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Katanga Province

Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami and Haut-Katanga provinces. Between 1971 and 1997, its official name was Shaba Province. Katanga's area encompassed 497,000 square kilometres. Farming and ranching are carried out on the Katanga Plateau; the eastern part of the province is considered to be a rich mining region, which supplies cobalt, tin, radium and diamonds. The region's former capital, Lubumbashi, is the second-largest city in the Congo. Copper mining in Katanga dates back over 1,000 years, mines in the region were producing standard-sized ingots of copper for international transport by the end of the 10th century CE. In the 1890s, the province was beleaguered from the south by Cecil Rhodes' Northern Rhodesia, from the north by the Belgian Congo, the personal possession of King Leopold II of Belgium. Msiri, the King of Katanga, held out against both, but Katanga was subsumed by the Belgian Congo.

After 1900, the Societe Generale de Belgique controlled all of the mining in the province through Union Minière du Haut Katanga. This included uranium, copper, zinc, germanium, silver and tin. In 1915, a deposit of pitchblende and other uranium minerals of a higher grade than had been found before anywhere in the world and higher than any found since were discovered at Shinkolobwe; the discovery was kept secret by UMHK. After World War I ended. By the start of World War II, the mining companies "constituted a state within the Belgian Congo"; the Shinkolobwe mine near Jadotville was at the centre of the Manhattan Project. In 1960, after the Democratic Republic of the Congo gained independence from Belgium, the UMHK, Moise Tshombe and Godefroid Munongo supported the secession of Katanga province from the Congo; this was opposed by the Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. This led to the assassination of Lumumba and the Katanga Crisis, which lasted from 1960 to 1965; the breakaway State of Katanga existed from 1960 to 1963.

In 2005, the new constitution specified that Katanga was to be split up into separately administered provinces. Militias such as Mai Mai Kata Katanga led by Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga fought for Katanga to secede, his group took over the provincial capital Lubumbashi in 2013. In 2015, Katanga Province was split into the constitutional provinces of Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami and Haut-Katanga. Copper mining is an important part of the economy of Katanga province. Cobalt mining by individual contractors is prevalent. A number of reasons have been advanced for the failure of the vast mineral wealth of the province to increase the overall standard of living; the local provincial budget was US$440 million in 2011. Lubumbashi, the mining capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies; the Democratic Republic of Congo produces "more than 3 percent of the world’s copper and half its cobalt, most of which comes from Katanga". Major mining concessions include Kalukundi.

Gécamines, the state-owned copper-cobalt mining company, had monopoly concessions in the province. Katanga Mining Ltd TSX:KAT operates a major mining complex in Katanga province, producing refined copper and cobalt with the "potential of becoming Africa’s largest copper producer and the world’s largest cobalt producer". Katanga Mining Ltd is majority-owned by Swiss commodity trader Glencore DCC. A joint venture of Katanga Mining and Gécamines began mining Tilwezembe, an open-pit copper and cobalt mine, in 2007; the province formed the Congolese border with Zambia. The province bordered Tanzania – although Katanga province and Tanzania did not share a land border – but the border was within Lake Tanganyika. Katanga has a dry season. Rainfall is about 1,200 mm; the University of Lubumbashi, located in the northern part of Lubumbashi city, is the largest university in the province and one of the largest in the country. A number of other university-level institutions exist in Lubumbashi, some public, some private: Institut Supérieur de Statistique, Institut Supérieur Pédagogique, Institut Supérieur des Études Sociales, Institut Supérieur de Commerce, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Université Protestante de Lubumbashi, Institut Supérieur Maria Malkia, Institut Supérieur de Développement Mgr Mulolwa, Theologicum St François de Sales, Institut Supérieur de Théologie Évangélique de Lubumbashi, etc.

