Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with caves, it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and can be missing above ground; the study of karst is considered of prime importance in petroleum geology because as much as 50% of the world's hydrocarbon reserves are hosted in porous karst systems. The English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century, which entered German much earlier. According to one interpretation the term is derived from the German name for a number of geological and hydrological features found within the range of the Dinaric Alps, stretching from the northeastern corner of Italy above the city of Trieste, across the Balkan peninsula along the coast of the eastern Adriatic to Kosovo and North Macedonia, where the massif of the Šar Mountains begins, more the karst zone at the northwestern-most section, described in early topographical research as a plateau, between Italy and Slovenia.
In the local South Slavic languages, all variations of the word are derived from a Romanized Illyrian base metathesized from the reconstructed form *korsъ into forms such as Serbo-Croatian: krš, kras. Languages preserving the older, non-metathesized form include Italian: Carso, German: Karst, Albanian: karsti; the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. As a proper noun, the Slovene form Grast was first attested in 1177; the word is of Mediterranean origin. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra-'rock'; the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, also to Latin Carusardius. Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer of the study of karst in Slovenia and a fellow of the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge, introduced the word karst to European scholars in 1689, describing the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Lake Cerknica.
Jovan Cvijić advanced the knowledge of karst regions, so much that he became known as the "father of karst geomorphology". Discussing the karstic regions of the Balkans, Cvijić's 1893 publication Das Karstphänomen describes landforms such as karren and poljes. In a 1918 publication, Cvijić proposed a cyclical model for karstic landscape development. Karst hydrology emerged as a discipline in early 1960s in France; the activities of cave explorers, called speleologists, had been dismissed as more of a sport than a science, meaning that underground karstic caves and their associated watercourses were, from a scientific perspective, understudied. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes; as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath. If this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power.
The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through Earth's atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the water. Once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate; the primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following: In particular and rare conditions such as encountered in the past in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, other mechanisms may play a role. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of sulfuric acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation; as oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system to form sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation; this chain of reactions is: This reaction chain forms gypsum. The karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath.
On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, collectively called karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys. Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground drainage systems and extensive caves and cavern systems may form. Erosion along limestone shores, notably in the tropics, produces
The Poincaré Seminars, named for the mathematician and theoretical physicist Henri Poincaré, were founded in 2001. They are nicknamed Bourbaphy for their inspiration by the Bourbaki Seminars; the goal of this seminar is to provide information on topics of current interest in physics. Its way of working is directly inspired by the Bourbaki Seminar in mathematics. A series of pedagogical talks aims at explaining a topic of current interest both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view complemented by a historical introduction. A booklet with the contributions of the speakers is distributed on the day of the seminar; the seminar aims at a general audience of mathematicians and physicists and does not require any specialized knowledge. Bertrand Duplantier. Vacuum Energy - Renormalization, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 30, Birkhäuser Verlag, ISBN 978-3-7643-0579-6, MR 2164890CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Jean Dalibard. Bose-Einstein condensation - Entropy, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 38, Birkhäuser Verlag, ISBN 3-7643-7106-4, MR 2164890CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Benoît Douçot.
The Quantum Hall Effect, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 45, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Thibault Damour. Einstein, 1905-2005, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 47, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier. Quantum Decoherence, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 48, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Thibault Damour. Gravitation and Experiment, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 52, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier. Quantum Spaces, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 53, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier; the Spin, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 55, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier. Biological Physics, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 60, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier. Glasses and Grains, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 61, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier ed. Time, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 63, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier.
Chaos, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 66, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Bertrand Duplantier. Henri Poincaré, 1912-2012, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 67, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list Olivier Darrigol. Niels Bohr, 1913-2013, Progress in Mathematical Physics, 68, Birkhäuser VerlagCS1 maint: extra text: authors list English pages about Bourbaphy at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Manhattan Mini Storage is a self storage and moving company based in New York City, United States, owned by Edison Properties, a real estate holding and development firm based in Newark, New Jersey founded in 1956. The company is affiliated with the family-run Gottesman Real Estate Partners, it has 17 locations in Manhattan. Manhattan Mini Storage offers a program where clients can give away objects that take up their storage space, as well as auctions to sell off objects belonging to clients who do not pay storage rents. Manhattan Mini Storage is the largest personal storage company in New York, one of the largest in the United States; the firm has 17 storage locations throughout the city, open 365 days a year and some of which are open 24 hours per day. Manhattan Mini Storage has 250,000 clients. Facilities include free concierge and onsite managers. Manhattan Mini Storage operates a service with Portero through which customers can "dispose of unwanted valuables that clutter their storage units."
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The company's gay marriage ad was accompanied by a promotion aimed at gay newlyweds after the Marriage Equality act was passed in July 2011. Adweek's Tim Nudd writes about the 2011 campaign in a March post: "Remember, if you leave the city, you'll have to live in America" — one of most quintessential New York headlines you'll see." The company has had other pro-LGBT advertisement campaigns, including an "If you don't like gay marriage, dont't get gay married" campaign in 2013. Some advertisements have been controversial. In 2007, a billboard, with a picture of chihuahua wearing pearls and the words "Your closet's so shallow it makes Paris look deep", attracted a cease and desist letter from Hilton's lawyer. In 2014, representatives of start-up storage company MakeSpace, which advertises "cloud storage," criticized Manhattan Mini Storage for having an advertisement that read "Don't trust the cloud." A Huffington Post writer commented that some of the advertisements in Manhattan Mini Storage's 2015 campaign, which featured "a transgender woman, or male drag queen, by a vanity with furs and wigs surrounding," could be taken out of context.
Manhattan Mini Storage has sponsored community groups such as: Friends of Hudson River, Medieval Festival, Project Back to School, Friends of Carl Shurz Park, NYLaughs, Furnish a Future, Aids Walk, NY Class, I Care, Score!, NY Dream Center, Animal Haven, NY Classical Theater, The Diabetes Research Institute. Edison ParkFast Workspace Offices & Studios Executive Suites at the Hippodrome Pre-Built Suites at the Hippodrome The Ludlow The Hippodrome Official website Manhattan Mini Storage Blog