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Kaski District

Kaski District (Nepali: कास्की जिल्ला Listen, a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The name is disambiguated from the ancient Kaski Kingdom; the district, with Pokhara as its district headquarter, covers an area of 2,017 square km and had a total population of 492,098 according to 2011 Census. This district lies at the centroid point of the country; the altitude of Kaski district ranges from 450 meters the lowest land to 8091 meters the highest point in the Himalaya range. Kaski District politically has 4 Gaupalika and 3 electoral sectors; the district covers parts of the Annapurna mountain range, the picturesque scene of the mountains can be observed from most parts of the district. It is one of the best tourist destinations of Nepal; the district is full of rivers such as Seti Gandaki and Madi along with other rivulets. The district headquarters Pokhara lies about 750 m above the sea level and is one of the best tourist destinations in the world; the district is famous for the Himalayan range with about 11 Himalayas with height greater than 7000 m.

The famous Peaks include Machhapuchhre. The Annapurna Range in the northern side is always full of snow; the scenery of northern mountains, gorge of Seti River, Davis Falls, natural caves, Fewa Lake, Begnas Lake and Rupa Lake are both natural resources and tourist attractions. Regarding Booring the origin of the name Kaski, there are many hypotheses. From Kashyap Rishi who spent his time in Kaskikot making ayurvedic grantha "Kashyap Sagita", it is believed. Many historian refer Kaski; the civilisation inside the valley started with Khās Rulers. All the governance and development of Kaski District are handled by District Development Committee Kaski; the district is full of people with multi-religion and multiple cultures. Different people have different foods and norms based on their caste and religion. Many places offer Home Stay for internal as well as international tourists along with performance of local dance according to caste and cultures. According to the census of 2068 Kaski district has people of about 84 castes, 44 languages and 11 religions.

The dressing style of people here matches with national dress. The main foods of people here are Dal-Bhat Tarkari and Dhindo; the district is the common place of different castes such as Gurung, Chhetri, Thakali and many more. According to the District Sport Committee, Kaski District have one stadium, named Pokhara Rangashala, of about 417 Ropani of area and capacity of 21,000 spectators. Phewa Lake is a tourism destination in Nepal and the second biggest lake of Nepal with the area of 4.43 square km and a perimeter of 18 km. Boating takes in the surrounding forest and settlements near it; the Tal Barahi temple is situated at the middle of the lake. Begnas Lake, at Lekhnath of Kaski district, is the third big lake of Nepal with the area of 3.73 square km. The lake is known for its pure water compared with other lakes and the view of Annapurna and Machhapuchhre. Rupa Lake Patale Chhango: water falls located at Chorepatan-Pokhara. Gupteshwar Cave at Chorepatan-Pokhara is a tourism destination. Mahendra Cave at Bataulechaur has length of about 125 m.

It has different images of Lord Shiva and Lord Ganesh and others that are natural and are the attracting points of this cave. Planeterium at Bataulechaur is a tourist location with different attractions; this place is most useful for visitors & students having a purpose of educational tour with entertainment. Seti River flows from Machhapuchhre Peak through gorges with the depth of about 200 feet. Bindhabasini Temple is one of the most important religious destination of Nepal. Different Himalayas can be seen from this temple. Sarangkot is known for views of the sunrise, views of Pokhara city and paragliding, it is located at about 5500 feet. Machhapuchhre is a mountain 6997m in height, famous for its fish-tail structure; the peak is still not open for mountaineers. The Annapurna Range, on the border between Manang and Myagdi Districts, is seen from all places of Kaski district. Panchase Chhetra is an area of about 5500 hectares including five peaks and the sources of the rivers Harpan, Jare, Seti.

This region lies in the border of Kaski and Syangja district. Many Himalayas can be seen from this place; this is the place with many Sunakhari. The region is known for its biodiversity, featuring Lali Gurans, Chap and many more of about 600 types and the place for different animals such as tiger, deer. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Kaski District had a population of 492,098. Of these, 78.5% spoke Nepali, 11.9% Gurung, 2.2% Magar, 2.2% Newari, 1.5% Tamang, 0.7% Bhojpuri, 0.6% Hindi and 0.5% Maithili as their first language. 19.4 % of the population in the district spoke 1.1 % Gurung as their second language. The district consists of four rural municipalities; these are as follows: Pokhara Metropolitan City Annapurna Rural Municipality Machhapuchchhre Rural Municipality Madi Rural Municipality Rupa Rural Municipality Provinces of Nepal "Districts of Nepal". Statoids. RoyalArk-Nepal history

