A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married. Generally, the relationship is stable and at least semi-permanent, but the couple does not live together openly and the relationship is usually, but not always, secret. There is often the implication that the mistress is kept – i. e. that her lover is paying for some of her living expenses, the term mistress was originally used as a neutral feminine counterpart to mister or master. Historically the term has denoted a kept woman, who was maintained in a lifestyle by a wealthy man so that she would be available for his sexual pleasure. Such a woman could move between the roles of a mistress and a courtesan depending on her situation and environment, historically, a man kept a mistress. As the term implies, he was responsible for her debts and provided for her in much the way as he did his wife. In more recent times, it is likely that the mistress has a job of her own.
There is usually an emotional and possibly social relationship between a man and his mistress, whereas the relationship to a prostitute is predominantly sexual. The keeping of a mistress in Europe was not confined to royalty and nobility, any man who could afford a mistress could have one, regardless of social position. A wealthy merchant or a noble might have a kept woman. Being a mistress was typically an occupation for a woman who, if she were fortunate. The ballad The Three Ravens extolls the loyal mistress of a slain knight and it is noteworthy that the ballad-maker assigned this role to the knights mistress rather than to his wife. In the courts of Europe, particularly Versailles and Whitehall in the 17th and 18th centuries, a king might have numerous mistresses, but have a single favourite mistress or official mistress, as with Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour. The mistresses of both Louis XV and Charles II were often considered to exert influence over their lovers. Other than wealthy merchants and kings, Alexander VI is but one example of a Pope who kept mistresses, while the extremely wealthy might keep a mistress for life, such was not the case for most kept women.
Occasionally the mistress is in a position both financially and socially to her lover. In literature, D. H. Lawrences work Lady Chatterleys Lover portrays a situation where a woman becomes the mistress of her husbands gamekeeper, until recently, a womans taking a socially inferior lover was considered much more shocking than the reverse situation. As divorce became more acceptable, it was easier for men to divorce their wives and marry the women who, in earlier years
The Daily Telegraph
It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as The Daily Telegraph and Courier, the papers motto, Was, is, and will be, appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since April 19,1858. The paper had a circulation of 460,054 in December 2016 and its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 359,287 as of December 2016. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a newspaper in the UK. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories, articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Groups www. telegraph. co. uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. However, including an editor, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers. The Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B, Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge.
Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the paper cost 2d and was four pages long. Nevertheless, the first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a newspaper than his main competitors in London. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, in 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which espoused a conservative position. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, for some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. As an result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5, in 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworths scoop that Germany was to invade Poland.
In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to almost daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, Manchester quite often printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat. The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959, in 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park, the ability to solve The Telegraphs crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes, both the Camrose and Burnham families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, smaller towns include Stone and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Kinver, Penkridge and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Pirehill, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands.
The Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield.
The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent.
They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition
Garman Ryan Collection
The Garman Ryan collection features many examples of works by key European artists of late 19th and early 20th Century, including Van Gogh, Monet and Degas. There are a number of works on paper within the collection. It includes a selection of sculpture and votive objects from cultures in Africa, there are a significant number of works by Jacob Epstein within the collection. The collection contains the largest single holding of works by Jacob Epstein anywhere, many of these works are bronze portrait busts, a mix of family members and commissioned portraits. There are studies for key works, such as Study for Rock Drill and it is unclear at exactly what point Kathleen Garman and Sally Ryan conceived of making a collection of art. It has been suggested that the collection was, in part, in response to the death of Jacob Epstein whose work, the Collection was largely assembled between 1959 and 1973. Sally Ryan was able to fund the collection of due to a large inheritance received from her grandfather Thomas Fortune Ryan.
