Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond
Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond and Duchess of Lennox Lady Mary Villiers, was the daughter of the George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Katherine Manners, 19th Baroness de Ros. On 8 January 1634, at the age of 12, she married the 15-year-old Charles, Lord Herbert, eldest son of the 4th Earl of Pembroke and 1st Earl of Montgomery, but was widowed in 1635 when her young husband died of smallpox. On 3 August 1637, she married the 4th Duke of Lennox, created Duke of Richmond in 1641, they had two children: Esmé Stewart, 2nd Duke of Richmond and 5th Duke of Lennox, died of smallpox. Lady Mary Stewart, Baroness Clifton in 1660. No issue. Sometime before 1664, Mary married Colonel Thomas Howard: he was a younger brother of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle, is chiefly remembered for his duel in 1662 with Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover. Maureen E. Mulvihill has built a case for Mary Villiers as the author of the poems published under the pseudonym Ephelia, including Female Poems...by Ephelia.
Mary is the subject of several paintings by Anthony van Dyck as well as a portrait with her children by John Michael Wright. Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond depiction in art Royal Genealogy Database, University of Hull Gordenker, Emilie E. S.: Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture, Brepols, 2001, ISBN 2-503-50880-4 "Thumbprints of Ephelia" by Maureen E. Mulvihill, Princeton Research Forum, in ReSoundings, with biography of Mary Villiers
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Mary Villiers, Countess of Buckingham
Mary Villiers, Countess of Buckingham is best known as the mother of the royal favourite Sir George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. She was the daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, Leicestershire, a direct descendant of Henry de Beaumont, his wife Anne Armstrong, daughter of Thomas Armstrong of Corby. After his first wife Audrey Saunders died on 1 May 1587, she became the second wife of Sir George Villiers, her cousin through his mother Colette, widow of Richard Beaumont, they had four children: John created Viscount Purbeck. George created Duke of Buckingham. Christopher created Earl of Anglesey. Susan, married William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh. Following the death of her first husband, she was created Countess of Buckingham in her own right in 1618, she made two further marriages, to Sir William Rayner of Orton, Peterborough, in 1606 and to Sir Thomas Compton, a younger son of Henry Compton, 1st Baron Compton. She became a Roman Catholic convert in the early 1620s, under the influence of the Jesuit John Percy.
Mary seems to have been the first person to recognise that George, her second son, had the ability to become a figure of political importance. Although she said to have been penniless when she married his father, she somehow found the money to send him to the French court, where he learned the courtly skills, including fencing and dancing, gained some fluency in the French language, his mother sent him to the English Court, where he became the new favourite of King James I. As George rose, his mother and half-brothers rose with him: the King in 1618 said that he lived to no other end but to advance the Villiers family. Mary arranged George's marriage to the great heiress Katherine, Baroness de Ros, said to be the richest woman in England, she was a woman of formidable strength of character, but she was never popular, due to what was described as her relentless ambition and greed. She had been beautiful when young; when George was assassinated in 1628, it was said that Mary reacted to the news without any sign of surprise, as though it was something she had long expected.
Whatever her private feelings may have been, she behaved outwardly after his death in a manner which struck most people as cold and unfeeling. She died four years and was buried in Westminster Abbey. James Stow engraved a drawing of her by George Perfect Harding in 1814. Villiers family
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
A favourite or favorite was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In post-classical and early-modern Europe, among other times and places, the term was used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler, it was a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe in Spain, England and Sweden; the term is sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress", "friend", "companion", or "lover". Several favourites had sexual relations with the monarch, but the feelings of the monarch for the favourite ran the gamut from a simple faith in the favourite's abilities to various degrees of emotional affection and dependence, sometimes encompassed sexual infatuation; the term has an inbuilt element of disapproval and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince", citing Shakespeare: "Like favourites/ Made proud by Princes".
Favourites tended to incur the envy and loathing of the rest of the nobility, monarchs were sometimes obliged by political pressure to dismiss or execute them. Too close a relationship between monarch and favourite was seen as a breach of the natural order and hierarchy of society. Since many favourites had flamboyant "over-reaching" personalities, they led the way to their own downfall with their rash behaviour; as the opinions of the gentry and bourgeoisie grew in importance, they too strongly disliked favourites. Dislike from all classes could be intense in the case of favourites who were elevated from humble, or at least minor, backgrounds by royal favour. Titles and estates were given lavishly to favourites, who were compared to mushrooms because they sprang up overnight, from a bed of excrement; the King's favourite Piers Gaveston is a "night-grown mushrump" to his enemies in Christopher Marlowe's Edward II. Their falls could be more sudden, but after about 1650, executions tended to give way to quiet retirement.
