque is derived from Zipacoque, which in Chibcha means "dependency of the zaque", referring to the zaque rule of the village in the times of the Muisca Confederation, the loose confederation of rulers of the Muisca; the total area of the municipality is 72 km². To the north it borders Covarachía and Capitanejo and to the south it borders Soatá; the Chicamocha River separates it from Boavita in the east. A branch of the Eastern mountain range separates it from Onzaga in the west; this range varies from 1,200 meters at the base of the Chicamocha Canyon to over 3,000 meters at "Cruz de Roble". The municipality is located at an altitude of 1,850 metres above sea level, its average temperature is 18 °C. The warmest months are December and January, when the temperature exceeds 25 °C.

The climate is predominantly dry. The vegetation is varied; the fauna is composed by mammal species like rabbits and tinajos, which live in the higher altitudes. In the lowlands, reptiles predominate; the most common birds are garrapateros, toches, gurrias, perdices and cuchicas, native species that can be found in the creeks which feed the Chicamocha river. Tripacoque is located 174 kilometres from Tunja, the capital of Boyacá; the main highway which connects Tipacoque with Bogotá and the east of Colombia is 174 km long, of which 150 km are paved. The novel Tipacoque: Estampas de provincia by Eduardo Caballero Calderón describes the Colombian society in this region of Boyacá

ArenaBowl XXIII

NAPA Auto Parts ArenaBowl XXIII was an arena football game between the National Conference champion, Spokane Shock and the American Conference Champion, Tampa Bay Storm. The Spokane Shock won the game defending ArenaCup X of the former af2; the game was played on August 20, 2010, was held at the Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena in Spokane, the first non-neutral site since 2004. The game was shown live on the NFL Network, as well as a tape delay on Eurosport 2; the corporate sponsor was NAPA Auto Parts. See: 2010 Tampa Bay Storm season Looking for their sixth championship in franchise history, first since ArenaBowl XVII in 2003, the Tampa Bay Storm succeeded in their first season back since 2008. Led by quarterback Brett Dietz, who threw for 5,054 yards and 106 touchdowns in the regular season, they finished 11–5, 2nd in the South division, 3rd in the American Conference. See: 2010 Spokane Shock season The Spokane Shock, fresh off their ArenaCup X victory in what would be the last arenafootball2 season, earned their spot in the postseason by going 13–3 in the regular season, the AFL's best record in 2010, which gave them home field advantage throughout the entire playoffs.

It's the Shock's first ArenaBowl in franchise history, having three previous ArenaCup appearances in af2. ArenaBowl XXIII was televised on the NFL Network and Eurosport 2, it was available in 48 countries worldwide. Radio broadcasts were available in the local markets of Tampa Spokane only. NFL Network delivered live coverage outside of the United States to these countries: Canada Mexico United Kingdom The AFL had a taped delayed broadcast available in the following countries: France Ireland Italy Germany Greece Hungary Russia Bulgaria Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Turkey Denmark Ukraine Croatia These were the radio broadcasting groups present: Washington State:Spokane- 700am ESPN Radio 700 ESPN The Ticket Florida:Tampa Bay- 1250am Impact Radio WHNZ Tampa Bay This was the 2010 playoff grid to determine ArenaBowl Champion: In the opening round of the playoffs, Spokane defeated the Arizona Rattlers 57–49, while the Storm took care of the Tulsa Talons 68–38. In the National Conference Championship game, Spokane edged out the Milwaukee Iron 60–57.

In another close contest, the Storm knocked off rival Orlando 63–62 in the first playoff meeting of The War on I-4 since 2003, winning the American Conference Championship and punching their ticket to ArenaBowl XXIII. The Tampa Bay Storm received the opening kickoff, driving 45 yards in 11 plays to take a 7–0 lead on a three-yard run by Eric Ortiz, but this would be the only time in the game. Spokane scored the next three touchdowns to take a 20–7 lead. Huey Whittaker caught the first one from Kyle Rowley, Markee White grabbed the next two, both from four yards out. Tampa Bay answered with 5:49 left in the first half, another rushing score by Ortiz to make the score 20–14. After Markee White's third receiving touchdown gave the Shock a 27–14 lead, Tampa Bay scored consecutive touchdowns to take a 28–27 lead, but Spokane got the last points of the half. White's fourth touchdown from Rowley made it 34–28. Tampa had a chance to add three points as the first half expired, but Garrett Rivas's field goal was blocked.

The Storm took its final lead of the game 35–34 to open the third quarter on Ortiz's third rushing touchdown. But Spokane would score the next three touchdowns; the Shock led 48–35 at the end of the third quarter and expanded it to 55–35 at the beginning of the final quarter. In the fourth quarter, the Shock just wanted to keep the clock running and force the Storm to play catch up. Both teams traded touchdowns through the entire quarter, Tampa Bay could not make up the deficit; the Storm got the game's last score with 44 seconds left, making it 69–57, the closest it got all quarter. Spokane Shock quarterback Kyle Rowley was named the game's MVP, he went 24 for 32 with 237 yards. He added another touchdown on the run; the nine touchdowns he threw for set an ArenaBowl record. Spokane did not have a 100 yard receiver but Markee White caught nine passes for 99 yards and four scores. Huey Whittaker had four touchdown receptions as well to go along with eight catches for 82 yards; the Shocks' Mervin Brookins and Travis Williams each recorded an interception.

For Tampa Bay, quarterback Brett Dietz threw for 306 yards on 29 of 40 passing. He had two interceptions; the Storm's Hank Edwards led the game with 11 catches for 132 yards. He caught two of Dietz's scoring passes. Tyrone Timmons had eight receptions for 107 yards and a score; the announced attendance for ArenaBowl XXIII was 11,017. The game was a sellout, at 102% capacity given Spokane Arena's 10,771 capacity. However, it was the second lowest attended ArenaBowl in league history, second only to ArenaBowl XIX in 2005; that game between the Georgia Force and Colorado Crush was the AFL's first neutral site ArenaBowl with 10,822 fans at the Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas, Nevada