Othello is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603. It is based on the story Un Capitano Moro by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565; the story revolves around its two central characters: Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army and his unfaithful ensign, Iago. Given its varied and enduring themes of racism, jealousy, betrayal and repentance, Othello is still performed in professional and community theatre alike, has been the source for numerous operatic and literary adaptations. Roderigo, a wealthy and dissolute gentleman, complains to his friend Iago, an ensign, that Iago has not told him about the secret marriage between Desdemona, the daughter of a senator named Brabantio, Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army. Roderigo is upset because he had asked her father for her hand in marriage. Iago hates Othello for promoting a younger man named Cassio above him, whom Iago considers less capable a soldier than himself, tells Roderigo that he plans to exploit Othello for his own advantage.
Iago convinces Roderigo to tell him about his daughter's elopement. Meanwhile, Iago warns him that Brabantio is coming for him. Brabantio, provoked by Roderigo, is enraged and will not rest until he has confronted Othello, but he finds Othello's residence full of the Duke of Venice's guards, who prevent violence. News has arrived in Venice that the Turks are going to attack Cyprus, Othello is therefore summoned to advise the senators. Brabantio has no option but to accompany Othello to the Duke's residence, where he accuses Othello of seducing Desdemona by witchcraft. Othello defends himself before the Duke of Venice, Brabantio's kinsmen Lodovico and Gratiano, various senators. Othello explains that Desdemona became enamoured of him for the sad and compelling stories he told of his life before Venice, not because of any witchcraft; the senate is satisfied, once Desdemona confirms that she loves Othello, but Brabantio leaves saying that Desdemona will betray Othello: "Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/She has deceived her father, may thee,".
Iago, still in the room, takes note of Brabantio's remark. By order of the Duke, Othello leaves Venice to command the Venetian armies against invading Turks on the island of Cyprus, accompanied by his new wife, his new lieutenant Cassio, his ensign Iago, Iago's wife, Emilia, as Desdemona's attendant; the party arrives in Cyprus to find. Othello orders a general leaves to consummate his marriage with Desdemona. In his absence, Iago gets Cassio drunk, persuades Roderigo to draw Cassio into a fight. Montano tries to calm down an angry and drunk Cassio. Montano is injured in the fight. Othello questions the men as to what happened. Othello strips him of his rank. Cassio is distraught. Iago persuades Cassio to ask Desdemona to convince her husband to reinstate Cassio. Iago now persuades Othello to be suspicious of Desdemona; when Desdemona drops a handkerchief, Emilia finds it, gives it to her husband Iago, at his request, unaware of what he plans to do with it. Othello reenters and vows with Iago for the death of Desdemona and Cassio, after which he makes Iago his lieutenant.
Act III, scene iii is considered to be the turning point of the play as it is the scene in which Iago sows the seeds of doubt in Othello's mind sealing Othello's fate. Iago plants the handkerchief in Cassio's lodgings tells Othello to watch Cassio's reactions while Iago questions him. Iago goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with Bianca, a local courtesan, but whispers her name so that Othello believes the two men are talking about Desdemona. Bianca accuses Cassio of giving her a second-hand gift which he had received from another lover. Othello sees this, Iago convinces him that Cassio received the handkerchief from Desdemona. Enraged and hurt, Othello tells Iago to kill Cassio. Othello proceeds to make Desdemona's life miserable and strikes her in front of visiting Venetian nobles. Meanwhile, Roderigo complains that he has received no results from Iago in return for his money and efforts to win Desdemona, but Iago convinces him to kill Cassio. Roderigo, having been manipulated by Iago, attacks Cassio in the street after Cassio leaves Bianca's lodgings.