Favourites who came from the higher nobility, such as Leicester, Lerma and Oxenstierna, were less resented and lasted longer. Successful minister-favourites usually needed networks of their own favourites and relatives to help them carry out the work of government – Richelieu had his "créatures" and Olivares his "hechuras". Oxenstierna and William Cecil, who both died in office trained their sons to succeed them; the favourite can not be distinguished from the successful royal administrator, who at the top of the tree needed the favour of the monarch, but the term is used of those who first came into contact with the monarch through the social life of the court, rather than the business of politics or administration. Figures like William Cecil and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose accelerated rise through the administrative ranks owed much to their personal relations with the monarch, but who did not attempt to behave like grandees of the nobility, were often successful. Elizabeth I had Cecil as Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from the time she ascended the throne in 1558 until his death 40 years later.
She had more colourful relationships with several courtiers. Only in her last decade was the position of the Cecils and son, challenged by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, when he fatally attempted a coup against the younger Cecil. Cardinal Wolsey was one figure who rose through the administrative hierarchy, but lived ostentatiously, before falling from power. In the Middle Ages in particular, many royal favourites were promoted in the church, English examples including Saints Dunstan and Thomas Becket. Cardinal Granvelle, like his father, was a trusted Habsburg minister who lived grandly, but he was not a favourite because most of his career was spent away from the monarch; some favourites came from humble backgrounds: Archibald Armstrong, jester to James I of England infuriated everyone else at court but managed to retire a wealthy man. Olivier le Daim, the barber of Louis XI, acquired a title and important military commands before he was executed on vague charges brought by nobles shortly after his master died, without the knowledge of the new king.
It has been claimed that le Daim's career was the origin of the term, as favori first appeared around the time of his death in 1484. Privado in Spanish was older, but was partly replaced by the term valido; such rises from menial positions became progressively harder.
Bromham is a village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. The village is 3 1⁄2 miles northwest of the same distance east of Melksham. Besides the main village of Bromham, the parish includes six other settlements: St Edith’s Marsh, Hawkstreet, Netherstreet and Chittoe; these are sub-villages and hamlets all within 2 miles of the main village centre, thus'greater Bromham' is geographically extensive for a village of its size. It stands 1½ miles north of the Kennet and Avon Canal and 1¾ of a mile south of the Roman road leading to Bath, Somerset. In Anglo-Saxon times the manor was held, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, by Earl Harold Godwinson. Under the Normans there were two manors covering Bromham. Bromham Hall called Bromham House, the manor house of Bromham Roches, stood to the east of the Devizes road; the small village of Chittoe is about 1 mile north of Bromham. The area was a detached tithing of the ancient parish of Bishops Cannings until 1883 when Chittoe became a separate civil parish, taking some land from Bromham.
The Church of England parish church of St. Nicholas, in the centre of the village, is from the 13th century and is a Grade I listed building; the church has fragments of its 12th century predecessor, was extended in the 14th and 15th centuries. The tall spire is from the 15th century. Towards the end of that century an ornate south chapel was added by Sir Roger Tocotes and Sir Richard Beauchamp. In the 16th and 17th centuries several members of the Bayntun family were buried or commemorated in the chapel, thus it became known as the Bayntun chapel; the churchyard has the grave of Irish poet Thomas Moore, who had long resided at Sloperton Cottage, north of Bromham. Bromham Methodist Church was built in 1799, on Church Hill below the parish church and enlarged in 1815 and 1880; as of 2016 the church is still in use. A Baptist chapel was built at Bromham in 1873, replacing an earlier building of 1828; the chapel is now a private house. Primitive Methodists built a chapel in the centre of Chittoe in 1840.
Enthusiastic singing by the Methodists could be heard from within the Anglican church after it was built nearby, so in 1882 the chapel was dismantled and rebuilt at Chittoe Heath, not far from the Devizes road. A schoolroom was added at the rear of the chapel in 1914; as of 2016 the chapel is served by the minister of Melksham United Church. The Church of St Mary, was erected in 1845; the hamlet had been a detached part of the parish of Bishops Cannings and villagers had to travel there for marriages and burials, using a trackway called the "Burying Road". For burials this requirement was relaxed at the end of the 18th century, but weddings were still conducted at Cannings until the new church was brought into use. In the 1980s the church and vicarage at Chittoe were converted to private residences; the parish has three Grade II* listed houses. Battle House, named for the manor of Bromham Battle, held by Battle Abbey, is 15th century rebuilt c. 1760. Spye Arch, at the top of Bowden Hill, once served as gatehouse to Spye Park, a seat of the Bayntun family.
It had been constructed in the 16th century as the gatehouse of the Cistercian Stanley Abbey, which stood near the eastern edge of the parish, towards Chippenham. Nonsuch House, north of Bromham village on the road from Melksham, is from the early 18th century. Bromham is a civil parish with an elected parish council and is in the area of Wiltshire Council, a unitary authority; the councils are responsible for different aspects of local government. The village falls in'Bromham and Potterne' electoral ward; the ward starts in the north at Bromham and extends south to Rowde and Potterne whilst avoiding Devizes. The population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 4,850. St. Nicholas Church of England Primary School is in the village. For secondary education, Bromham is in the catchment area of the John Bentley School in Calne. For many years there were two schools in the village; the first school opened in 1832 and moved into a new building near the church in 1867, becoming a National School. Children of all ages attended until 1938.
