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Kasaragod is a municipal town and the district headquarters of Kasaragod district of Kerala state in India. Situated in the rich biodiversity of Western Ghats, it is known for the Chandragiri and Bekal Forts, Chandragiri River, historic Kolathiri Rajas, natural environment of Ranipuram and Kottancheri Hills and religious sites like the Madiyan Kulom temple, Madhur Temple, Ananthapuram Lake Temple and Malik Deenar Mosque, it is located 50 km south of the port city of Mangalore, 376 km west-southwest of Bengaluru and 578 km north of state capital Thiruvananthapuram. The major political parties are Indian Union Muslim League, INC, CPI, Bharatiya Janata Party. North Kasaragod is dominated by INC and IUML, the south is dominated by CPI; some of the rural and urban areas are dominated by Bharatiya Janata Party. N. A. Nellikkunnu is the present Member of Kerala Legislature. Kasaragod assembly constituency is part of Kasaragod. Indian National Congress member Rajmohan Unnithan is the present MP from Kasaragod.

Kasaragod is home to the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute established in 1916 as the Coconut Research Station. It is part of India's National Agricultural Research System under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. According to the Institute, Kerala "lies in the heart of the major coconut growing areas of the country." It is home to the Indian Society for Plantation Crops, which publishes the Journal of Plantation Crops and holds symposiums on the subject. The Central University of Kerala is located in Kasargod. Tulu, Malayalam, Kannada and Konkani are the used languages. Havyaka speakers have a strong base in Kannada.. The Kannada and Tulu spoken here are influenced by Malayalam and the Malayalam spoken here is in turn influenced by Tulu and Kannada. Most people are at least bulingual in Malayalam and Kannada. Kasaragod experiences a Tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification, it receives a generous 3825 mm of rain annually as per Weather Atlas. Kasaragod East Kuloor List of educational institutions in Kasaragod District List of tourist attractions in Kasaragod Kasaragod travel guide from Wikivoyage "Places to Visit in Kasargod", retrieved 2 November 2014 C.

P. C. R. I CPCRI Official Website of the District Administration


A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. A three-dimensional solid results from the hydrophilic polymer chains being held together by cross-links; because of the inherent cross-links, the structural integrity of the hydrogel network does not dissolve from the high concentration of water. Hydrogels are absorbent natural or synthetic polymeric networks; the first appearance of the term'hydrogel' in the literature was in 1894. A hydrogel, sold under the brand Plenity, was approved to help with weight loss in 2019. Common uses include: Scaffolds in tissue engineering; when used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D microenvironment of cells. Hydrogel-coated wells have been used for cell culture Environmentally sensitive hydrogels; these hydrogels have the ability to sense changes of pH, temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change.

Injectable hydrogels which can be used as drug carriers for treatment of diseases or as cell carriers for regenerative purposes or tissue engineering. Sustained-release drug delivery systems. Ionic strength, pH and temperature can be used as a triggering factor to control the release of the drug. Providing absorption and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules, such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS. Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. Wound gels are excellent for helping to maintain a moist environment. Reservoirs in topical drug delivery. Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systems Common ingredients include polyvinyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers with an abundance of hydrophilic groups.

The crosslinks which bond the polymers of a hydrogel fall under two general categories: physical and chemical. Physical crosslinks consist of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, chain entanglements. A hydrogel generated through the use of physical crosslinks is sometimes called a ‘reversible’ hydrogel. Chemical crosslinks consist of covalent bonds between polymer strands. Hydrogels generated in this manner are sometimes called ‘permanent’ hydrogels. One notable method of initiating a polymerization reaction involves the use of light as a stimulus. In this method, compounds that cleave from the absorption of photons, are added to the precursor solution which will become the hydrogel; when the precursor solution is exposed to a concentrated source of light, the photoinitiators will cleave and form free radicals, which will begin a polymerization reaction that forms crosslinks between polymer strands. This reaction will cease if the light source is removed, allowing the amount of crosslinks formed in the hydrogel to be controlled.

The properties of a hydrogel are dependent on the type and quantity of its crosslinks, making photopolymerization a popular choice for fine-tuning hydrogels. This technique has seen considerable use in cell and tissue engineering applications due to the ability to inject or mold a precursor solution loaded with cells into a wound site solidify it in situ. Hydrogels possess a degree of flexibility similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content; as responsive "smart materials," hydrogels can encapsulate chemical systems which upon stimulation by external factors such as a change of pH may cause specific compounds such as glucose to be liberated to the environment, in most cases by a gel-sol transition to the liquid state. Chemomechanical polymers are also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors. Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering. Hydrogels show promise for use in agriculture, as they can release agrochemicals including pesticides and phosphate fertiliser increasing efficiency and reducing runoff, at the same time improve the water retention of drier soils such as sandy loams.