Cassio wounds Roderigo. During the scuffle, Iago badly cuts his leg. In the darkness, Iago manages to hide his identity, when Lodovico and Gratiano hear Cassio's cries for help, Iago joins them; when Cassio identifies Roderigo as one of his attackers, Iago secretly stabs Roderigo to stop him revealing the plot. Iago accuses Bianca of the failed conspiracy to kill Cassio. Othello confronts Desdemona, strangles her in their bed; when Emilia arrives, Desdemona defends her husband before dying, Othello accuses Desdemona of adultery. Emilia calls for help; the former governor Montano arrives, with Gratiano and Iago. When Othello mentions the handkerchief as proof, Emilia realizes what her husband Iago has done, she exposes him, whereupon he kills her. Othello, belatedly realising Desdemona's innocence, stabs Iago but not fatally, saying that Iago is a devil, he would rather have him live the rest of his life in pain. Iago refuses vowing to remain silent from that moment on. Lodovico apprehends both Iago and Othello for the murders of Roderigo and Desdemona, but Othello commits suicide.
Ghosts is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It was written in 1881 and first staged in 1882 in Chicago, Illinois, in a production by a Danish company on tour. Like many of Ibsen's plays, Ghosts is a scathing commentary on 19th-century morality; because of its subject matter, which includes religion, venereal disease and euthanasia, it generated strong controversy and negative criticism. Since the play has fared better, is considered a “great play” that holds a position of “immense importance”. Theater critic Maurice Valency wrote in 1963, "From the standpoint of modern tragedy Ghosts strikes off in a new direction.... Regular tragedy dealt with the unhappy consequences of breaking the moral code. Ghosts, on the contrary, deals with the consequences of not breaking it." Mrs. Helen Alving, a widow Oswald Alving, her son, a painter Pastor Manders, an old friend of Helene Alving Jacob Engstrand, a carpenter Regina Engstrand, Mrs. Alving's maid and purported daughter of Jacob Engstrand, who learns she is Captain Alving's natural child Helen Alving is about to dedicate an orphanage she has built in the memory of her late husband, Captain Alving.
She reveals to Pastor Manders that her marriage was secretly a miserable one because of her husband's immoral, unfaithful behavior. She has built the orphanage to deplete her husband's wealth so that their son Oswald will not inherit anything from him. Pastor Manders had advised her to return to her husband despite his philandering, she followed his advice in the belief that her love for her husband would reform him, but her husband continued his affairs until his death, Mrs. Alving stayed with him to protect her son from the taint of scandal, for fear of being shunned by the community. During the action of the play, she discovers that her son Oswald is suffering from syphilis that he inherited from his father, she discovers that Oswald has fallen in love with her maid Regina Engstrand, a serious problem because Regina is revealed to be an illegitimate daughter of Captain Alving, making her Oswald's half-sister. A sub-plot that concludes before the play's denouement involves a carpenter, Jacob Engstrand, who married Regina's mother when she was pregnant and regards Regina as his own daughter.
Having completed his work building Mrs. Alving's orphanage, Engstrand announces his ambition to open a hostel for seafarers, he tries to persuade Regina to leave Mrs. Alving and help him run the hostel; the night before the orphanage is due to be opened, Engstrand asks Pastor Manders to hold a prayer-meeting there. That night, the orphanage burns down. Earlier, Manders had persuaded Mrs. Alving not to insure the orphanage, as to do so would imply a lack of faith in divine providence. Engstrand says the blaze was caused by Manders' carelessness with a candle and offers to take the blame, which Manders accepts. In gratitude Manders offers to support Engstrand's hostel; when Regina and Oswald's sibling relationship is exposed, Regina departs. He asks his mother to help him die by a morphine overdose to end his suffering from his disease, which could put him into a helpless vegetative state, she agrees, but only. The play concludes with Mrs. Alving having to confront the decision of whether or not to euthanize her son in accordance with his wishes.
As with his other plays, Henrik Ibsen wrote Ghosts in Danish, the common written language of Denmark and Norway. The original title, in both Danish and Norwegian, is Gengangere, which can be translated as "again walkers", "ones who return", or "revenants", it has a double meaning of both "ghosts" and "events that repeat themselves", so the English title Ghosts fails to capture this double meaning. Ibsen published it in December of the same year; as early as November 1880, when he was living in Rome, Ibsen was meditating on a new play to follow A Doll's House. When he went to Sorrento, in the summer of 1881, he was hard at work upon it, he published it in Copenhagen on 13 December. Its world stage première was on 20 May 1882 in Norwegian by a Danish company in Illinois. Ghosts premiered in May 1882 in the United States, when a Danish touring company produced it in Chicago, Illinois, at the Aurora Turner Hall. Ibsen disliked the English translator William Archer's use of the word "Ghosts" as the play's title, as the Norwegian Gengangere would be more translated as "The Revenants", which means "The Ones Who Return".
