Gamawa is a Local Government Area of Bauchi State, bordering Yobe State in the east. Its headquarters are in the town of Gamawa, it has an area of 2,925 km² and a population of 286,388 at the 2006 census. The predominant ethnic group in the area are the Hausa, Fulani People Fulfulde with the Kare living in the east; the postal code of the area is 752. Gamawa is boarded to the south by Dambam
Bauchi is a city in northeast Nigeria, the capital of Bauchi State, of the Bauchi Local Government Area within that State, of the traditional Bauchi Emirate. It is located at an elevation of 616 m; the Local Government Area covers an area of 3,687 km2 and had a population of 493,810 at the time of the 2006 Census. The city was founded by the only non-Fulani flag-bearer of the Sokoto Empire; the name was derived from a hunter called Baushe, who advised Yaqub to build his city west of the Warinje mountain. In return Yaqub promised to name his city after the hunter. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa is buried in the city, while the Yankari National Park is 110 km from the state capital; the city lies on the Port Harcourt – Maiduguri railway line. The Bauchi State Library Board was established in 1976. In July 2009, attacks in Bauchi by Boko Haram following the arrest of some of its members resulted in over 50 people killed and over 100 arrested. After the 2014 Chibok kidnapping, over 200 students were transferred to the Federal Government Girls College, Bauchi.
The majority were from Federal Government Girls’ College, Yobe State. Bauchi was served by a narrow gauge 762 mm light railway, but this was converted to the normal gauge of 1,067 mm. Up until August, 2014, Bauchi was served by Bauchi Airport, located in-town. Scheduled airline service was transferred to the newly constructed Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa International Airport, 23 kilometres north of Bauchi, near the village of Durum. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bauchi has a tropical savanna climate, abbreviated "Aw" on climate maps. Gerawa Fulani Jarawa Gere Sayawa Kir-Balar language, Kir Bengbet and Kir Bajang’le villages Zumbun language, Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement Karai Karai Boyawa Bogoro LGA. Bauchi Light Railway Railway stations in Nigeria
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue, as well as to some variants of ultramarine. It is traditionally regarded as a color in the visible spectrum, as well as one of the seven colors of the rainbow: the color between violet and blue; the color indigo is named after the indigo dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The first known recorded use of indigo as a color name in English was in 1289. Species of Indigofera were cultivated in East Asia, Egypt and Peru in antiquity; the earliest direct evidence for the use of indigo dates to around 4000 BC and comes from Huaca Prieta, in contemporary Peru. Pliny the Elder mentions India as the source of the dye, it was imported from there in small quantities via the Silk Road. The Ancient Greek term for the dye was Ἰνδικὸν φάρμακον, adopted to Latin as indicum and via Portuguese gave rise to the modern word indigo. Spanish explorers discovered an American species of indigo and began to cultivate the product in Guatemala.
The English and French subsequently began to encourage indigo cultivation in their colonies in the West Indies. Blue dye can be made from two different types of plants: the indigo plant, which produces the best results, from the woad plant Isatis tinctoria known as pastel. For a long time woad was the main source of blue dye in Europe. Woad was replaced by true indigo as trade routes opened up, both plant sources have now been replaced by synthetic dyes; the Early Modern English word indigo referred to the dye, not to the color itself, indigo is not traditionally part of the basic color-naming system. Modern sources place indigo in the electromagnetic spectrum between 420 and 450 nanometers, which lies on the short-wave side of color wheel blue, towards violet. However, the correspondence of this definition with colors of actual indigo dyes is disputed. Optical scientists Hardy and Perrin list indigo as between 445 and 464 nm wavelength, which occupies a spectrum segment from the color wheel blue extending to the long-wave side, towards azure.