In the 2000 there has been an increase in research on the use of hydrogels for drug delivery. Polymeric drug delivery systems have overcome challenge due to their biodegradability and anti-toxicity. Recent advances have fueled the formulation and synthesis of hydrogels that provide strong backbone for efficient component for drug delivery systems. Materials such as collagen, chitosan and poly all have been implemented extensively for drug delivery to various important organs in the human body such as: the eye, kidneys, intestines and the brain. Future work is focused on better anti-toxicity of hydrogels, varying assembly techniques for hydrogels making them more biocompatible and the delivery of complex systems such as using hydrogels to deliver therapeutic cells

Uniform Type Identifier

A Uniform Type Identifier is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc. to uniquely identify a given class or type of item. Apple provides built-in UTIs to identify common system objects – document or image file types and application bundles, streaming data, clipping data, movie data – and allows third party developers to add their own UTIs for application-specific or proprietary uses. Support for UTIs was added in the Mac OS X 10.4 operating system, integrated into the Spotlight desktop search technology, which uses UTIs to categorize documents. One of the primary design goals of UTIs was to eliminate the ambiguities and problems associated with inferring a file's content from its MIME type, filename extension, or type or creator code. UTIs use a reverse-DNS naming structure. Names may include the ASCII characters A-Z, a-z, 0-9, period, all Unicode characters above U+007F. Colons and slashes are prohibited for compatibility with POSIX file path conventions. UTIs support multiple inheritance, allowing files to be identified with any number of relevant types, as appropriate to the contained data.

One of the difficulties in maintaining a user-accessible operating system is establishing connections between data types and the applications or processes that can use such data. For example, a file that contains picture data in a particular compression format can only be opened and processed in applications that are capable of handling picture data, those applications must be able to identify which compression type was used in order to extract and work with that data. In early computer systems – DOS, its variants, some versions of Windows – file associations are maintained by file extensions; the three to four character code following a file name instructs the system to open the file in particular applications. Beginning with System 1, Macintosh operating systems have attached type codes and creator codes as part of the file metadata; these four-character codes were designed to specify both the application that created the file and the specific type of the file so that other applications could open and process the file data.

However, while type and creator codes extended the flexibility of the system — a particular type of file was not restricted to opening in a particular application — they suffered many of the same problems as file extensions. Type and creator codes could be lost when files were transferred across non-Macintosh systems, the plethora of type codes made identification problematic. In addition, the classic Mac OS did not recognize file extensions at all, leading to unrecognized file errors when files were transferred from DOS/Windows systems. OPENSTEP, which formed the basis of Mac OS X, used extensions, early versions of Mac OS X followed suit; this led to some controversy with users and developers coming to OS X from NeXT or Windows origins advocating for continued use of file extensions, those coming from Classic Mac OS urging Apple to replace or supplement file extensions with type and creators. Other file identification types exist: for example, MIME types are used for identifying data, transferred over the web.

However, Apple's UTI system was designed to create a flexible file association system that would describe data hierarchically and allow for better categorization and searching, standardize data descriptions across contexts, provide a uniform method of expanding data types. For instance, the public.jpeg and public.png UTIs inherit from the public.image UTI, allowing users to search narrowly for JPEG images or PNG images or broadly for any kind of image by changing the specificity of the UTI used in the search. Further, application developers who design new data types can extend the UTIs available. For example, a new image format developed by a company may have a UTI of and be specified to inherit from the public.image type. Apple's macOS continues to support other forms of file association, contains utilities for translating between them, but will use UTIs by preference where available. Apple maintains the public.* domain as a set base data types for all UTIs. Other UTIs are associated with these base UTIs by conformance, a system similar to class inheritance.

UTIs that conform to other UTIs share a basic types, in general any application that works with data of a more general UTI should be able to work with data of any UTI that conforms to that general UTI. The most basic public UTIs in the Apple hierarchy are as follows: UTIs are used to identify other file type identifiers: Dynamic UTIs can be created as needed by applications. Apple provides a large collection of system-declared Uniform Type Identifiers. Third-party applications can add UTIs to the database maintained by macOS by "exporting" UTIs declared within the application package; because new UTIs can be declared to "conform to" existing system UTIs, declarations can associate the new UTIs with file extensions, an exported declaration alone can provide the operating system with enough information to enable new functions, such as enabling Quick Look for new file types. To get the UTI of a given file, use the mdls command in the Terminal. Mdls -name kMDItemContentType -name kMDItemContentTypeTree -name kMDItemKind FILE

Naval regions and districts of the Kriegsmarine

Naval regions and districts were the official shore establishment of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The Kriegsmarine shore establishment was divided into four senior regional commands, who were in turn subordinated to the operational Navy Group commanders who commanded all sea and shore naval forces within a particular geographical region. Within each naval region were several subordinate naval districts who were responsible for all navy shore activities within their area of responsibility, most were the various German ports of occupied Europe; the naval regions were the senior most shore command in a given geographical area and were subordinate to the Navy Group commanders. A total of four naval regions were established in occupied Europe during the Second World War. A deputy commander, known as the "2. Admiral" commanded staff units and oversaw regional administrative matters; the deputy region commander oversaw the Schiffs–Stamm-Abteilung, a liaison for port commands and served as the ultimate authority for personnel in transit or stationed in shore naval garrisons.