The play was first performed in Sweden at Helsingborg on 22 August 1883. The play was produced independently in September 1889 at Berlin's Die Freie Bühne; the play achieved a single private London performance on 13 March 1891 at the Royalty Theatre. The issue of Lord Chamberlain's Office censorship, because of the subject matter of illegitimate children and sexually transmitted disease, was avoided by the formation of a subscription-only Independent Theatre Society to produce the play, its members included playwright George Bernard Shaw and authors Thomas Henry James. Ghosts was first produced in New York City on 5 January 1894, it was produced again in 1899 by the New York Independent Theatre with Mary Shaw as Mrs. Alving. Russian actress Alla Nazimova, with Paul Orleneff, gave a notable production of Ghosts in a small room on the Lower East Side; when Nazimova was a student in Russia, she wanted to “play Regina for my graduation piece at the dramatic school at Moscow, but they would not let
London Road (musical)
London Road is a musical written by Alecky Blythe and Adam Cork. The production, directed by Rufus Norris, opened at the National Theatre's Cottesloe theatre in London, United Kingdom, on 14 April 2011 after seven previews; the musical is set in and around London Road in Ipswich, during the Ipswich serial murders and subsequent trial of killer Steve Wright in 2006–2008. The piece is written in verbatim style, meaning the spoken text is reproduced by the performers as recorded in interviews, in this case conducted by Blythe with the residents of London Road and some of the women who worked as prostitutes there, as well as members of the media who gathered in the area to report the news; the lyrics in the musical segments are derived from the interviews as recorded, with the meter and rhythm of the music following the patterns of the original recorded speech as as possible. Neither the murdered women nor their killer are the murders themselves; the piece does not feature principal characters in the conventional sense.
The score is orchestrated for woodwind ensemble, electric guitar and percussion. "Good Evening, Welcome" "London Road in Bloom" "Everyone is Very Very Nervous" "It Could Be Him" "Shaving Scratch" "And That's When it All Started" "They Like a Good Moan" "It's a Wicked Bloody World" "The Plea" "Ten Weeks" "Cellular Material" "We've All Stopped" "The Verdict" "Everyone Smile" "Interview" "London Road in Bloom" Clare Burt, Rosalie Craig, Kate Fleetwood, Hal Fowler, Nick Holder, Claire Moore, Michael Shaeffer, Nicola Sloane, Paul Thornley, Howard Ward, Duncan Wisbey. The musical opened to unanimous critical acclaim, garnering 5-star ratings from the Evening Standard, Financial Times, The Independent, The Mail on Sunday, The Independent on Sunday, The Sunday Times, The Sunday Express and Time Out magazine. Many of the reviews made reference to the controversial musical treatment of the source material, for example, critic Michael Coveney of The Independent wrote: "Doubters can be assured there is no "cashing in" on the tragedy, rather a deep, abiding sadness that it happened at all, a slight, knowingly shameful admission that something good has come out of it: a reborn community and a renewal of civic pride."London Road won Best Musical at the 2011 Critics' Circle Theatre Awards, held on 24 January 2012.
In July 2012 the production was revived for a short season in the National's Olivier Theatre. The revival ran for 29 performances between 28 July and 6 September 2012. In 2014 Bristol Old Vic Theatre School staged performances of London Road from 10 to 21 June 2014 in the Bristol Old Vic Studio; the production was directed by Nicholas Bone with musical direction by Pamela Rudge. In 2018 University of South Carolina Upstate's Shoestring Players performed from April 12 to 15 in Spartanburg, South Carolina; the production was directed by Jimm Cox. This is believed to be the debut of London Road in the United States. A film adaptation was announced in July 2013; the film began production in February, 2014 and will be produced by the National Theatre, BBC Films and Cuba Pictures. The film features Tom Hardy and Olivia Colman in roles of Mark, a taxi driver and Julie, the organizer of Ipswich´s Neighbourhood Watch; the live film premiere was screened in cinemas across the UK as part of National Theatre Live on 9 June 2015 and on general release in cinemas on 12 June 2015.