Isaac Newton introduced indigo as one of the seven base colors of his work. In the mid-1660s, when Newton bought a pair of prisms at a fair near Cambridge, the East India Company had begun importing indigo dye into England, supplanting the homegrown woad as source of blue dye. In a pivotal experiment in the history of optics, the young Newton shone a narrow beam of sunlight through a prism to produce a rainbow-like band of colors on the wall. In describing this optical spectrum, Newton acknowledged that the spectrum had a continuum of colors, but named seven: "The originall or primary colours are Red, Green, Blew, & a violet purple, he linked the seven prismatic colors to the seven notes of a western major scale, as shown in his color wheel, with orange and indigo as the semitones. Having decided upon seven colors, he asked a friend to divide up the spectrum, projected from the prism onto the wall: I desired a friend to draw with a pencil lines cross the image, or pillar of colours, where every one of the seven aforenamed colours was most full and brisk, where he judged the truest confines of them to be, whilst I held the paper so, that the said image might fall within a certain compass marked on it.
And this I did because my own eyes are not critical in distinguishing colours because another, to whom I had not communicated my thoughts about this matter, could have nothing but his eyes to determine his fancy in making those marks. Indigo is therefore counted as one of the traditional colors of the rainbow, the order of, given by the mnemonic Roy G. Biv. James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann von Helmholtz accepted indigo as an appropriate name for the color flanking violet in the spectrum. Scientists conclude that Newton named the colors differently from current usage. According to Gary Waldman, "A careful reading of Newton's work indicates that the color he called indigo, we would call blue. If this is true, Newton's seven spectral colors would have been: Red: Orange: Yellow: Green: Blue: Indigo: Violet: The human eye does not differentiate hues in the wavelengths between what we today call blue and violet. If this is where Newton meant indigo to lie, most individuals would have difficulty distinguishing indigo from its neighbors.
According to Isaac Asimov, "It is customary to list indigo as a color lying between blue and violet, but it has never seemed to me that indigo is worth the dignity of being considered a separate color. To my eyes it seems deep blue."Modern color scientists divide the spectrum between violet and blue at about 450 nm, with no indigo. Like many other colors, indigo gets its name from an object in the natural world—the plant named indigo once used for dyeing cloth; the color electric indigo is a saturated color between the traditional indigo and violet. This is the brightest color indigo; the web color blue violet or deep indigo is a tone of indigo brighter than pigment indigo, but not as bright as electric indigo. The color pigment indigo is equivalent to the web color indigo and approximates the color indigo, reproduced in pigments and colored pencils; the color of indigo dye is
Jihad is an Arabic word which means striving or struggling with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, religious proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the ummah, though it is most associated with war. In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad; the term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups. The word jihad appears in the Quran with and without military connotations in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God". Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era understood the obligation of jihad predominantly in a military sense, they developed an elaborate set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat.
In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead given rise to an ideological and political discourse. While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory. Jihad is classified into inner jihad, which involves a struggle against one's own base impulses, external jihad, further subdivided into jihad of the pen/tongue and jihad of the sword. Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, while much of contemporary Muslim opinion favors the opposite view. Gallup analysis of a large survey reveals considerable nuance in the conceptions of jihad held by Muslims around the world. Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, though this designation is not recognized. In Twelver Shi'a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion. A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid.
The term jihad is rendered in English as "Holy War", although this translation is controversial. Today, the word jihad is used without religious connotations, like the English crusade. In Modern Standard Arabic, the term jihad is used for a struggle for causes, both religious and secular; the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines the term as "battle. Nonetheless, it is used in the religious sense and its beginnings are traced back to the Qur'an and the words and actions of Muhammad. In the Qur'an and in Muslim usage, jihad is followed by the expression fi sabil illah, "in the path of God." Muhammad Abdel-Haleem states that it indicates "the way of truth and justice, including all the teachings it gives on the justifications and the conditions for the conduct of war and peace." It is sometimes used without religious connotation, with a meaning similar to the English word "crusade". According to Ahmed al-Dawoody, seventeen derivatives of jihād occur altogether forty-one times in eleven Meccan texts and thirty Medinan ones, with the following five meanings: striving because of religious belief, non-Muslim parents exerting pressure, that is, jihād, to make their children abandon Islam, solemn oaths, physical strength.