A number of Sally Ryans own works part of the Garman Ryan collection. Kathleen Garman ran her own art gallery, The Little Gallery, operating in Kensington, London in the mid-1960s. It has been suggested that a number of works from the Garman Ryan collection were originally Little Gallery stock, a number of artists represented with the collection had personal connections with Kathleen Garman and Sally Ryan. Jacob Epstein was Kathleens late husband, and artists Augustus John, Gaudier-Brzeska, the collection was donated to the people of Walsall in 1973 and opened to the public in July 1974. It was originally exhibited in what was the first floor room of Walsall Library. The collection was moved to its new purpose-built home over two floors of The New Art Gallery Walsall, and opened to the public in this new setting in 2000, the Garman Ryan collection is exhibited thematically, as was the intention of Kathleen Garman. The themes are, Children and Leisure, Flowers and Still Life, Religion and symbolism, Figure studies and Birds, Trees and Landscapes
Dolores (artists' model)
Norine Fournier Lattimore, known as Dolores, was an artists model who was a fixture on Londons bohemian scene between the First and Second World Wars. She posed for Jacob Epstein for whom she played the role of the High Priestess of Beauty, the Hearst Press in America, who sensationally serialised her life story, called her The Fatal Woman of the London Studios. She was a contemporary of Betty May, Euphemia Lamb and Lilian Shelley, Norine Schofield was born at 23 Doughty Street, London, on 11 March 1894. According to the census, all of Norines half-siblings were born in Rochdale, Mabel was born in London and her father was born in Ashton-under-Lyne. Norines father, George Edwin Schofield, had a career as a dancer, had sung at the opera and was said to have provided the finance for several stage productions. By the time of Norines death he had become the Reverend Schofield and her mother was Vicomtesse Marie Honorine Melfredine de Fournier who was half French and half Spanish, Norine being the diminutive of Honorine.
Norine would claim to be the granddaughter of General Count Fournier, Norine attended Tillers Dancing School at the same time as Gaby Deslys and appeared in several Tiller productions as a junior. She met Sarah Bernhardt and appeared in the Folies Bergère for impresario André Charlot and she appeared with Adolph Bolm at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels and the Alhambra and danced in front of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II for which he gave her a gold powder-box. She danced with Anna Pavlova, and sang in opera, despite her success on the continent, Dolores does not seem to have become well known in England until she became a model for Jacob Epstein. In 1915, Dolores married Second Lieutenant William Frank Amsden of the Rangers at St Pancras Church and they were divorced but she returned to him after her second marriage ended. In 1918, Dolores married her husband, Captain Richard Harry Farwell Peckover Sadler in Kensington. According to details that were given in court during their divorce proceedings, Sadler met Dolores while he was a cadet in the military, after he was demobilised, Sadler discovered that she had been living with Amsden but he forgave her.
Later he left her and subsequently discovered that she was living with an older man, sadlers petition for divorce was not defended and he was granted decree nisi. Dolores was a fixture in the years in Londons bohemian circles. She sang and danced at Madame Strindbergs The Cave of the Golden Calf, was a regular at the Fitzroy Tavern and knew Betty May, Lilian Shelley, Dolores was of striking appearance, noted for her black hair and white skin and the black dress that she usually wore. The Cave featured frescoes by Epstein and she sat for Nina Hamnett, C. R. W. Nevinson, John Flanagan and Jacob Kramer. Another place that Dolores knew well was the Harlequin Club, at 55 Beak Street and it became a popular haunt of the poorer bohemians around the 1920s. Or Gypsy Lang sang Casey Jones the engine-drivers lament, with the vivacious Betty May, called the Tiger Woman, together with Dolores, Dolores first modelled for Jacob Epstein in 1921, and moved in with him and his wife Margaret at Guilford Street in 1922
Wednesbury is a market town in Englands Black Country, part of the Sandwell metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, near the source of the River Tame. Historically part of Staffordshire, at the 2011 Census the town has a population of 37,817, the first authenticated spelling of the name was Wodensbyri, written in an endorsement on the back of the copy of the will of Wulfric Spot, dated 1004. Wednesbury is one of the few places in England to be named after a pre-Christian deity, Wednesbury is one of the oldest parts of the Black Country. The ending -bury comes from the old English word burgh meaning a hill or barrow, so Wednesbury may mean Wodens Hill or Wodens barrow. It could mean Wodens fortification, although the description is often accepted. During the Anglo-Saxon period there are believed to have been two battles fought in Wednesbury, in 592 and 715, according to The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle there was a great slaughter in 592 and Ceawlin was driven out. Ceawlin was a king of Wessex and the second Bretwalda, or overlord of all Britain, the 715 battle was between Mercia and the kingdom of Wessex.