London Road on the National Theatre's website
Lady Macbeth is a leading character in William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth. The wife of the play's tragic hero, Lady Macbeth goads her husband into committing regicide, after which she becomes queen of Scotland. However, she suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime, which drives her to sleepwalk, she dies off-stage in an apparent suicide. According to some genealogists, Lady Macbeth and King Duncan's wife were siblings or cousins, where Duncan's wife had a stronger claim to the throne than Lady Macbeth, it was this that incited her hatred of Duncan. The character's origins lie in the accounts of Kings Duff and Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles, a history of Britain familiar to Shakespeare. Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appears to be a composite of two separate and distinct personages in Holinshed's work: Donwald's nagging, murderous wife in the account of King Duff and Macbeth's ambitious wife Gruoch of Scotland in the account of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is a powerful presence in the play, most notably in the first two acts.
Following the murder of King Duncan, her role in the plot diminishes. She becomes an uninvolved spectator to Macbeth's plotting and a nervous hostess at a banquet dominated by her husband's hallucinations, her sleepwalking scene in the fifth act is a turning point in the play, her line "Out, damned spot!" has become a phrase familiar to many speakers of the English language. The report of her death late in the fifth act provides the inspiration for Macbeth's "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" speech. Analysts see in the character of Lady Macbeth the conflict between femininity and masculinity as they are impressed in cultural norms. Lady Macbeth suppresses her instincts toward compassion and fragility — associated with femininity — in favour of ambition and the singleminded pursuit of power; this conflict colours the entire drama and sheds light on gender-based preconceptions from Shakespearean England to the present. The role has attracted countless notable actors over the centuries, including Sarah Siddons, Charlotte Melmoth, Helen Faucit, Ellen Terry, Jeanette Nolan, Vivien Leigh, Simone Signoret, Vivien Merchant, Glenda Jackson, Francesca Annis, Judith Anderson, Judi Dench, Renee O'Connor, Keeley Hawes, Alex Kingston and Marion Cotillard and Hannah Taylor-Gordon Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appeared to be a composite of two personages found in the account of King Duff and in the account of King Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles.
In the account of King Duff, one of his captains, suffers the deaths of his kinsmen at the orders of the king. Donwald considers regicide at "the setting on of his wife", who "showed him the means whereby he might soonest accomplish it." Donwald perseveres at the nagging of his wife. After plying the king's servants with food and drink and letting them fall asleep, the couple admit their confederates to the king's room, where they commit the regicide; the murder of Duff has its motivation in revenge rather than ambition. In Holinshed's account of King Duncan, the discussion of Lady Macbeth is confined to a single sentence: "The words of the three Weird Sisters greatly encouraged him hereunto. Not found in Holinshed are the invocation to the "spirits that tend on mortal thoughts," the sleepwalking scene, various details found in the drama concerning the death of Macbeth. Lady Macbeth makes her first appearance late in scene five of the first act, when she learns in a letter from her husband that three witches have prophesied his future as king.
When King Duncan becomes her overnight guest, Lady Macbeth seizes the opportunity to effect his murder. Aware her husband's temperament is "too full o' the milk of human kindness" for committing a regicide, she plots the details of the murder; the king retires after a night of feasting. Lady Macbeth lays daggers ready for the commission of the crime. Macbeth kills the sleeping king; when he brings the daggers from the king's room, Lady Macbeth orders him to return them to the scene of the crime. He refuses, she smears the drugged attendants with blood. The couple retire to wash their hands. Following the murder of King Duncan, Lady Macbeth's role in the plot diminishes; when Duncan's sons flee the land in fear for their own lives, Macbeth is appointed king. Without consulting his queen, Macbeth plots other murders in order to secure his throne, and, at a royal banquet, the queen is forced to dismiss her guests when Macbeth hallucinates. In her last appearance, she sleepwalks in profound torment, she dies off-stage, with suicide being suggested as its cause, when Malcolm declares that she died by "self and violent hands."
