Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Susan Bertie, Countess of Kent
Susan Bertie was the daughter of Catherine Duchess of Suffolk, née Willoughby, by her second husband, Richard Bertie. Susan was the noblewoman memorialized by Lanyer at the beginning of the Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum as the "daughter of the Duchess of Suffolk." At sixteen years of age, she married Reginald Grey of Wrest, restored as the fifth Earl of Kent. Widowed at age nineteen, now Dowager Countess of Kent, remarried to Sir John Wingfield in 1581 at age twenty-seven. Susan was the first child of her mother's second marriage. Born one year after Susan was a brother, Peregrine Bertie, who succeeded his mother Catherine Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby as the 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby; the dowager duchess and her second husband, devout Protestants, went into exile on the Continent with Susan and her brother for the remainder of the Catholic Queen Mary's reign, only returning in 1559 to the countess's elaborate manor house of Grimsthorpe in Lincolnshire after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Susan being five years of age.
In 1570, at the age of sixteen, Susan married Reginald Grey of Wrest, and, of course, left Grimsthorpe. Known at time of his marriage as "Master Grey", Susan's husband was restored as Earl of Kent by 28 March 1572, Susan became Countess of Kent. A year on 15 March 1573, the earl died; because the Earl and Countess of Kent had been childless, the heir to the earldom was the earl's thirty-three-year-old younger brother, styled until Henry Lord Grey of Ruthin. Susan Bertie Grey, now nineteen and Dowager Countess of Kent, unable to continue living in the new Earl of Kent's inherited residence, may at this time have been invited to live at Court. If so, the invitation was issued at the behest of Queen Elizabeth I, who kept a benevolent watch over younger ladies of the peerage in Susan's situation – the queen would take an angry interest in Susan's remarriage in 1581, her second husband, Sir John Wingfield, was a nephew of Bess of Hardwick. They had two sons, Peregrine Wingfield, born in Holland named after her brother, Robert Wingfield.
Aemilia Lanyer calls Susan Bertie "the Mistris of my youth, / The noble guide of my ungovern'd dayes." The poet was educated under the direction of the dowager Countess of Kent, whose Protestant humanist circle had a profound influence on the young Lanyer. The practice of being sent from one's family to be trained up in service in an aristocratic household, like that of Susan's, was widespread
Grimsthorpe Castle is a country house in Lincolnshire, England 4 miles north-west of Bourne on the A151. It lies within a 3,000 acre park of rolling pastures and woodland landscaped by Capability Brown. While Grimsthorpe is not a castle in the strict sense of the word, its character is massive and martial – the towers and outlying pavilions recalling the bastions of a great fortress in classical dress. Grimsthorpe has been the home of the de Eresby family since 1516; the present owner is Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, granddaughter of Nancy Astor, who died at Grimsthorpe in 1964. The building was a small castle on the crest of a ridge on the road inland from the Lincolnshire fen edge towards the Great North Road, it is said to have been begun by Earl of Lincoln in the early 13th century. However, he was the first and last in this creation of the Earldom of Lincoln and he died in 1156. Gilbert's heyday was the peak time of castle building in England, during the Anarchy.
It is quite possible that the castle was built around 1140. However, the tower at the south-east corner of the present building is said to have been part of the original castle and it is known as King John's Tower; the naming of King John's tower seems to have led to a misattribution of the castle's origin to his time. Gilbert de Gant spent much of his life in the power of the Earl of Chester and Grimsthorpe is to have fallen into his hands in 1156 when Gilbert died, though the title'Earl of Lincoln' reverted to the crown. In the next creation of the earldom, in 1217, it was Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester, ennobled with it, it seems. During the last years of the Plantagenet kings of England, it was in the hands of Lord Lovell, he was a prominent supporter of Richard III. After Henry VII came to the throne, Lovell supported a rebellion to restore the earlier royal dynasty; the rebellion failed and Lovell's property was taken confiscated and given to a supporter of the Tudor Dynasty.
This grant by Henry VIII, Henry Tudor's son, to the 11th Baron Willoughby de Eresby was made in 1516, together with the hand in marriage of Maria de Salinas, a Spanish lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine of Aragon. Their daughter Katherine inherited the title and estate on the death of her father in 1526, when she was aged just seven. In 1533, she became the fourth wife of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, a close ally of Henry VIII. In 1539, Henry VIII granted Charles Suffolk the lands of the nearby suppressed Vaudey Abbey, founded in 1147, he used its stone as building material for his new house. Suffolk set about extending and rebuilding his wife's house, in only eighteen months it was ready for a visit in 1541 by King Henry, on his way to York to meet his nephew, James V of Scotland. In 1551, James's widow Mary of Guise stayed at Grimsthorpe; the house stands on glacial till and it seems that the additions were hastily constructed. Substantial repairs were required owing to the poor state of the foundations, but much of this Tudor house can still be seen today.