Ernst Degner

Ernst Degner was a German professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. Degner was noted for defecting to the west in 1961, taking MZ's tuning techniques to Suzuki, winning Suzuki's first Grand Prix championship in 1962. Degner's father died just before the end of World War II. Degner, his older sister and their mother fled from their home in Gleiwitz to avoid the advancing Russian army and wound up in Luckau German Democratic Republic at the end of the war. Degner's mother died shortly thereafter, he attended Potsdam Technical High School and was awarded a diploma in development engineering in 1950. He became an apprentice motorcycle mechanic in Potsdam. In 1950, Degner joined the Potsdam Motorcycle Club where he met Daniel Zimmermann who had built an exceptionally fast 125cc racing motorcycle based on the DKW RT125, it was called the ZPH in its riders at that time and. The ZPH proved faster than the East German factory IFAs whose machines were based on the DKW RT125. Degner started racing in 1952 and after a successful season he obtained his licence to ride in the "Ausweisklasse" in 1953.

The 1953 season saw Degner record his first victories at the Leipziger Stadtpark and Bernau meetings. He ended the season as runner up in the 125cc Ausweisklasse. Zimmermann provided him with a ZPH engine which Degner used to finish runner up to Horst Fugner in the 1955 East German 125cc Championship, his racing successes on the ZPH were noted by the MZ team manager, Walter Kaaden, who signed Degner as an engineer/rider for the Zschopau factory, but only after Degner had secured employment for his girl friend Gerda Bastian with the factory. Degner started his employment with MZ on 1 March 1956. Degner raced for the East German manufacturer which used two-stroke engines, for which Kaaden had discovered principles regarding how sound waves and expansion chambers affect engine tuning. In 1957, he won 11 out of 14 125cc races which he contested for the factory, finished the season as the 1957 East German 125cc road racing national champion. From 1958 the factory entered Degner in all the world Championship races and he scored his first world championship victory at the 1959 125cc Nations Grand Prix at Monza.

He ended the season ranked fifth in the 125cc world championship and fourth in the 250cc world championship. A fall in practice at the Isle of Man TT races, the opening round of the 1960 World Championship series damaged his quest for the 125cc World Title, but his second Grand Prix victory at the Belgian Grand Prix meant that he finished third in the 125cc world championship. After the Berlin Wall was built in August 1961, Degner arranged the escape of his family from the GDR on the weekend he was racing in the Swedish Grand Prix at Kristianstad. In that race he could have secured the 125cc World Championship for himself and for MZ, but his engine failed early in the race, his main rival for the 125cc World Title, Honda rider Tom Phillis, was unable to clinch the 125cc title at this race, as he finished sixth in the Swedish race, but two laps in arrears of the race winner. After the race, Degner drove his Wartburg car to Gedser, Denmark where he caught the ferry to Holstein-Grossenbrode, West Germany.

From there, he drove to Dillingen on the France/German border and met up with his wife and family who had safely defected to West Germany. After the MZ team had discovered his defection, the East Germans accused Degner of deliberately destroying his engine in the Swedish race and lodged a complaint with the FIM; the East Germans' accusations resulted in Degner's East German racing licence being revoked. Degner had, acquired a West German racing licence and with the help of Dr Joe Ehrlich, who owned EMC motorcycles, he was entered to ride a 125cc EMC at the Argentine GP. Cables from the organisers to the carriers of the EMC resulted in the machine being delayed on its journey to Argentina. Degner was thus prevented from racing this EMC 125cc racer in the final 125cc World Championship round in Argentina. Phillis won the World Title. Had Degner won that race, he could still have been crowned 125cc World Champion. At an FIM court in Geneva, Switzerland, on 25 and 26 November 1961, the court dismissed the complaint by MZ that Degner had deliberately wrecked the engine of his MZ.