In the First Folio, the only source for the play, she is never referred to as Lady Macbeth, but variously as "Macbeth's wife", "Macbeth's lady", or just "lady". The sleepwalking scene is one of the more celebrated scenes from Macbeth, indeed, in all of Shakespeare, it has no counterpart in Holinshed's Chronicles, Shakespeare's source material for the play, but is the bard's invention. A. C. Bradley notes that, with the exception of the scene's few closing lines, the scene is in prose with Lady Macbeth being the only major character in Shakespearean tragedy to make a last appearance "denied the dignity of verse." According to Bradley
King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare. It depicts the gradual descent into madness of the title character, after he disposes of his kingdom by giving bequests to two of his three daughters egged on by their continual flattery, bringing tragic consequences for all. Derived from the legend of Leir of Britain, a mythological pre-Roman Celtic king, the play has been adapted for the stage and motion pictures, with the title role coveted by many of the world's most accomplished actors; the first attribution to Shakespeare of this play drafted in 1605 or 1606 at the latest with its first known performance on St. Stephen's Day in 1606, was a 1608 publication in a quarto of uncertain provenance, in which the play is listed as a history; the Tragedy of King Lear, a more theatrical revision, was included in the 1623 First Folio. Modern editors conflate the two, though some insist that each version has its own individual integrity that should be preserved. After the English Restoration, the play was revised with a happy, non-tragic ending for audiences who disliked its dark and depressing tone, but since the 19th century Shakespeare's original version has been regarded as one of his supreme achievements.
The tragedy is noted for its probing observations on the nature of human suffering and kinship. George Bernard Shaw wrote, "No man will write a better tragedy than Lear." King Lear of Britain and wanting to retire from the duties of the monarchy, decides to divide his realm among his three daughters, declares he will offer the largest share to the one who loves him most. The eldest, speaks first, declaring her love for her father in fulsome terms. Moved by her flattery Lear proceeds to grant to Goneril her share as soon as she has finished her declaration, before Regan and Cordelia have a chance to speak, he awards to Regan her share as soon as she has spoken. When it is the turn of his youngest and favourite daughter, Cordelia, at first she refuses to say anything and declares there is nothing to compare her love to, nor words to properly express it. Infuriated, Lear divides her share between her elder sisters; the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Kent observe that, by dividing his realm between Goneril and Regan, Lear has awarded his realm in equal shares to the peerages of the Duke of Albany and the Duke of Cornwall.
Kent objects to Lear's unfair treatment of Cordelia. Lear summons the Duke of Burgundy and the King of France, who have both proposed marriage to Cordelia. Learning that Cordelia has been disinherited, the Duke of Burgundy withdraws his suit, but the King of France is impressed by her honesty and marries her nonetheless; the King of France is shocked by Lear's decision because up until this time Lear has only praised and favoured Cordelia. Meanwhile, Gloucester has introduced his illegitimate son Edmund to Kent. Lear announces he will live alternately with Goneril and Regan, their husbands, he reserves to himself a retinue of one hundred knights, to be supported by his daughters. Goneril and Regan speak revealing that their declarations of love were fake and that they view Lear as a foolish old man. Gloucester's bastard son Edmund resents his illegitimate status and plots to dispose of his legitimate older brother Edgar, he tricks his father with a forged letter. Earl of Kent returns from exile in disguise, Lear hires him as a servant.