The building was extended in the 1960s and again in 2004. A Nonconformist school was established in 1843, in the 1860s became a British School in a new building to the east of the village, near the Devizes road; the building was enlarged in 1901 was transferred to Wiltshire County Council in 1907 and was known as Bromham County School. Pupil numbers declined until two schools were no longer necessary, resulting in closure of the county school in 1984, its building is now a private house. Bromham has a family butcher's shop; the village has two playing fields. The Pound Playing Field has the village's tennis court, a grassed football pitch, a play park and a hardcourt basketball and five-a-side football area; the Social Centre Playing Fields include Bromham F. C.'s football pitch and a smaller pitch, used by the youth team. Just by the car park of the Social Centre is another children's play park, overlooked by the Millennium Cross: a tall stone cross erected in 2000 and recording the village's C
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, KG, was an English courtier and patron of the arts. He was a favourite and also a lover of King James I of England. Despite a patchy political and military record, Buckingham remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of King Charles I, until a disgruntled army officer assassinated him. George Villiers was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, on 28 August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers, his mother Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, widowed early, educated her son for a courtier's life. She sent him to travel in France with John Eliot. Villiers took to the training set by his mother: he could dance and fence well, spoke a little French, overall became an excellent student. Godfrey Goodman declared Villiers "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England. In August 1614 at age twenty-one, Villiers caught the eye of James I at a hunt in Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr saw an opportunity to displace the Earl of Somerset and began promoting Villiers.
Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe, intense lobbying secured his appointment as Royal Cup-bearer, a position that allowed him to make conversation with the king. Villiers began to appear as a dancer in masques from 1615, in which he could exhibit his grace of movement and beauty of body, a recognised avenue to royal favour since the time of Elizabeth I. Under the king's patronage Villiers advanced through the ranks of the nobility, his court appointments grew in importance. In 1615 he was knighted as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. In 1616, when he was made the King's Master of Horse, he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Whaddon, Viscount Villiers, made a Knight of the Garter; the next year he was made Earl and in 1618 promoted Marquess of Buckingham finally in 1623 Duke of Buckingham. Villiers' new rank allowed him to dance side by side with the royal heir Charles I, with whom his friendship developed through his tutoring of the prince in dance. Villiers was appointed Lord Admiral of the Fleet in 1619, in 1623 the former dukedom of Buckingham was recreated for him when he was negotiating abroad on the king's behalf.
Since reductions in the peerage had taken place during the Tudor period, Buckingham was now the highest-ranking subject outside the royal family as the only duke in England. Villiers was the last in a succession of handsome young favourites on whom the king lavished affection and patronage, although the personal relationship between the two has been much debated. James's nickname for Buckingham was "Steenie", after St. Stephen, said to have had "the face of an angel". Speaking to the Privy Council in 1617, James tried to clarify the situation in the face of rumours: You may be sure that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else, more than you who are here assembled. I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, for Jesus Christ did the same, therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had John, I have George. Historian David M. Bergeron claims "Buckingham became James's last and greatest lover" citing flowery letters that followed 17th century styles of masculinity.
Other scholars say there was no physical sodomy, note that the king's many enemies never accused him of sodomy. In a letter to Buckingham in 1623, the King ended with the salutation, "God bless you, my sweet child and wife, grant that ye may be a comfort to your dear father and husband". Buckingham reciprocated the King's affections, writing back to James: "I so love your person, adore all your other parts, which are more than one man had", "I desire only to live in the world for your sake" and "I will live and die a lover of you". Restoration of Apethorpe Palace in 2004–8 revealed a unknown passage linking his bedchamber with that of James. Buckingham himself provides ambiguous evidence, writing to James many years that he had pondered: "whether you loved me now…better than at the time which I shall never forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the master and his dog". Speculation about the close relationship between king and favourite was not confined to the kingdom, moreover.
It was carried back to France by the poet Théophile de Viau, resident in England in 1621 and had addressed to Buckingham the flattering ode Au marquis du Boukinquan. On his return, he went on to justify his own masculine preferences by a witty appeal both to Classical mythology and to the contemporary gossip: Apollo with his songs Debauched young Hyacinth... And that learned English king, Didn’t he fuck Buckingham? Until James I died in 1625, Buckingham was the king's constant companion and closest advisor, enjoying control of all royal patronage. Buckingham used his influence to prodigiously enrich his relatives and advance their social positions, which soured public opinion towards him. In his rise to power, Buckingham became connected with jurist Francis Bacon. Bacon wrote letters of advice to the young favourite and drafted the patent of nobility when Buckingham ascended to the peerage. With Buckingham's support, Bacon was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1618. In gratitude, Bacon honoured Buckingham's many requests for favours from the court for friends and allies.
Following an investigation by Parliament into royal grants of monopoly, financial peculation and corrupt officials, Bacon was convicted of corruption and forced into retirement. Neither Buckingham nor the King attempted to intervene on Bacon's behalf. Many of Bu