For those permanent assigned to the ship's department, a subordinate Schiffs–Stamm-Regiment existed as an intermediary command. Other major subordinates to the regional command were the Befehlshaber der Sicherung, Inspektion des Schiffsmaschinewesens, Artilleriearsenalinspektionen, the Sanitätsamt der Marinestation. A regional signals detachment existed to coordinate orders and messages between the various subordinate commands. All naval regions were permanently assigned at least one navy shore combat unit. In most cases this was known as the Marine–Schützen–Bataillon. Engineering and pioneer naval units were grouped into a Marine–Festungspionier–Bataillon. Regional commands were responsible for the operation of all naval prisons. Naval prisoner-of-war camps were under the jurisdiction of a senior officer known as the Kommandantur des Marine–Kriegsgefangenen– und Interniertenlagers. All naval regions further maintained a legal office as well as a war correspondence company. All induction and recruiting centers operated through an office known as the Marine–Abrechnungs– und Vorprüfungsamt while the Dienststelle für Eignungsprüfung administrated certification examinations for the various naval rates.

Each naval region maintained a billeting and housing office, known as the Abwicklungsamt. The North Sea naval region was the first to be established and was known as Der Kommandierende Admiral der Marinestation der Nordsee; the command was formed from a preexisting unit of the Reichsmarine, known as the Marinestation der Nordsee. In the spring of 1943, the title was renamed as the Marineoberkommando der Nordsee. Major subordinate districts were the Deutsches Marinekommando Italien and the Admiral in den Niederlanden which oversaw all German naval matters in the occupied Netherlands; the following officers held the title of regional commander during the years of Naval region North Sea's existence. Admiral Otto Schultze: Jul 1935 - Oct 1937 Admiral Hermann Boehm: Oct 1937 - Oct 1938 Admiral Alfred Saalwächter: Oct 1938 - Aug 1939 Admiral Otto Schultze: Aug - Nov 1939 Vice admiral Hermann Densch: Nov 1939 - Mar 1943 Admiral Erich Förste: Mar 1943 - May 1945Major port cities under the control of Naval Region North Sea were Wilhelmshaven and Bremen.

The regional command was the authority for all naval observatories in the area. A central administrative office, known as the Heimatverwaltung West coordinated all shore activities while the Heimatverwaltung Ausland oversaw region personnel deployed to other areas of the Kriegsmarine; the Troßschiffverband Nord was the department responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of all troop ships on call for deployment into the North Sea. Germany had maintained a naval presence in the Baltic Sea since the 19th century, in 1865 the earliest continuous command in the area, the Marinestation der Ostsee, was established in Kiel. By June 1935, the Reichsmarine had established a position known as Der Chef der Marinestation der Ostsee. In November 1938, the Kriegsmarine created the post of Der Kommandierende General der Marinestation der Ostsee headquartered at Kiel; the region was commanded by a full admiral with a deputy known as the 2. Admiral der Ostseestation. Subordinated to the Baltic Sea regional commander were three "coastal commanders" who oversaw various harbor and coastal defense units.

The port superintendent of Kiel reported directly to the regional command as well as several inspection units for naval weapons, artillery and well as an Inspector for Training and Education. The naval region contained a signals unit, medical department, personnel branch; the commander of U-boats was administratively subordinated to the Baltic regional commander, but became an independent separate command after 1938. In mid 1942, the name of the command was shortened to Kommando der Marinestation der Ostsee and in 1943 adopted its final name as Marineoberkommando Ostsee; the two primary subordinate naval districts were the Admiral Dänemark and the Admiral Ostland which controlled naval shore forces east of Kiel, including those stationed in Poland. The following Kriegsmarine officers held the position as Baltic Sea regional c

MacLean & MacLean

MacLean & MacLean were a Juno Award nominated, Canadian musical-comedy duo. They performed in Canada between 1972 and 1998, recorded seven albums; the duo consisted of brothers Gary Blair MacLean. The MacLeans were from Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, but were based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. MacLean & MacLean were best known for their scatological humour, combined with renditions of folk and popular songs, with Blair playing guitar and Gary playing banjo and bongo drums; the duo began performing in 1972 and during their career played the Commodore Ballroom in Vancouver, British Columbia, the 1983 Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. In 1974 the pair were asked to leave a tour because of the offensive content of their show. An early mention of the group appears in the spoken introduction to "Glace Bay Blues" by Donnie McDougall of The Guess Who on their 1972 album, Live at the Paramount, in which he explains the song was co-written with "MacLean MacLean". Despite the spoken credit, the original album only credited McDougall as the writer.