At Albany and Goneril's house and Kent quarrel with Oswald, Goneril's steward. Lear discovers, she orders him to reduce the number of his disorderly retinue. Enraged, Lear departs for Regan's home; the Fool reproaches Lear with his foolishness in giving everything to Regan and Goneril and predicts that Regan will treat him no better. Edmund learns from Curan, a courtier, that there is to be war between Albany and Cornwall and that Regan and Cornwall are to arrive at Gloucester's house that evening. Taking advantage of the arrival of the duke and Regan, Edmund fakes an attack by Edgar, Gloucester is taken in, he proclaims him an outlaw. Bearing Lear's message to Regan, Kent meets Oswald again at Gloucester's home, quarrels with him again and is put in the stocks by Regan and her husband Cornwall; when Lear arrives, he objects to the mistreatment of his messenger, but Regan is as dismissive of her father as Goneril was. Lear is impotent. Goneril supports Regan's argument against him. Lear yields to his rage.
He rushes out into a storm to rant against his ungrateful daughters, accompanied by the mocking Fool. Kent follows to protect him. Gloucester protests against Lear's mistreatment. With Lear's retinue of a hundred knights dissolved, the only companions he has left are his Fool and Kent. Wandering on the heath after the storm, Edgar, in the guise of a madman named Tom o' Bedlam, meets Lear. Edgar babbles madly. Kent leads them all to shelter. Edmund betrays Gloucester to Cornwall and Goneril, he reveals evidence that his father knows of an impending French invasion designed to reinstate Lear to the throne. Once Edmund leaves with Goneril to warn Albany about the invasion, Gloucester is arrested
In Greek mythology, Polyxena was the youngest daughter of King Priam of Troy and his queen, Hecuba. Polyxena is considered the Trojan version of daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, she is not in Homer's Iliad, appearing in works by poets to add romance to Homer's austere tale. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated if Polyxena's brother, Prince Troilus, reached the age of twenty. During the Trojan War and Troilus were ambushed when they were attempting to fetch water from a fountain, Troilus was killed by the Greek warrior Achilles, who soon became interested in the quiet sagacity of Polyxena. Achilles, still recovering from Patroclus' death, found Polyxena's words a comfort and was told to go to the temple of Apollo to meet her after her devotions. Achilles seemed to trust Polyxena—he told her of his only vulnerability: his vulnerable heel, it was in the temple of Apollo that Polyxena's brothers and Deiphobus, ambushed Achilles and shot him in the heel with an arrow guided by the hand of Apollo himself, steeped in poison.
Some claimed. According to Euripides, however, in his plays The Trojan Women and Hecuba, Polyxena's famous death was caused at the end of the Trojan War. Achilles' ghost had come back to the Greeks to demand the human sacrifice of Polyxena so as to appease the wind needed to set sail back to Hellas, she was to be killed at the foot of Achilles' grave. Hecuba, Polyxena's mother, expressed despair at the death of another of her daughters. However, Polyxena was eager to die as a sacrifice to Achilles rather than live as a slave, she reassured her mother, refused to beg before Odysseus or be treated in any way other than a princess. She asked. Polyxena's virginity was critical to the honor of her character, she was described as dying bravely as the son of Achilles, slit her throat: she arranged her clothing around her so that she was covered when she died. A few examples in Greek imagery can be securely identified as depicting the sacrifice of Polyxena. Most show. However, some details in the pictorial evidence of the sacrifice hint at varying and earlier versions of the myth.
