Hillsborough County, Florida
Hillsborough County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. In the 2010 census, the population was 1,229,226, making it the fourth-most populous county in Florida and the most populous county outside the Miami Metropolitan Area. A 2017 estimate has the population of Hillsborough County at 1,408,566 people, which itself is greater than the populations of 10 states according to their 2017 population estimates, its county seat and largest city is Tampa. Hillsborough County is part of the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hillsborough County was created on January 25, 1834, from Alachua and Monroe Counties, during the U. S. territorial period. The new county was named for Wills Hill, the Earl of Hillsborough, who served as British Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1768 to 1772; the County was created through efforts by Augustus Steele. The county's 1834 area was much larger and included eight other present-day counties: Charlotte County, DeSoto, Manatee, Pinellas and Sarasota.
The last significant change in Hillsborough County's borders was the separation of its western section to create Pinellas County in 1911. On New Year's Day in 1914, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line initiated the first scheduled commercial airline service in the world, from St. Petersburg to Tampa. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,266 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles are land and 246 square miles are covered by water. About 158.27 miles of shoreline are on Tampa Bay. The county's unincorporated area is more than 84 % of the total land area. Municipalities account for 163 square miles; the modern boundaries of the county place it midway along the west coast of Florida. A narrow portion of Hillsborough County to the south, consisting exclusively of water, extends west to the Gulf of Mexico along the Tampa Port Shipping Channel; this has the effect of keeping Hillsborough County from being technically landlocked. The central portion of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge is in Hillsborough County.
So is Egmont Key, at the entrance to Tampa Bay. The northernmost tip of a spoil island just west of Port Manatee lies in Hillsborough County. Hillsborough is home to Alafia River State Park and Hillsborough River state parks, to the C. W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir and Lithia Springs, one of the largest natural springs in Florida. Pasco County, Florida: north Polk County, Florida: east Hardee County, Florida: southeast Manatee County, Florida: south Pinellas County, Florida: west U. S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics: White: 53.7% Black: 15.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race: 24.9% Asian: 3.4% Two or more races: 3.1% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other Races: 5.0% In 2010, 6.0% of the Hillsborough's population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry Of the 536,092 households, 29.74% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.25% were married couples living together, 14.76% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.69% were not families.
About 27.12% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.96% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The age distribution was 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 11.8% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,536, for a family was $59,886. Males had a median income of $43,125 versus $35,184 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,062. About 10.7% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those aged 65 or over. In 2010, 15.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 44.5% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 67.5% were born in Latin America, 16.7% born in Asia, 9.2% were born in Europe, 3.2% born in Africa, 3.1% in North America, 0.3% were born in Oceania.
As of the census of 2000, 998,948 people, 391,357 households, 255,164 families resided in the county. The population density was 951 people per square mile; the 425,962 housing units averaged 405 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75.17% White, 14.96% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 2.20% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.66% from other races, a 2.56% from two or more races. 17.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The county was the thirty-second most populous county in the nation. Of the 391,357 households, 31.40% h
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Charles Joseph Crist Jr. is an American attorney and politician serving as the U. S. Representative from Florida's 13th congressional district since 2017, he served as the 44th Governor of Florida, from 2007 to 2011. Crist began his political career as a Republican, serving in the Florida Senate from 1993 to 1999, running unsuccessfully for the U. S. Senate in 1998 when he challenged incumbent Bob Graham and serving as Florida Education Commissioner from 2001 to 2003 and Florida Attorney General from 2003 to 2007, before being elected governor in 2006. Crist decided not to run for re-election as governor in 2010, instead announcing on May 12, 2009 that he was running for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Republican Senator Mel Martinez. After leading in the race for the Republican nomination, he was overtaken in the polls by Marco Rubio, in April 2010, Crist left the Republican Party and ran as an Independent. In the general election, he lost to Rubio in a three-way race, taking 30% of the vote to Rubio's 49% and Democratic nominee Kendrick Meek's 20%.