The context of the Quran is elucidated by Hadith. Of the 199 references to jihad in the most standard collection of hadith—Bukhari—all assume that jihad means warfare. Among reported saying of the Islamic prophet Muhammad involving jihad are The best Jihad is the word of Justice in front of the oppressive sultan. and The Messenger of Allah was asked about the best jihad. He said: "The best jihad is the one in which your horse is slain and your blood is spilled." Ibn Nuhaas cited a hadith from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, where Muhammad states that the highest kind of jihad is "The person, killed whilst spilling the last of his blood". According to another hadith, supporting one's parents is an example of jihad, it has been reported that Muhammad considered well-performing hajj to be the best jihad for Muslim women. The practice of periodic raids by Bedouins against enemy tribes and settlements to collect spoils predates the revelations of the Quran. According to some scholars, while Islamic leaders "instilled into the hearts of the warriors the belief" in jihad "holy war" and ghaza, the "fundamental structure" of this bedouin warfare "remained... raiding to collect booty".
According to Jonathan Berkey, the Quran's statements in support of jihad may have been directed against Muhammad's local enemies, the pagans of Mecca or the Jews of Medina, but these same statements could be redirected once new enemies appeared. According to another scholar, it was the shift in focus to the conquest and spoils collecting of non-Bedouin unbelievers and away from traditional inter-bedouin tribal raids, that may have made it possible for Islam not only to expand but to avoid self-destruction. "From an early date Muslim law laid down" jihad in the military sense as "one of the principal obligations" of both "the head of the Muslim state", who declared the jihad, the Muslim community. According to legal historian Sadakat Kadri, Islamic jurists first developed classical doctrine of jihad "towards th
The donkey or ass is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African wild ass, E. africanus. The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There are more than 40 million donkeys in the world in underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or pack animals. Working donkeys are associated with those living at or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for breeding or as pets in developed countries. A male donkey or ass is called a female a jenny or jennet. Jack donkeys are used to mate with female horses to produce mules. Asses were first domesticated around 3000 BC in Egypt or Mesopotamia, have spread around the world, they continue to fill important roles in many places today. While domesticated species are increasing in numbers, the African wild ass is an endangered species; as beasts of burden and companions and donkeys have worked together with humans for millennia. Traditionally, the scientific name for the donkey is Equus asinus asinus based on the principle of priority used for scientific names of animals.
However, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled in 2003 that if the domestic species and the wild species are considered subspecies of one another, the scientific name of the wild species has priority when that subspecies was described after the domestic subspecies. This means that the proper scientific name for the donkey is Equus africanus asinus when it is considered a subspecies, Equus asinus when it is considered a species. At one time, the synonym ass was the more common term for the donkey; the first recorded use of donkey was in either 1784 or 1785. While the word ass has cognates in most other Indo-European languages, donkey is an etymologically obscure word for which no credible cognate has been identified. Hypotheses on its derivation include the following: for its don-like gravity. From the name Duncan. Of imitative origin. From the 18th century, donkey replaced ass, jenny replaced she-ass, now considered archaic; the change may have come about through a tendency to avoid pejorative terms in speech, be comparable to the substitution in North American English of rooster for cock, or that of rabbit for coney, homophonic with cunny.
By the end of the 17th century, changes in pronunciation of both ass and arse had caused them to become homophones. Other words used for the ass in English from this time include cuddy in Scotland, neddy in southwest England and dicky in the southeast. Donkeys vary in size, depending on breed and management; the height at the withers ranges from 7.3 to 15.3 hands, the weight from 80 to 480 kg. Working donkeys in the poorest countries have a life expectancy of 12 to 15 years. Donkeys are adapted to marginal desert lands. Unlike wild and feral horses, wild donkeys in dry areas do not form harems; each adult donkey establishes a home range. The loud call or bray of the donkey, which lasts for twenty seconds and can be heard for over three kilometres, may help keep in contact with other donkeys over the wide spaces of the desert. Donkeys have large ears, which may pick up more distant sounds, may help cool the donkey's blood. Donkeys can defend themselves by biting, striking with the front hooves or kicking with the hind legs.