For instance, some images appear to show Polyxena sacrificed over an altar, rather than a tomb, one sarcophagus relief, from Gümüşçay, the Polyxena sarcophagus, dated to c. 500 BC shows a tripod placed next to the tomb. These details have been interpreted as indicating an association between the burial mound of Achilles and sacred ground dedicated to Apollo. List of King Priam's children Servius. In Aeneida, iii.321. Seneca. Troades, 1117-1161. Ovid. Metamorphoses, xiii.441-480. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Polyxena". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Article on Polyxena from Stanford University The Sacrifice of Polyxena — A painting by Giovanni Battista Pittoni Human Sacrifice: Cross-cultural perspectives and representations, eds. P Bonnechere & R. Gagne, Presses Universitaires de Lieges, 2013 - see pp. 61-86 J. Mylonopoulos'Gory Details? The Iconography of Human Sacrifice in Greek Art'
Shakespeare's Globe is the complex housing a reconstruction of the Globe Theatre, an Elizabethan playhouse associated with William Shakespeare, in the London Borough of Southwark, on the south bank of the River Thames. The original theatre was built in 1599, destroyed by fire in 1613, rebuilt in 1614, demolished in 1644; the modern Globe Theatre reconstruction is an academic approximation based on available evidence of the 1599 and 1614 buildings. It is considered quite realistic, though contemporary safety requirements mean that it accommodates only 1,400 spectators compared to the original theatre’s 3,000. Shakespeare's Globe was founded by the actor and director Sam Wanamaker, built about 230 metres from the site of the original theatre and opened to the public in 1997, with a production of Henry V; the site includes the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, an indoor theatre which opened in January 2014. This is a smaller, candle-lit space based on the indoor playhouses of Jacobean London; the Sackler Studios, an educational and rehearsal studio complex, is situated just around the corner from the main site.
There is an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work. In 1970, American actor and director Sam Wanamaker founded the Shakespeare Globe Trust and the International Shakespeare Globe Centre, with the objective of building a faithful recreation of Shakespeare's Globe close to its original location at Bankside, Southwark; this inspired the founding of a number of Shakespeare's Globe Centres around the world, an activity in which Wanamaker participated. Many people maintained that a faithful Globe reconstruction was impossible to achieve due to the complications in the 16th century design and modern fire safety requirements, it was Wanamaker's wish that the new building recreate the Globe as it existed during most of Shakespeare's time there. A study was made of what was known of the construction of The Theatre, the building from which the 1599 Globe obtained much of its timber, as a starting point for the modern building's design. To this were added: examinations of other surviving London buildings from the latter part of the 16th century.
For practical reasons, some features of the 1614 rebuilding were incorporated into the modern design, such as the external staircases. The design team consisted of architect Theo Crosby of Pentagram and services engineer Buro Happold, quantity surveyors from Boyden & Co; the construction, building research and historic design details were undertaken by Co.. The theatre opened in 1997 under the name "Shakespeare's Globe Theatre", has staged plays every summer. Mark Rylance became the first artistic director in 1995 and was succeeded by Dominic Dromgoole in 2006. In January 2016, Emma Rice began her term as the Globe's third Artistic Director, but in October 2016 announced her decision to resign from the position in April 2018. On 24 July 2017 her successor was announced to be writer Michelle Terry; the theatre is located on Bankside, about 230 metres from the original site—measured from centre to centre. The Thames was much wider in Shakespeare's time and the original Globe was on the riverbank, though that site is now far from the river, the river-side site for the reconstructed Globe was chosen to recreate the atmosphere of the original theatre.
In addition, listed Georgian townhouses now occupy part of the original site and could not be considered for removal. Like the original Globe, the modern theatre has a thrust stage that projects into a large circular yard surrounded by three tiers of raked seating; the only covered parts of the amphitheatre are the seating areas. Plays are staged during the summer between May and the first week of October. Tours are available all year round; some productions are filmed and released to cinemas as Globe on Screen productions, on DVD. The reconstruction was researched so that the new building would be as faithful a replica of the original as possible; this was aided by the discovery of the remains of the original Rose Theatre, a nearby neighbour to the Globe, as final plans were being made for the site and structure. The building itself is constructed of English oak, with mortise and tenon joints and is, in this sense, an "authentic" 16th century timber-framed building, as no structural steel was used.
The seats are simple benches and the Globe has the first and only thatched roof permitted in London since the Great Fire of 1666. The modern thatch is well protected by fire retardants, sprinklers on the roof ensure further protection against fire; the pit has a concrete surface, as opposed to earthen-ground covered with strewn rush from the original theatre. The theatre has extensive backstage support areas for actors and musicians, is attached to a modern lobby, gift shop and visitor centre. Seating capacity is 857 with an additional 700 "Groundlings" standing in the yard, making up an audience about half the size of a typical audience in Shakespeare's time. For its first eighteen seasons, performances were engineered to duplicate the original environment of Shakespeare's Globe.