Crist's term as Florida Governor ended in January 2011. On December 7, 2012, he joined the Democratic Party, having endorsed President Barack Obama for re-election in 2012. On November 1, 2013, he announced. However, he was defeated by incumbent Governor Rick Scott, his own successor, losing by a 1% margin. In 2016 Crist was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Florida's 13th congressional district, defeating incumbent David Jolly by a margin of 52%-48%. Crist was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, on July 24, 1956, to Charles Joseph Crist, Sr. an American physician of Greek Cypriot and Lebanese descent, Nancy, of Scots-Irish and Welsh descent. His family name is adapted from the original Greek name "Christodoulou."In his childhood, Crist moved to St. Petersburg, where he attended Riviera Middle School, Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg High School, from which he graduated in 1974, he is the second of four children and has three sisters: Margaret Crist Wood, Elizabeth Crist Hyden, Catherine Crist Kennedy.
He attended Wake Forest University for two years. Crist earned his undergraduate degree from Florida State University, where he was elected vice president of the student body and became a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, he received his J. D. from Samford University Cumberland School of Law. After graduating from the Cumberland School of Law in 1981, having passed the bar on his third attempt, Crist was hired as general counsel to Minor League Baseball, headquartered in St. Petersburg. Drawn to politics, Crist was a candidate for public office for the first time in 1986, as a Republican, in the primary race for a state Senate seat in Pinellas County. After losing in a runoff, Crist joined his brother-in-law in private practice in St. Petersburg, but soon returned to politics as an aide in the successful 1988 United States Senate campaign of Connie Mack III, whom he has since described as his political mentor. Crist was elected to a two-year term to the Florida Senate in 1992 from the 20th District, which encompassed parts of St. Petersburg and south Tampa.
Crist defeated longtime incumbent Democratic State Senator Helen Gordon Davis of Tampa, 58.3 to 41.7%. Crist was able to unseat Gordon Davis following the 1992 decennial redistricting process, which reconfigured the districts in the Tampa Bay area, his victory was credited with helping to end the 128-year control of the Florida Senate by the Democratic Party, as the Republicans netted three Senate seats in 1992, resulting in a 20-20 tie between the two parties. He was known as a law-and-order senator, sponsoring legislation requiring inmates to serve at least 85% of their sentences before becoming eligible for parole, he supported teacher salary increases, charter schools, a specialty license plate for Everglades conservation. With Crist as chairman, the Senate Ethics and Elections Committee investigated actions of then-governor Lawton Chiles amid allegations that Chiles's campaign had made "scare calls" to senior citizens days before the 1994 gubernatorial election. Chiles admitted that his campaign had made the calls.
Crist was reelected to the Senate in 1994 to a four-year term, defeating Democrat Dana Lynn Maley with 63.3% of the vote. Crist gained recognition in 1998 as the Republican challenger to the incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Bob Graham, he lost to Graham by 26 percentage points. He was elected Education Commissioner of Florida in 2000 – a position he held until it became an appointive office in 2003, as the result of a 1998 constitutional amendment. Crist left his position. In 2002 Crist was elected as the Attorney General in Florida, his candidacy was supported by the host of John Walsh. Walsh and other supporters cited his work with the Center for Exploited Children. Crist was praised by civil rights and consumer groups for expanding the powers of the Attorney General during his time in office; these powers enabled him and future Attorneys General to have greater powers when prosecuting in civil rights and fraud cases. He worked at combating spam e-mail and froze utility rates, he sought to protect the environment.
Having won the 2006 election, Crist was inaugurated as Governor of Florida on January 2, 2007. He was involved in the state's purchase of sugar plantations, he worked on education, with Florida rising into the top 10 states for K12 education under his control. Crist supported President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a stimulus package in response to the Great Re
Florida's 11th congressional district
Florida's 11th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. It was reassigned in 2012, effective January 3, 2013, from the Tampa area north to four other counties: Sumter County, Citrus County and central Marion County, as well as the far northwestern corner of Lake County; the district stretches from Ocala southwest to Spring Hill. The Villages, a large and retirement and golfing community for seniors, is situated in this district, aiding Republican and Democratic candidates in the district and statewide. From 1993 to 2013, the former 11th district had encompassed most of the city of Tampa and its suburbs and the shoreline of southeastern Hillsborough County, it included two areas in other counties: urban neighborhoods of south St. Petersburg in Pinellas County and neighborhoods in and around Bradenton in Manatee County; the district is represented by Republican Daniel Webster. Election results from presidential races: As of January 2017, there are four former members of the U.