A jenny is pregnant for about 12 months, though the gestation period varies from 11 to 14 months, gives birth to a single foal. Births of twins are rare, though less so than in horses. About 1.7 percent of donkey pregnancies result in twins. In general jennies have a conception rate, lower than that of horses. Although jennies come into heat within 9 or 10 days of giving birth, their fertility remains low, it is the reproductive tract has not returned to normal, thus it is usual to wait one or two further oestrous cycles before rebreeding, unlike the practice with mares. Jennies are very protective of their foals, some will not come into estrus while they have a foal at side; the time lapse involved in rebreeding, the length of a jenny's gestation, means that a jenny will have fewer than one foal per year. Because of this and the longer gestation period, donkey breeders do not expect to obtain a foal every year, as horse breeders do, but may plan for three foals in four years. Donkeys can interbreed with other members of the family Equidae, are interbred with horses.
The hybrid between a jack and a mare is a mule, valued as a working and riding animal in many countries. Some large donkey breeds such as the Asino di Martina Franca, the Baudet de Poitou and the Mammoth Jack are raised only for mule production; the hybrid between a stallion and a jenny is a hinny, is less common. Like other inter-species hybrids and hinnies are sterile. Donkeys can breed with zebras in which the offspring is called a zonkey. Donkeys have a notorious reputation for stubbornness, but this has been attributed to a much stronger sense of self-preservation than exhibited by
Millets are a group of variable small-seeded grasses grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa, with 97% of millet production in developing countries; the crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world; the most grown millet is pearl millet, an important crop in India and parts of Africa. Finger millet, proso millet, foxtail millet are important crop species. Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and had "a pivotal role in the rise of multi-crop agriculture and settled farming societies". Millets are small-grained, warm-weather cereals belonging to the grass family, they are tolerant of drought and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content to other major cereals. The different species of millets are not closely related. All are members of the family Poaceae but can belong to different tribes or subfamilies.
The most cultivated millets are in bold and marked with an *. Eragrostideae tribe in the subfamily Chloridoideae: *Eleusine coracana: Finger millet Eragrostis tef: Teff – not considered to be a millet. Paniceae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: Genus Panicum: *Panicum miliaceum: Proso millet *Panicum sumatrense: Little millet *Pennisetum glaucum: Pearl millet *Setaria italica: Foxtail millet, Italian millet, panic Genus Digitaria – of minor importance as crops. Digitaria exilis: known as white fonio, fonio millet, hungry rice or acha rice. Digitaria iburua: Black fonio Digitaria compacta: Raishan, cultivated in the Khasi Hills of northeast India Digitaria sanguinalis: Polish millet Genus Echinochloa: Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets. Other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. Echinochloa esculenta: Japanese barnyard millet Echinochloa frumentacea: Indian barnyard millet known as Sawa millet, Kodisama in Andhra Pradesh and Kuthirai vaali in Tamil Nadu and Bhagar or Varai in Maharashtra), Echinochloa stagnina: Burgu millet Echinochloa crus-galli: Common barnyard grass.
Paspalum scrobiculatum: Kodo millet Brachiaria deflexa: Guinea millet Urochloa ramosa: Browntop millet Andropogoneae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: *Sorghum bicolor: Sorghum - considered a separate cereal, but sometimes known as Great millet Coix lacryma-jobi: Job's tears known as adlay millet. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to the legendary Emperor of China. Millets have been mentioned in some of the oldest extant Yajurveda texts, identifying foxtail millet, Barnyard millet and black finger millet, indicating that millet consumption was common, dating to 4500 BCE, during the Indian Bronze Age. Common millet is believed to have been the first domesticated millet dating back about 10,300 years before the present. Specialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice in northern China and Korea.
Millets formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. For example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan. Cishan dates for common millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 8300–6700 BCE in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses and stone tools related to millet cultivation. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BCE. A 4,000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China. Millet was growing wild in Greece as early as 3000 BCE, bulk storage containers for millet have been found from the Late Bronze Age in Macedonia and northern Greece. Hesiod describes that "the beards grow round the millet, which men sow in summer." And millet is listed along with wheat in the 3rd century BCE by Theophrastus in his "Enquiry into Plants".