During Mary's reign the castle's owners, Katherine Willoughby and her second husband, Richard Bertie, were forced to leave it owing to their Anglican views. On Elizabeth's succeeding to the throne, they returned with their daughter and their new son Peregrine the 13th Baron, he spent much of his time away from Grimsthorpe. By 1707, when Grimsthorpe was illustrated in Britannia Illustrata, the 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby and 3rd Earl Lindsey had rebuilt the north front of Grimsthorpe in the classical style. However, in 1715, Robert Bertie, the 16th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, employed Sir John Vanbrugh to design a baroque front to the house to celebrate his ennoblement as the first Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, it is Vanbrugh's last masterpiece. He prepared designs for the reconstruction of the other three ranges of the house, but they were not carried out, his proposed elevation for the south front was in the Palladian style, just coming into fashion, is quite different from all of his built designs.
Inside, the Vanbrugh hall is monumental with stone arcades all around at two levels. Arcaded screens at each end of the hall separate the hall from staircases, much like those at Audley End House and Castle Howard; the staircase leads to the staterooms on the first floor. The State Dining Room occupies Vanbrugh's north-east tower, with its painted ceiling lit by a Venetian window, it contains the throne used by George IV at his Coronation Banquet, a Regency giltwood throne and footstool used by Queen Victoria in the old House of Lords. There is a walnut and parcel gilt chair and footstool made for the use of George III at Westminster; the King James and State Drawing Rooms have been redecorated over the centuries, contain portraits by Reynolds and Van Dyck, European furniture, yellow Soho Tapestries woven by Joshua Morris around 1730. The South Corridor contains thrones used by Prince Albert and Edward VII, as well as the desk on which Queen Victoria signed her coronation oath. A series of rooms follows with recessed oriel windows and ornate ceilings.
The Chinese drawing room has a splendidly rich ceiling and an 18th-century, fan-vaulted oriel window. The walls are hung with Chinese wallpaper depicting birds amidst bamboo; the chapel is magnificent with superb 17th century plasterwork. The park was the southern edge of the great Lincolnshire forest, its medieval deer park and Tudor oak park are crossed by fine avenues of trees. Oak trees which will have been among
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, the second son of John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, Elizabeth Howard, a first cousin of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk - 2nd creation, was one of the principal Lancastrian commanders during the English Wars of the Roses. He was the principal commander of King Henry VII's army at the Battle of Bosworth Field, again led Henry's troops to victory at the Battle of Stoke Field two years later, he became one of the great men of the King's regime. John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, was born on 8 September 1442, the second son of John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, his wife Elizabeth Howard, the daughter of Sir John Howard and Joan Walton. In February 1462 the 12th Earl, his eldest son, Aubrey de Vere, Sir Thomas Tuddenham, the 12th Earl's former political opponent in Norfolk and now a fellow Lancastrian loyalist, were convicted of high treason before John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, Constable of England, for plotting against King Edward IV; the 12th Earl was beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1462, buried in the church of Austin Friars in London.
His son Aubrey had been beheaded on the same scaffold six days earlier. Pursuing a conciliatory policy with Lancastrian families, King Edward allowed John de Vere to succeed his father, on 18 January 1464 granted him licence to enter on his father's lands. On 26 May 1465 he was created a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Edward IV's wife, Elizabeth Woodville, officiated at the ceremony as both Lord Great Chamberlain, in the absence of the office-holder, the Earl of Warwick, as Chamberlain to the queen. In November 1468, however, he was committed to the Tower, confessed to plotting with the Lancastrians against the King, he was released before 7 January 1469, received a general pardon on 5 April of that year. However, by early July 1469 Oxford had joined the discontented Yorkists led by his brother-in-law, the Earl of Warwick, King Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence, for the Edgecote campaign. Following the loss at Edgecote on 12 March 1470, he fled overseas to the court of King Henry VI's wife, Margaret of Anjou.
In September 1470 he joined Warwick and Clarence in the invasion of England which restored Henry VI to the throne, on 13 October bore the Sword of State before Henry in a procession to St Paul's. He was appointed Lord High Constable of England, as such on 15 October tried and condemned for high treason the same Earl of Worcester who had in 1462 condemned Oxford's own father and brother. In March 1471, he prevented Edward IV's army from landing in Norfolk, was in command of the right wing at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April of that year, defeating the forces of Lord Hastings; however this early success in the battle turned to disaster. Oxford led his men back to the fight, but: they lost their way in the fog and emerged on their own army, who mistook the Vere star for Edward's sun in splendour, met them with a flight of arrows. Whereupon Oxford and his men cried "Treasoune! treasoune" and fled. After this defeat Oxford escaped to Scotland with 40 men, accompanied by his two brothers and Thomas Vere, the Viscount Beaumont.