S. House of Representatives from Florida's 11th congressional district who are living at this time; the most recent representative to die was Sam Gibbons on October 10, 2012 Over 3 decades earlier, from 1983 to 1993, the district was based in Brevard County, including the Kennedy Space Center. In 1986, weeks before the Challenger disaster, the district's then-congressman, Bill Nelson, flew on board the Space Shuttle Columbia as part of mission STS-61-C. From 1993 to 2013 the district was based in Tampa plus the shoreline of Tampa Bay. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Florida State University College of Law
Florida State University College of Law is the law school of Florida State University located in Tallahassee, Florida. The law school borders the southeast quadrant of the University's campus, near the Donald L. Tucker Center, an arena and part of the Tallahassee civic center area; the College of Law campus consists of four major buildings, four historic houses around a green and five parking lots. It occupies two full city blocks and is directly across the street from the Florida Supreme Court and one block from the Florida Legislature; the school's most recent addition is its 50,000-square-foot Advocacy Center, which includes five courtrooms. According to Florida State University's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 72.6% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, bar passage required employment ten months after graduation. According to those same disclosures, 81.7% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, bar passage required jobs or JD preferred positions within ten months of graduation.
The College of Law was founded in 1966, holds classes in the B. K. Roberts building, named in honor of the Florida Supreme Court Justice's role in creating Tallahassee's first law school at nearby Florida A&M University, in 1949. Roberts held the State of Florida must provide African Americans some form of legal education in denying Virgil D. Hawkins admissions to the University of Florida Law School. Sixteen years the Florida legislature voted in 1965 to close FAMU law and open a law school at Florida State University by transferring allocated funds from FAMU law to Florida State University's law school; the College of Law offers the Juris Doctor, the first professional law degree. The three-year program provides students a foundational first-year program, a legal writing program, a varied offering of upper-level courses, clinics, co-curricular activities. Externship programs exist in the United States and abroad — including at the International Bar Association in London, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague, the Special Court of Sierra Leone, in Washington, D.
C. and in every major city in Florida, allowing students to spend a semester outside of Tallahassee. The College of Law offers a Master of Laws program in Environmental Law and Policy, as well as an LL. M. program for foreign lawyers. Additionally, the College of Law offers certificate programs and its faculty offer a significant range of courses in Criminal Law; the College of Law offers joint degree programs allowing students to earn other degrees in conjunction with the J. D. including Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Ph. D. degrees. U. S. News & World Report College of Law - 47th overall Environmental Law - 10th overallIn 2016, "Above the Law" ranked FSU 37th in the U. S. based on job placement success, low cost, alumni satisfaction. In 2015, The National Jurist has ranked Florida State University College of Law the 13th best value law school in the nation. In 2014, National Jurist ranked the College of Law as the 10th "Best Value Law School" in the country based on employment, bar passage rates, cost of living and average debt upon graduation.
A 2012 update of Leiter's Law School Rankings rates the law school faculty the nation's 33rd best in terms of per capita scholarly impact. Hispanic Business magazine ranks Florida State the nation's 2nd best law school for Hispanic students. In 2011, PreLaw magazine ranked Florida State the nation's 3rd "Best Value" law school and has been ranked "top 10" for three years in a row. National Jurist magazine ranks the law library the 30th best in the nation. National Jurist magazine ranks Florida State the nation's 34th best law school in the country. According to Florida State University's official 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 72.6% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, bar passage required employment ten months after graduation. Florida State University's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 8.3%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2015 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation.
Tuition at Florida State University College of Law for the 2016–17 academic year is $20,643 for Florida residents and $40,655 for non-Florida residents. Most non-residents are eligible to reclassify as Florida residents for tuition purposes after their 1L year. According to Florida State University's ABA-Required 509 Disclosure 60% of current students receive a scholarship, with the median award being $10,500. In a recent study of faculty productivity of law schools Florida State Law ranked third and was the top law school in Florida and the most productive in the Southeastern U. S; the faculty scholarship of Florida State Law ranks among the top 30 law schools based on downloads, according to the Social Science Research Network, which hosts working papers by Florida State Law Faculty in Public Law and Legal Theory, Business & Economics and Sustainability Law & Policy. Nationally prominent law professors at FSU include faculty in: Regulatory Law. Florida State Law faculty members have published their own casebooks in environmental law — David Markell and Donna Christie.