Both sides allegedly claimed to have won the battle, although it is believed that the victory inclined to Wessex, Wednesbury was fortified by Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great and known as the Lady of Mercia. She erected five fortifications to defend against the Danes at Bridgnorth, Tamworth and Warwick, Wednesburys fort would probably have been an extension of an older fortification and made of a stone foundation with a wooden stockade above. Earthwork ramparts and water filled ditches would probably have added to its strength, exploration of the gardens reveals several dressed stones, which appear to be those referred to on the plaque. In 1086, the Domesday Book describes Wednesbury as being a rural community encompassing Bloxwich. During the Middle Ages the town was a village, with each family farming a strip of land with nearby heath being used for grazing. The town was held by the king until the reign of Henry II, medieval Wednesbury was very small, and its inhabitants would appear to have been farmers and farm workers.
In 1315, coal pits were first recorded, which led to an increase in the number of jobs, nail making was in progress during these times. William Paget was born in Wednesbury in 1505, the son of a nail maker and he became Secretary of State, a Knight of the Garter and an Ambassador. He was one of executors of the will of Henry VIII, in the 17th century Wednesbury pottery – Wedgbury ware – was being sold as far away as Worcester, while white clay from Monway Field was used to make tobacco pipes. By the 18th century the main occupations were coal mining and nail making, with the introduction of the first turnpike road in 1727 and the development of canals and the railways came a big increase in population. In 1769 the canal banks were soon full of factories as in this year, in 1743 the Wesleys and their new Methodist movement were severely tested
National Portrait Gallery, London
The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856, the gallery moved in 1896 to its current site at St Martins Place, off Trafalgar Square, and adjoining the National Gallery. It has been expanded twice since then, the National Portrait Gallery has regional outposts at Beningbrough Hall in Yorkshire and Montacute House in Somerset. It is unconnected to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh, the gallery is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. The gallery houses portraits of important and famous British people, selected on the basis of the significance of the sitter. The collection includes photographs and caricatures as well as paintings, one of its best-known images is the Chandos portrait, the most famous portrait of William Shakespeare although there is some uncertainty about whether the painting actually is of the playwright.
Not all of the portraits are exceptional artistically, although there are self-portraits by William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, such as the group portrait of the participants in the Somerset House Conference of 1604, are important historical documents in their own right. Portraits of living figures were allowed from 1969, the three people largely responsible for the founding of the National Portrait Gallery are commemorated with busts over the main entrance. At centre is Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, with his supporters on either side, Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay and it was Stanhope who, in 1846 as a Member of Parliament, first proposed the idea of a National Portrait Gallery. It was not until his attempt, in 1856, this time from the House of Lords. With Queen Victorias approval, the House of Commons set aside a sum of £2000 to establish the gallery, as well as Stanhope and Macaulay, the founder Trustees included Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Ellesmere. It was the latter who donated the Chandos portrait to the nation as the gallerys first portrait, Carlyle became a trustee after the death of Ellesmere in 1857.
For the first 40 years, the gallery was housed in locations in London. The first 13 years were spent at 29 Great George Street, the collection increased in size from 57 to 208 items, and the number of visitors from 5,300 to 34,500. In 1869, the moved to Exhibition Road and buildings managed by the Royal Horticultural Society. Following a fire in buildings, the collection was moved in 1885. This location was unsuitable due to its distance from the West End, condensation. Following calls for a new location to be found, the government accepted an offer of funds from the philanthropist William Henry Alexander, Alexander donated £60,000 followed by another £20,000, and chose the architect, Ewan Christian
London Borough of Camden
The London Borough of Camden /ˈkæmdən/ is a borough in north west London, and forms part of Inner London. The southern reaches of Camden form part of central London, the local authority is Camden London Borough Council. The borough was created in 1965 from the area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, and St Pancras. The borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, the transcribed diaries of William Copeland Astbury, recently made available, describe Camden and the surrounding areas in great detail from 1829–1848. There are 162 English Heritage blue plaques in the borough of Camden representing the diverse personalities that have lived there. The area is in the part of the city, reaching from Holborn. Neighbouring areas are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, WC1, WC2, W1 and it contains parts of central London.
Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street in St Pancras, Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal Democrats became the largest party. In 2006, two Green Cllrs, Maya de Souza and Adrian Oliver, were elected and were the first Green Party councillors in Camden, Camden was the fourth to last council to drop out of the campaign, doing so in the early hours of 6 June. Borough councillors are elected every four years, between 2006 and 2010 Labour lost two seats to the Liberal Democrats through by-elections, in Kentish Town and Haverstock wards. A Labour Councillor in Haverstock ward defected to the Liberal Democrats in February 2009, at the local elections on 6 May 2010 the Labour party regained full control of Camden council. The new council is made up of 30 Labour,13 Liberal Democrats,10 Conservatives, at the Councils AGM, Labours Nasim Ali took office as Camdens first leader from the Bengali community. Labour Councillor Jonathan Simpson was elected the Mayor of the Borough, the organisations staff are led by the Chief Executive who is currently Mike Cooke.
Each directorate is divided into a number of divisions headed by an assistant director and they in turn are divided into groups which are themselves divided into services. This is a model to most local government in London. Pancras in the south, represented by Labours Keir Starmer, in 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough were already developed and had a total population of 96,795. This continued to rise throughout the 19th century as the district became built up
These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in use is known as the Bronze Age. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time, everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone. It was only that tin was used, becoming the major ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the process could be more easily controlled. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic, the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik.
Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa and some ancient sites in China, ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artefacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value, in Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources and these were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and used by the living for ritual offerings. Pure iron is soft, and the process of beating and folding sponge iron to wrought iron removes from the metal carbon. Careful control of the alloying and tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel, Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.
Among other advantages, it does not rust, the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong for many uses. Archaeologists suspect that a disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition. The population migrations around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean, limiting supplies, there are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin
The Israel Museum was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. It is situated on a hill in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, near the Bible Lands Museum, the Knesset, the Israeli Supreme Court, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. An urn-shaped building on the grounds of the museum, the Shrine of the Book, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls and it is one of the largest museums in the region. Jerusalem mayor Teddy Kollek was the spirit behind the establishment of the Israel Museum, one of the leading art. Since its establishment in 1965, the Museum has built up a collection of nearly 500,000 objects, James S. Snyder, former Deputy Director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, was appointed director of the museum in 1997. From 1965, the museum was housed in a series of buildings designed by the Russian-born Israeli architect Alfred Mansfeld. A $100-million campaign to renovate the museum and double its space was completed in July 2010. The wings for archaeology, the arts, and Jewish art and life were completely rebuilt.
The passageways that connect between the buildings and five new pavilions were designed by James Carpenter, the museum covers nearly 50,000 sq. meters and attracts 800,000 visitors a year, including 100,000 children who visit and attend classes in its Youth Wing. This narrative is supplemented by thematic groupings highlighting aspects of ancient Israeli archaeology that are unique to the history, among them Hebrew writing, glass. A special gallery at the entrance to the wing showcases new findings, the Shrine of the Book houses the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest biblical manuscripts in the world, as well as rare early medieval biblical manuscripts. The scrolls were discovered in 1947–56 in 11 caves in and around the Wadi Qumran, the building consists of a white dome over a building located two-thirds below the ground. The dome is reflected in a pool of water that surrounds it, across from the white dome is a black basalt wall. The interior of the shrine was designed to depict the environment in which the scrolls were found, there is a permanent display on life in the Qumran, where the scrolls were written.
The entire structure was designed to resemble a pot in which the scrolls were found, the shrine was designed by Armand Bartos and Frederick Kiesler, and was opened in 1965. As the fragility of the scrolls makes it impossible to display all on a continuous basis, after a scroll has been exhibited for 3–6 months, it is removed from its showcase and placed temporarily in a special storeroom, where it rests from exposure. The museum holds other rare ancient manuscripts and displays the Aleppo Codex, originally constructed on the grounds of Jerusalem’s Holyland Hotel, the model, which includes a replica of Herods Temple, is now a permanent feature of the museums 20-acre campus. The Israel Museum holds a collection of paintings representing a wide range of periods, subjects