In November 1961, the Japanese company Suzuki hired him and he moved to Hamamatsu, Japan to work in the Suzuki race-shop over the winter. Using the specialist two-stroke knowledge he had gained at MZ, Degner designed Suzuki's new 50cc and 125cc racers; the following year, in 1962, Degner won Suzuki's first World Championship in the 50 cc class. On 3 November 1962 at Suzuka's inaugural race meeting, Degner crashed his Suzuki 50cc racer when a gust of wind lifted his front wheel as he rounded Turn 8. At that time Turn 8 was a single constant radius single curve, changed into two'curves' in 1983). To mark Suzuka's first crash site, Turn 8, where Degner had crashed, was named Degner Curve. At the Japanese Grand Prix of 10 November 1963, after a bad start, Degner crashed his Suzuki 250cc racer on his first lap at the exit to Turn 2 of the Suzuka Circuit, his Suzuki fuel tank was full and it burst into flames, enveloping the rider. In his autobiography, Degner's Suzuki team-mate Hugh Anderson says:'As we came out of the first corner on the start of the second lap', we were confronted with frantically waved yellow flags and a great cloud of smoke and flames.

Ernst had crashed and was lying unconscious. Frank had stopped and marshals, after dragging

1924 Oxford by-election

The Oxford by-election, 1924 was a parliamentary by-election held on 5 June 1924 for the British House of Commons constituency of Oxford. The seat had become vacant when the Liberal Member of Parliament Frank Gray was unseated on petition on 14 May, after his agent had falsified the account for his expenses at the 1923 election. Gray had held the seat since the 1922 election; the result of the last General Election. B. Fry, he had been an all-round sportsman, best known as an England cricketer. Fry had contested Brighton in the 1922 election and the neighbouring seat of Banbury in the 1923 election; the Conservative Party selected the 35-year-old Robert Bourne, a member of the New College boat which won silver in the men’s eights at the 1912 Olympics. The Labour Party who had not fielded a candidate before, selected the 26-year-old Kenneth Lindsay down from Worcester and contesting his first Parliamentary election, he had been President of the Oxford Union in Michaelmas 1922. All three candidates were former Oxford Blues enabling the popular press to dub the campaign'The Battle of the Blues'.

Former Liberal MP Frank Gray, despite being barred from standing, was still popular in the constituency and he was active in support of Fry throughout the campaign. During the campaign Fry advocated the introduction of equal opportunities for women, the imposition of responsibilities on the fathers of illegitimate children and the introduction of a tax system that would give privacy and independence to married women; the result was a gain for the Conservatives. Bourne would hold the seat at the following General Election

Spending Review

A Spending Review or Comprehensive Spending Review is a governmental process in the United Kingdom carried out by HM Treasury to set firm expenditure limits and, through public service agreements, define the key improvements that the public can expect from these resources. Spending Reviews focus upon one or several aspects of public spending while Comprehensive Spending Reviews focus upon each government department's spending requirements from a zero base; the latter are named after the year in which they are announced – thus CSR07 applies to financial years 2008–2011. Other developed countries have similar review processes, e.g. Canada, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Italy and France. France conducted its first comprehensive spending review in 2008; the Netherlands have been carrying out spending reviews since 1981. The UK's 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review included three significant changes; the first was that it represented the first test of the capacity of the Spending Review process to plan and deliver a discretionary fiscal consolidation in the UK.

The previous four Spending Reviews took place during a period of steady public growth in the economy from 37% in 1999–00 to 42% by 2007–08. As both the UK's fiscal rules began to bite, the UK government desired to halve the real rate of growth in public spending from 4% per annum over the last decade to 2% per annum over the next three years – a 0.5% below than the trend rate of growth of the economy. A second noteworthy development in the 2007 CSR was a marked extension in the certainty that the UK system provided to public sector managers about their future budgets. CSR07 saw the UK's public service 110 departmental-based Public Service Agreements consolidated into 30 inter-departmental agreements. A spending review for the years 2011/12 through to 2014/15 was announced by the coalition government; this review was driven by a desire to reduce government spending. Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced the details of the spending review on 20 October 2010; the cuts were described as the biggest since World War II.

The review led to an £81 billion cut in public spending in the following 4 years of the parliament, with average departmental cuts of 19%. In addition major changes in welfare were announced including £7 billion of extra welfare cuts, changes to incapacity benefit, housing benefit and tax credits and a rise in the state pension age to 66 from 2020. Public sector employees will face a £3.5 billion increase in public pension contributions. The Home Office faced cuts of 25%, local councils would face a yearly 7% cut in funding from central government each year until 2014; the Ministry of Defence faced cuts of around 8%. In addition many other public sector bodies had cuts to their funding. Although not part of government the BBC had its licence fee frozen for 6 years and took on the funding of the BBC World Service, BBC Monitoring and S4C; the Office for Budget Responsibility predicted that the spending review led to a loss of about 490,000 public sector jobs by 2015. The NHS saw a 0.4% increase in spending in real terms over the following 4 years.