Other faculty authored books are
John Lewis (civil rights leader)
John Robert Lewis is an American politician and civil rights leader. He is the U. S. Representative for Georgia's 5th congressional district, serving in his 17th term in the House, having served since 1987, is the dean of the Georgia congressional delegation, his district includes the northern three-fourths of Atlanta. Lewis, who as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the "Big Six" leaders of groups who organized the 1963 March on Washington, played many key roles in the Civil Rights Movement and its actions to end legalized racial segregation in the United States, he is a member of the Democratic Party leadership in the U. S. House of Representatives and has served as a Chief Deputy Whip since 1991 and Senior Chief Deputy Whip since 2003. Lewis has been awarded many honorary degrees and is the recipient of numerous awards from eminent national and international institutions, including the highest civilian honor of the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
John Lewis was born in Troy, the third son of Willie Mae and Eddie Lewis. His parents were sharecroppers. Lewis grew up in Alabama, he has several siblings, including brothers Edward, Freddie, Sammy and William, sisters Ethel and Ora. At the age of six, Lewis had seen only two white people in his life, he was educated at the Pike County Training High School, Brundidge and American Baptist Theological Seminary and at Fisk University, both in Nashville, where he became a leader in the Nashville sit-ins. While a student, he was invited to attend nonviolence workshops held in the basement of Clark Memorial United Methodist Church by the Rev. James Lawson and Rev. Kelly Miller Smith. There and many of his fellow students became dedicated adherents to the discipline and philosophy of nonviolence, which he still practices today; the Nashville sit-in movement was responsible for the desegregation of lunch counters in downtown Nashville. Lewis was arrested and jailed many times in the nonviolent movement to desegregate the downtown area of the city.
Afterwards, he participated in the Freedom Rides sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality, led by James Farmer, became a national leader in the movement for civil rights and respect for human dignity. In an interview, John Lewis said, "I saw racial discrimination as a young child. I saw those signs that said'White Men, Colored Men, White Women, Colored Women'.... I remember as a young child with some of my brothers and sisters and first cousins going down to the public library trying to get library cards, trying to check some books out, we were told by the librarian that the library was for whites only and not for'coloreds'." During a childhood trip to Buffalo, New York, Lewis saw for the first time black men and white men working together, desegregating water fountains, began to believe the dream of equality was more than just a dream. Lewis listened to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks on the radio, he and his family supported the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Lewis met Parks in 1957 when he was 17, he met King the following year.
John Lewis was the youngest of the "Big Six" leaders as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee from 1963 to 1966, some of the most tumultuous years of the Civil Rights Movement. During his tenure, SNCC opened Freedom Schools, launched the Mississippi Freedom Summer, organized some of the voter registration efforts during the 1965 Selma voting rights campaign; as the chairman of SNCC, Lewis had written a speech in reaction to the Civil Rights Bill of 1963. He denounced the bill because it didn't protect African Americans against police brutality or provide African Americans with the right to vote. Lewis graduated from the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville and received a bachelor's degree in Religion and Philosophy from Fisk University; as a student, he was dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement. He organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Nashville and took part in many other civil rights activities as part of the Nashville Student Movement, he was instrumental in organizing student sit-ins, bus boycotts and nonviolent protests in the fight for voter and racial equality.
In 1960, Lewis became one of the 13 original Freedom Riders. There were seven whites and six blacks who were determined to ride from Washington, D. C. to New Orleans in an integrated fashion. At that time, several states of the old Confederacy still enforced laws prohibiting black and white riders from sitting next to each other on public transportation; the Freedom Ride, originated by the Fellowship of Reconciliation and revived by James Farmer and CORE, was initiated to pressure the federal government to enforce the Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia that declared segregated interstate bus travel to be unconstitutional. In the South and other nonviolent Freedom Riders were beaten by angry mobs, arrested at times and taken to jail; when CORE gave up on the Freedom Ride because of the violence and fellow activist Diane Nash arranged for the Nashville students to take it over and bring it to a successful conclusion. In 1963, when Chuck McDew stepped down as SNCC chairman, one of the founding members of SNCC, was elected to take over.
Lewis's experience at that point was widely respected. His courage and his tenacious adherence to the philosophy of reconciliation and nonviolence made him emerge as a leader. By this time, he had been arrested 24 times in the nonviolent struggle for equal justice, he held the post of chairman until 1966. In 1963, as chairman of SNCC Lewis was named one of the "Big Six" leaders who were organizing the March on Washington, the occasion of Dr