Université Méthodiste au Katanga, the oldest private university-level institution in the province, is located at Mulungwishi but organizes its Masters in Leadership courses in Lubumbashi. The University of Kamina, the University of Kolwezi and the University of Likasi are former branches of the University of Lubumbashi, which continues to have branches in some locations such as Kalemie. TESOL, the English Language School of Lubumbashi, is a secondary school that serves the expatriate community, it was founded in 1987 on the grounds of the French School, Lycée Français Blaise Pascal, which suspended operations in 1991 with a new French School starting in 2009. In Lubumbashi, French and Greek schools are sponsored by the respe

Tree of Life (Bahrain)

The Tree of Life in Bahrain is a 9.75 meters high Prosopis cineraria tree, over 400 years old. It is on a hill in a barren area of the Arabian Desert, 2 kilometers from Jebel Dukhan, the highest point in Bahrain, 40 kilometers from Manama, the nearest city; the tree is abundantly covered in green leaves. Due to its age and the fact that it is the only major tree growing in the area, the tree is a local tourist attraction and is visited by 65,000 people every year; the yellow resin is used to make candles and gum. It is not certain. Bahrain has little to no rain throughout the year, its roots are 50 meters deep. Others say; some assert that the tree is protected by a god of water in Babylonian and Sumerian religion. Others claim that the tree is standing in what was once the Garden of Eden, so has a more mystical source of water. In 2009, the tree was nominated to be on the New7Wonders of Nature list, but it did not finish on the list. In October 2010, archaeologists unearthed 500-year-old pottery and other artefacts in the vicinity of the tree.

A soil and dendrochronology analysis conducted in the 1990s concluded that the tree was an Acacia planted in 1582. The tree was mentioned in the 1991 film L. A. Story, where Steve Martin calls it one of the most mystical places on earth

Escapade Kid

The Escapade Kid is a single-engine, single-seat, high-wing monoplane and built in the United Kingdom in the 2000s. Despite its name, the Kid is not a direct development of the Reality Escapade but seems to be a derivative of the Flying K Sky Raider, the predecessor of the Reality Sky Raider. Escapade took over the Kid in 2008 from Reality; the Kid has fabric covered. Its high wings have constant chord and are built around two spars, one of which forms the wing leading edge; the wing carries balanced flaps. Each wing is braced by a V-form pair of struts, assisted by jury strutting; the fuselage is flat sided with a narrow dorsal ridge sloping upwards from the tail to the wing trailing edge. The single seat cabin is below the wing, its windows full-chord and the screen just forward of the leading edge. Access is via shallow hinged fuselage panel; the Kid has an 18 kW Hirth F33 single cylinder two-stroke engine, though the 30 kW Aero 40 Wankel engine is an alternative. The Kid has its tailplane mounted on top of the fuselage, braced with V-struts from below and wire-braced to the fin above.

The fin and rudder are broad chord and rounded. The starboard elevator has a trim tab; the undercarriage is fixed and conventional, with brakeable mainwheels on faired-in V-struts hinged to the lower fuselage longerons, with bungee-sprung half axles mounted on a central compression frame. There is a solid tailwheel; the Kid made its first public appearance in November 2008 at the Sport and Leisure Aviation Show held in Birmingham, UK. It is available either in ready to fly form. With an empty weight of 115 kg and a wing loading just less than the 10 kg/m2, the Kid qualifies in the UK as a single seat deregulated microlight, so does not require a Certificate of Airworthiness or a Permit to Fly. In spring 2012 there were three Kids on the UK civil aircraft register. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2011/12General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 16 ft 2 in Wingspan: 29 ft 4 in Wing area: 124.0 sq ft Empty weight: 254 lb Gross weight: 518 lb Fuel capacity: 20 L Powerplant: 1 × Hirth F-33 single cylinder two-stroke engine, 24.3 hp Propellers: 2-bladed Powerfin, ground adjustable pitchPerformance Cruise speed: 63 mph Stall speed: 34 mph Never exceed speed: 100 mph Take-off and landing run: 50 m