This was corrected in a recent re-issue which lists the composers as MacLean, MacLean, McDougall. During their career, they recorded seven albums including a mixture of live and studio recordings. Among their best known recordings were "I've Seen Pubic Hair" and an original song, "Dolly Parton's Tits", which made the British music charts after it was used as the theme music for a British TV show called O. T. T.. Their first album was a live recording titled Toilet Rock, produced by Skip Prokop of Lighthouse. Burton Cummings of the Guess Who appears on and produced the studio portions of their second album, Bitter Reality, although his management tried unsuccessfully to have his contribution removed, fearing it would be harmful to his career; this challenge caused the album's release to be delayed by several months, by which time the controversy had been reported by the media, the track had been "leaked" to a Toronto radio station which played it on a weekly show featuring comedy records, making the attempted removal a futile effort, the album was released with Cummings' contributions intact.

Jack Richardson, the producer of the Guess Who's albums, produced the live portions of this album. Controversial for their use of strong language, at one point they had to appeal for the right to perform at the level of the Supreme Court of Canada; the title of their album Locked Up for Laughs refers to an incident when they were put in jail in Kingston, after a charge of public indecency at a live performance. Their theme song was a rendition of "Ja-Da" retitled "Fuck Ya", it appeared on all of their albums in one form or another, it was used as a closing to their live shows, following a "mutual heckling" routine in which the audience and performers jokingly shouted abuse at each other. The back cover of Toilet Rock claims this song was written by Burton Cummings, although albums credit it to the MacLeans; the cover claims, "we all wrote'Lickin' My Dick'", but it's not clear whether "all" is meant to include Cummings and/or Prokop. In the 1980s the MacLeans created a character called "The Champ".

This character was licensed to, further developed by, radio personality "Brother" Jake Edwards. Edwards performed a daily two-minute Champ monologue for syndication to radio stations in Canada for 20 years, the longest running feature of this type in Canadian history. A sample of the MacLeans' version of the Champ can be found on Cruel Cuts, but it was Edwards who gave the character his distinctive gruff voice. Edwards released 4 CDs of selected Champ monologues, a 5th Champ CD described as being "a little more risque than the radio program"; the duo toured off for nearly three decades. In years, they worked in radio. Gary MacLean became a radio personality in Winnipeg, while Blair took up a new profession as a landscape painter; the duo performed for the last time not long before Gary MacLean died of throat cancer in 2001. Following Gary's death, Blair MacLean released a CD entitled Live, a recording of a 1996 performance in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, to raise money for a trust fund for his brother's children.

Blair MacLean died on 29 October 2008 at age 65 due to a heart attack. All three of Gary's sons work in the music end of showbiz under the band name The MacLean Brothers fronted by singer/songwriter Michael Vermeylen out of Winnipeg, Canada. In early 2010, they played a successful one-month tour of South Korea. Toilet Rock Bitter Reality Locked Up for Laughs MacLean & MacLean Suck Their Way to the Top / MacLean & MacLean Take the "O" Out of Country Go to Hell Cruel Cuts The Dirty Thirty 2 in 1 2 in 1 Live (2003, live at Watts, Moose Jaw, S

Patteson Womersley Nickalls

Patteson Womersley Nickalls, was an English polo player who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics for Great Britain. Nickalls was born on 23 January 1877 at North Weald, the son of Sir Patteson Nickalls, a stockbroker, his wife Florence, he was educated at Rugby School. There he was in the cricket XI from 1892 to 1894 and in the rugby XV in 1893, he went to New College, played in the Varsity Match for the Oxford University Polo Club in 1895-6-7 and graduated with a BA in 1897. In 1900, he was served in the Second Anglo-Boer War, he took part in the Battle of Colenso. He became a member of the London Stock Exchange. Nickalls played, he was a member of the winning teams in the Roehampton Trophy in 1904 and 1905. In 1905 he played for the Roehampton Club and in 1908 the Roehampton team represented Great Britain at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London and won the Gold Medal, he captained the Enghsh team against America in 1909 in the Weschester Cup with a handicap of +8Nickalls served on the Western Front in World War I in the Northamptonshire Yeomanry.

He wrote an account of fox hunting behind the lines in 1916. He remained a major in the Territorial Reserve, having been awarded the Distinguished Service Order in 1918, until 1926. Nickalls died on 10 September 1946 at the age of 69. Olympic Players profile