Palaeoethnobotanists have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period. Millet continued to be an important element in the intensive, multicropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period in Korea. Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were cultivated in Japan during the Jōmon period some time after 4000 BCE. Asian varieties of millet made their way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BCE; the cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought, this has been suggested to have aided its spread. Pearl millet was domesticated in the Sahel region of West Africa, where its wild ancestors are found. Evidence for the cultivation of pearl millet in Mali dates back to 2500 BCE, pearl millet is found in the Indian subcontinent by 2300 BCE. Finger millet is o
The Hausa are the largest ethnic group in Africa and the second largest language after Arabic in the Afroasiatic family of languages. The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based in the Sahelian and the sparse savanna areas of southern Niger and northern Nigeria numbering over 70 million people with significant indegenized populations in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Togo, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Gambia Predominantly Hausa-speaking communities are scattered throughout West Africa and on the traditional Hajj route north and east traversing the Sahara, with an large population in and around the town of Agadez. Other Hausa have moved to large coastal cities in the region such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Abidjan and Cotonou as well as to parts of North Africa such as Libya over the course of the last 5,000 years; the Hausa, traditionally live in small villages as well as in precolonial towns and cities where they grow crops, raise livestock including cattle as well as engage in trade, both local and long distance across Africa.
They speak an Afro-Asiatic language of the Chadic group. The Hausa aristocracy had developed an equestrian based culture. Still a status symbol of the traditional nobility in Hausa society, the horse still features in the Eid day celebrations, known as Ranar Sallah. Daura city is the cultural centre of the Hausa people; the town predates all the other major Hausa towns in culture. The Hausa have in the last 500 years criss crossed the vast African landscape in all its four corners for varieties of reasons ranging from military service, long distance trade, performance of hajj, fleeing from oppressive kings and feudalism as well as spreading Islam; the table below shows Hausa ethnic population distribution by country of indegenization: Daura, in northern Nigeria, is the oldest city of Hausaland. The Hausa of Gobir in northern Nigeria, speak the oldest surviving classical vernacular of the language. Katsina was the centre of Hausa Islamic scholarship but was replaced by Sokoto stemming from the 17th century Usman Dan Fodio Islamic reform.
The Hausa are culturally and closest to other Sahelian ethnic groups the Fula. All of these various ethnic groups among and around the Hausa live in the vast and open lands of the Sahel and Sudanian regions, as a result of the geography and the criss crossing network of traditional African trade routes, have had their cultures influenced by their Hausa neighbours, as noted by T. L. Hodgkin “The great advantage of Kano is that commerce and manufactures go hand in hand, that every family has a share in it. There is something grand about this industry, which spreads to the north as far as Murzuk and Tripoli, to the West, not only to Timbuctu, but in some degree as far as the shores of the Atlantic, the inhabitants of Arguin dressing in the cloth woven and dyed in Kano. In clear testimony to T. L Hodgkin's claim, the people of Agadez and Saharan areas of central Niger, the Tuareg and the Hausa groups are indistinguishable from each other in their traditional clothing, but the two groups differ in language and preferred beasts of burden.
Other Hausa have mixed with ethnic groups southwards such as the Yoruba of old Oyo and Igbirra in the northern fringes of the forest belt and in similar fashion to their Sahelian neighbors have influenced the cultures of these groups. Islamic Shari’a law is loosely the law of the land in Hausa areas, well understood by any Islamic scholar or teacher, known in Hausa as a m'allam, mallan or malam; this pluralist attitude toward ethnic-identity and cultural affiliation has enabled the Hausa to inhabit one of the largest geographic regions of non-Bantu ethnic groups in Africa. The Nok culture appeared in Northern Nigeria around 1000 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 AD in the region of West Africa, it is believed to be the product of an ancestral nation that branched to create the Hausa, the people of Gwandara language, Kanuri, Nupe peoples, The Kwatarkwashi Culture of Tsafe or Chafe in present day Zamfara State located to the North west of Nok is thought to be the same as or an earlier ancestor of the Nok.
Nok's social system is thought to have been advanced. The Nok culture is considered to be the earliest sub-Saharan producer of life-sized Terracotta; the refinement of this culture is attested to by the image of a Nok dignitary at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. The dignitary is portrayed wearing a "crooked baton" The dignitary is portrayed sitting with flared nostrils, an open mouth suggesting performance. Other images show figures on horseback. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok culture in Africa at least by 550 BC and earlier. Christoph