How Deep, How High

How Deep, How High, is an album by saxophonist Warne Marsh and pianist Sal Mosca recorded in concert in 1976 and studio in 1979 and released on the Interplay label. The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide commented: "How Deep, How High reunites Marsh with another Tristano student, pianist Sal Mosca, for a re-examination of academic roots; the dedication to a fluid, melodic concept remains intact, but gone is the strict adherence to a colored tone". The Allmusic review states "The music ranges from introspective to more driving, but it swings throughout, Marsh's solos are always intriguing". All compositions by Warne Marsh except where noted "The Hard Way" – 4:03 "Noteworthy" – 4:21 "Finishing Touch" – 3:41 "How Deep, How High" – 4:30 "Background Music" – 7:01 "She's Funny That Way" – 8:05Recorded at Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY on April 25, 1976 and at Sal Mosca's Studio in Mount Vernon, NY on May 2, 1979 and August 8, 1979 Warne Marsh – tenor saxophone Sal Mosca – piano Sam Jonesbass Roy Haynesdrums

Bufonaria crumena

Bufonaria crumena is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Bursidae, the frog shells. This species occurs in the Indian Ocean off Tanzania, Mozambique and the Mascarene Basin. Dautzenberg, Ph.. Contribution à l'étude de la faune de Madagascar: Mollusca marina testacea. Faune des colonies françaises, III. Société d'Editions coloniales: Paris. 321-636, plates IV-VII pp Drivas, J. & M. Jay. Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'île Maurice Steyn, D. G. & Lussi, M. Marine Shells of South Africa. An Illustrated Collector’s Guide to Beached Shells. Ekogilde Publishers, South Africa, ii + 264 pp. page: 72


KwaMashu is a township 12 kilometres north of Durban, South Africa. The name means Place of Marshall. KwaMashu is boarded by Newlands East to the south, Newlands West to the west, Ntuzuma to the north, Phoenix to the north-east, Mount Edgecombe to the east and Durban North to the south-east. KwaMashu is notable for its lively performing arts scene, lively performing arts scene thrives including Maskandi, hip hop, pansula dancing, drama, football. Through performance the young people of KwaMashu are raising the cultural profile of KwaMashu, aided by the skills and direction of eKhaya Multi Arts Centre for Arts and Performance. Uzalo, a South African telenovela is shot and set kwaMashu as well as the new drama series iHostela that's on Mzansi Magic; the township boasts a community radio station at the eKhaya Multi Arts Centre, called Vibe 94.70 FM, in operation for more than 4 years. The Abahlali baseMjondolo movement is prominent in the informal settlements and transit camps in the KwaMashu area.

They claim to have membership in K-section, Siyanda A, B, B5, in two Richmond Farm transit camps. Inanda Ntuzuma uMlazi Chesterville Lamontville Henry Cele, actor Leleti Khumalo, actress Thenjiwe Maphumulo Moseley, Stand up comedian and actress Tu Nokwe Siyabonga Nomvethe, football player Jeff Radebe, politician Zakes Bantwini, record producer Jacob Zuma, Former President of the Republic of South Africa Nompumelelo Zamo Missie Film and TV producer Estil Mpunzana Riky Rick, hip hop recording artist and record producer Nomzamo Mbatha, actress Deborah Fraser, gospel singer Siyanda Xulu, football player Zakwe, rapper Duncan Skuva, rapper Khulubuse Zuma, Jacob Zuma's nephew Mabheleni Ntuli Ndaba Mhlongo, Somizi Mhlongo's father Siboniso Gaxa, football player Ntethelelo Ngcobo Mlekeleli Mbanjwa Sphindile Mhlongo Nomonde Mbusi 2008 film "Kwa Mashu: Still my Home" by director Owen'Alik Shahadah in conjunction with South African arts centre Ekhaya Multi Arts Centre under K-CAP with Edmund Mhlongo, based in KwaMashu.

The film is about the history of the township. STILL MY HOME: KWAMASHU