A £200 million payment was announced to compensate savers in the collapsed savings society Presbyterian Mutual. A report published in late 2013 by Trust for London and the London School of Economics and Political Science estimated that local government budgets in London had taken a 33% real terms cut in central government funding for local government between 2009/10 and 2013/14. Multiannual Financial Framework Justin Tyson Implementing a'Spending Review' -- Italy Seeks to Improve the Quality of Public Expenditure International Monetary Fund, 12 November 2007 Richard Hughes United Kingdom Concludes Its Fifth Multi-Annual Spending Round International Monetary Fund, 5 May 2008 HM Treasury - Spending Review 2010 Guardian Special Report - Spending Review 2010 2004 Spending Review Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015

Aduston Hall

Aduston Hall is a historic antebellum plantation house in the riverside town of Gainesville, Alabama. Although the raised cottage displays the strict symmetry and precise detailing of the Greek Revival style, it is unusual in its massing; the house is low and spread out over one-story with a fluid floor-plan more reminiscent of a 20th-century California ranch house than the boxy neoclassical houses of its own era. It is a contributing property to the Gainesville Historic District; the district was listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on March 25, 1976, the National Register of Historic Places on October 3, 1985. Now owned by the Sumter County Historical Society, the house is operated as a visitor welcome center for the historic district. In addition to its use as a welcome center, the Sumter County Historical Society utilizes the house and grounds as the centerpiece of its Sumter Heritage Days, held each spring. In 1994 the Historical Society received $130,000 for the stabilization and restoration of the house from local and federal funds.

Aduston Hall was built as a summer home for Amos Travis from 1844 to 1846. Travis, a resident of Mobile, used the house as a refuge from the heat and disease that plagued Mobile during the summer months; the property was a self-sufficient plantation complex. Five 19th century outbuildings remain at the site; the one-story wood-frame house is composed of a rectangular central main block and H-shaped side wings. The roof of the central portion runs parallel to the front of the house; the center of this block is fronted by a temple-like pedimented Doric portico projecting several feet out from the main Doric porch under the main roof. The central front entrance door is derived from designs published by Asher Benjamin; the main block is abutted on both sides by front gabled side wings projecting past the central portion to the front and rear of the house. These are ornamented with Doric pilasters. With its H-shaped plan, the house provided excellent cross ventilation for all of the major rooms. There were two other similar houses known in the vicinity of Aduston Hall.

The Travis-Derryberry-Harwood House, which survives in Gainesville, the Norwood Plantation in Faunsdale, destroyed in the 1930s


Halfshire was one of the hundreds in the English county of Worcestershire. As three of the five hundreds in the county were jurisdictions exempt from the authority of the sheriff, the hundred was considered to be half what was subject to his jurisdiction, whence the name; the hundred seems to have been formed in the mid-12th century, by amalgamating the Domesday hundreds of Came, Clent and Esch, other than those parts where an ecclesiastical exempt jurisdiction existed, which were joined to the appropriate ecclesiastical hundreds about the same time. Anciently, it contained the following manors: Belbroughton, Bentley Pauncefoot, Chaddesley Corbett, Worcestershire, Church Lench, Cofton Hackett, Doverdale, Dudley, Elmley Lovett, Frankley, Hagley, Kingsford, Kings Norton, Lutley, Oldswinford, Over Mitton, Rushock, Stone, Upton Warren, Warley Wigorn. Of these and Church Lench were exclaves. Feckenham and Bentley Pauncefoot were nearly exclaves until Tardebigge was added, it contained the extra-parochial places of Crutch, Grafton Manor, Westwood Park.

By the late 17th century the hundred was administered in two divisions. The court for the lower division met at Churchill "under a great tree"; the following map and accompanying table is a breakdown of the exclaves and parishes incorporated into Halfshire hundred between 1844 and the creation of the district council structure in 1894. For clarity, the map and table includes Halfshire's own parishes that were enclaves of other Worcestershire hundreds, the location of Upper Arley's inclusion in 1895. Victoria County History, volume 3, 1-4