From there he went to France, where he engaged in privateering. Although he was not attainted after leaving England in 1471, his lands were confiscated, his wife, Margaret, is said to have been subjected to great financial hardship. On 28 May 1473, Oxford attempted an unsuccessful landing at St Osyth in Essex. On 30 September 1473, he seized St Michael's Mount in Cornwall, where he was besieged for some months by John Fortescue. After most of his men had deserted and he had been wounded in the face with an arrow, Oxford was compelled to surrender on 15 February 1474, along with his two brothers and Beaumont. Oxford was imprisoned at Hammes Castle near Calais, was attainted early in 1475. At this time his mother, the 12th Earl's widow, was forced to surrender her property to the Duke of Gloucester. In 1478 Oxford scaled the walls of Hammes and leapt into the moat, though whether this was an attempt at escape or suicide is unclear; the new king, Richard III, ordered his transfer to England on 28 October 1484, but before the transfer could be effected Oxford had escaped, having persuaded the captain of Hammes, Sir James Blount, to go with him to join the Earl of Richmond.
It is said. Oxford returned to Hammes to bring the garrison there to join Richmond. Oxford commanded the archers and Henry's vanguard using the formation called the Oxford Wedge, which penetrated Richard's army in the shape of an arrow at the Battle of Bosworth, held Richmond's vanguard in fierce fighting in which John Howard, the Duke of Norfolk and the first cousin of Oxford’s mother, leading the vanguard of Richard III, was killed. To celebrate the Tudor victory at Bosworth, Oxford commissioned the building of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Lavenham. According to Gunn, Oxford was'immediately recognized as one of the great men of Henry VII's regime', his attainder was repealed, he was restored to his estates and titles, received many appointments and grants, including appointment as Lord Admiral on 21 September, chief steward of the Duchy of Lancaster south of Trent and Constable of the Tower of London on 22 September 1485. He was appointed the first Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard.
He was sworn of the Privy Council, recognized as Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England. As Lord Great Chamberlain he officiated at the coronations of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, bearing the king's train at the coronation and setting the crown upon the king'
Mettingham is a village and civil parish, near Bungay, in the Waveney district, in NE Suffolk, close to the River Waveney which forms the boundary with Norfolk. In the 1870s, Mettingham was described as: "a village and a parish in Wangford district, Suffolk; the village stands near the river Waveney, at the boundary with Norfolk, 2 miles E of Bungay r. station. The college was founded in 1394 and was dissolved in 1542 at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the parish population has varied since 1801. There was a significant increase of 139 between 1801 and 1841, after which there was a long period of decline as agriculture became less labour-intensive. There has been one minor boundary change since 1801, but it was not significant enough to affect the rise in population; however between 1831 and 1841, 36 houses were built, leading to a population increase with more people moving to the area. As of the 2011 census, Mettingham's population is old: out of the total population of 211 only 34 are below the age of 16.
In 1881 there were 158 adults employed in Mettingham, of whom 62 men and 2 women worked in agriculture as the area is rural farm land. The occupations of most of the women were recorded as "unknown" which means that it is unclear what the main occupation of the women was at that time; the farming was arable, with fields lying fallow in summer in preparation for corn products in the early 1800s progressing to wheat and beans by the mid 1900s. As of 2011 there were just 22 people employed in agriculture; as infrastructure and communications have improved, the population can now travel further afield to work, giving access to a wider range of occupations, including professional occupations. Of the 177 residents over age 16 in Mettingham, 41 have no qualifications at all; those under 16 are still in compulsory education. There are 7 primary schools and 2 secondary schools within 3 miles of Mettingham, all of which are in the town of Bungay. Bungay High School provides a sixth form for 16- to 18-year-olds taking A-levels.
All Saints is one of 178 round tower churches in East Anglia from the Norman period. It is a Grade I listed building, restored in 1898. Round tower churches in the UK, with a few exceptions, are only found in East Anglia, it is accepted that the tower was built as a bell tower with flint as the main construction material. In 2012, All Saints Church was threatened with closure due to the theft of £16,000 worth of lead from its roof: there was insufficient money for repairs on top of daily running costs; the money was raised to replace the lead, but just two years in October 2014, a 15m x 10m stretch of lead was again taken. A cheaper material was used to fix the roof to avoid another recurrence. Mettingham has limited public transport, it has a bus service with 3 morning stops and one evening stop at the Rectory Lane Junction on the B1062 on Monday to Saturday, but no Sunday service. The closest railway station is Beccles, about 4 miles away. Website with photos of Mettingham All Saints, a round-tower church
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh