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Katsina is a city and a Local Government Area in northern Nigeria and is the capital of Katsina State. Katsina is located some 260 kilometres east of the city of Sokoto and 135 kilometres northwest of Kano, close to the border with Niger. In 2016, Katsina's estimated population was 429,000; the city is the centre of an agricultural region producing groundnuts, hides and guinea corn and has mills for producing peanut oil and steel. The city is Muslim, the population of the city is from the Fulani and Hausa ethnic groups. Former Nigerian President Umaru Yar'Adua was a nobleman of Katsina; the current Governor of Katsina is Aminu Bello Masari, sworn in as the Executive Governor of Katsina State on 29 May 2015, succeeding Barr. Ibrahim Shema; the Katsina Royal Palace'Gidan Korau' is a huge complex located in the centre of the ancient city. It is a symbol of culture and traditions of'Katsinawa'. According to historical account, it was built in 1348 AD by Muhammadu Korau, believed to have been the first Muslim King of Katsina.

This explains why it is traditionally known as'Gidan Korau'. It is one of the oldest and among the first generation palaces in Hausaland, along with Daura and Zazzau; the palace was encircled with a rampart,'Ganuwar Gidan Sarki'. The main gate which leads to the palace is known as'Kofar Soro', while the gate at the backyard is called'Kofar Bai'; the Emir's residential quarters at the epicenter of the Palace is a large compound built in the typical Hausa traditional architectural style. The current Emir of Katsina is Alhaji Abdulmumini Kabir Usman. Katsina State has 34 local governments; the local government area of Katsina is an area of 142 km2, with a population of 318,459 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 820. Surrounded by city walls 21 kilometres in length, Katsina is believed to have been founded circa 1100. In pre-Islamic times, Katsina's semi-divine ruler was known as the Sarki, who faced a summary death-sentence if found to be ruling incompetently. From the 17th to the 18th century, Katsina was the commercial heart of Hausaland and became the largest of the seven Hausa city-states.

Katsina was conquered by the Fulani during the Fulani War in 1807. In 1903, the Emir, Abubakar dan Ibrahim, accepted British rule, which continued until Nigerian independence from Britain in 1960. During sub-Saharan trade, the city of Katsina was known to be one of the most vibrant and strong commercial centres, was believed to be the strongest with the Hausa kingdoms in terms of commerce and craft; the German explorer Friedrich Hornemann reached Katsina, the first Westerner to do so, at the beginning of the 19th century. The city's history of western-style education dates back to the early 1950s, when the first middle school in northern Nigeria was established. There are now several institutions of higher learning, including two universities: Umaru Musa Yar'adua University and the private Katsina University; the city of Katsina is home to a famous 18th-century mosque featuring the Gobarau Minaret, a 15-metre tower made from mud and palm branches. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Katsina has a hot semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSh" on climate maps

Tryptophan hydroxylase

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase together constitute the family of biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. TPH catalyzes the following chemical reaction L-tryptophan + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2 ⇌ 5-Hydroxytryptophan + dihydrobiopterin + H2OIt employs one additional cofactor, iron, it is responsible for addition of the -HO group to the 5 position to form the amino acid 5-hydroxytryptophan, the initial and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is the first enzyme in the synthesis of melatonin. Tryptophan hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase are members of a superfamily of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, catalyzing key steps in important metabolic pathways. Analogously to phenylalanine hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, this enzyme uses -L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin and dioxygen as cofactors.

In humans, the stimulation of serotonin production by administration of tryptophan has an antidepressant effect and inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase may precipitate depression. The activity of tryptophan hydroxylase can be increased. Protein Kinase A, for example, can phosphorylate tryptophan hydroxylase, thus increasing its activity. In humans, as well as in other mammals, there are two distinct TPH genes. In humans, these genes are located on chromosomes 11 and 12 and encode two different homologous enzymes TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 is expressed in tissues that express serotonin in the periphery but it is expressed in the central nervous system. On the other hand, TPH2 is expressed in neuronal cell types and is the predominant isoform in the central nervous system. Biology portal Tryptophan+Hydroxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings See tryptophan hydroxylase in Proteopedia

Holy cow (expression)

"Holy cow!", an exclamation of surprise used in Australia, Canada and United States, is a minced oath or euphemism for "Holy Christ!" The expression dates to at least 1905. Its earliest known appearance was in a tongue-in-cheek letter to the editor: "A lover of the cow writes to this column to protest against a certain variety of Hindu oath having to do with the vain use of the name of the milk producer. There is the profane exclamations,'holy cow!' and,'By the stomach of the eternal cow!'" The phrase appears to have been adopted as a means to avoid using obscene or indecent language and may have been based on a general awareness of the holiness of cows in some religious traditions. From the Dictionary of American Slang: Expressions such as "Holy buckets!", "Holy underwear!", etc. employ a play-on-words, "holy" implying "riddled with holes". Paul Beale, revised Eric Partridge's A Dictionary of Catch Phrases and cites a different origin: The phrase "Holy cow!" was used by baseball players at least as early as 1913 and much earlier.

It became associated with several American baseball broadcasters. The phrase may have originated with reporter and broadcaster Halsey Hall who worked in Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1919 until his death in 1977. According to Paul Dickson, New Orleans radio announcer Jack Holiday used the phrase on broadcasts of the minor-league New Orleans Pelicans in the 1930s. Harry Caray was the broadcaster for the St. Louis Cardinals, Oakland Athletics, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Cubs, he began using it early in his career in order to prevent himself from lapsing into vulgarity. New York Yankees shortstop and announcer Phil Rizzuto was well known for the phrase. 1950s Milwaukee Braves broadcaster Earl Gillespie was known for this expression. The comic book series Common Grounds was based on the mini-comic Holey Crullers, named after its setting in a coffee and doughnut shop called Holey Crullers. Cattle in religion Sacred status of cow

Paul Di Filippo

Paul Di Filippo is an American science fiction writer. He is a regular reviewer for print magazines Asimov's Science Fiction, The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Science Fiction Eye, The New York Review of Science Fiction and Nova Express, as well as online at Science Fiction Weekly, he is a member of the Turkey City Writer's Workshop. Along with Michael Bishop, Di Filippo has published a series of novels under the pseudonym Philip Lawson. Antonio Urias writes that Di Filippo's writing has a "tradition of the bizarre and the weird", his novella A Year in the Linear City was nominated for a Hugo award. Di Filippo was born in Rhode Island. Antonio Urias praised the collection The Steampunk Trilogy in a brisk review, writing in summary that the tripartite book "contains three bizarre and humorous novels taking the reader from Queen Victoria's amphibian doppelganger to racist naturalists and black magic, the interdimensional love story of Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman." The first novella entitled "Victoria" follows Cosmo Cowperhwait the inventor of a human-amphibian hybrid that bares an uncanny resemblance to Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, as well as an insatiable sexual appetite.

This is a satire of Victorian mores, and, of course, of the stereotypical mad scientist.... The second novella is Hottentots; this is in part due to the fact that the story is told, for the most part through the eyes of Swiss-born naturalist Louis Agassiz, apart from pompous and self-aggrandizing a proud unrepentant racist. As a result, Di Filippo adopts a more satirical tone as Agassiz confronts anarchists, academic maneuverings, a Lovecraftian horror all without losing a hint of his arrogance or smug assurances; the final novella and Emily, follows Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman's blossoming love as they join a spiritualist and scientific expedition into the afterlife. More than either of the previous stories, "Walt and Emily" delights in literary references and games; the story is saturated with poetic quotations and the unrepentant silly fun not only of a love story between Dickenson and Whitman but the idea of them visiting the afterlife. Official website Paul Di Filippo: author's page at Weird Universe created by Di Filippo, Alex Boese & Chuck Shepherd Paul Di Filippo at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Paul Di Filippo at The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Paul Di Filippo's online fiction at Free Speculative Fiction Online Golden Gryphon Press site for Strange Trades 2006 interview with Paul Di Filippo at small WORLD podcast

Getter Jaani

Getter Jaani is an Estonian singer and actress. She represented Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with the song "Rockefeller Street". Getter was raised in Tallinn. In 2015, she was awarded a high school diploma. Besides Estonian, she has Russian ancestry. Jaani first became publicly known in Estonia in 2009 as a participant in the third season of Eesti otsib superstaari, the Estonian version of Pop Idol, she finished fourth and her performance gained her role of Sharpay Evans in the Estonian version of High School Musical. Jaani represented Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2011, with her entry "Rockefeller Street" coming in 24th place in the final; that same year, she participated as a celebrity contestant on Tantsud tähtedega, the Estonian version of Dancing with the Stars. In 2012, Jaani presented the scores on behalf of Estonia for the grand-finals of the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 in Baku, Azerbaijan. In 2013, Jaani landed the role of Sandy in the musical Grease. 2010: Parim Päev EP 2011: Jõuluvalgus "Rockefeller Street" "Talveöö" "NYC Taxi" "Sulle, kes sa kaugel" "Kes on süüdi" "Meelelahutajad" Official website

Samo ku waar

Samo ku waar is the national anthem of Somaliland, a self-declared republic, internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. The anthem was composed by Hassan Sheikh Mumin, a famous Somali playwright and composer; the anthem is sung in Somali. Samo ku waar, samo ku waar Samo ku waar, samo ku waarSarreeye calanka sudhan Bilay dhulkiisa Samo ku waar Iyo bogaadin suganHambalyo suubban kugu salaannee Saamo ku waar Hambalyo suubban kugu salaannee Saamo ku waarGeesiyaashii naftooda u sadqeeyay Qarannimada Soomaaliland Geesiyaashii naftooda u sadqeeyay:Qarannimada SoomaalilandXuskooda dhowrsan kugu salaannee samo ku waar Xuskooda dhowrsan kugu salaannee samo ku waarGuulside xambaarsan Soo noqoshadiisa Guulside xanbaarsan Soo noqoshadiisaKalsooniduu mutaystayee dastuurka Dastuurka ku salaan kugu salaanayMidnimo walaalnimo Goobanimo Midnimo walaalnimo GoobanimoIslaanimo kugu salaanee samow samidiyo Islaanimo kugu salaanee samow samidiyoSamo ku waar samo ku waar Soomaaliland Samo ku waar samo ku waar Soomaaliland Samo ku waar samo ku waar Soomaaliland Samo ku waar samo ku waar Soomaaliland............................................................................................ حياة طويلة مع السلام, حياة طويلة مع السلام حياة طويلة مع السلام, حياة طويلة مع السلام حياة طويلة مع السلام, حياة طويلة مع السلام Long life with peace, long life with peace Long life with peace, long life with peace Long life with peace, long life with peaceTo the high-flying flag That brings beauty to our landLong life with peaceAnd admiration We greet you with joy, Long life with peace We greet you with joy, Long life with peaceThe heroes who sacrificed their lives For the nationhood of Somaliland The heroes who sacrificed their lives For the nationhood of SomalilandWe greet you with the memory Long life with peace We greet you with the memory Long life with peaceAnd the return of success bearer And the return of success bearerFor the Symbol of Rebirth For the trusted ConstitutionWe greet you with unity, Brotherhood We greet you with unity, BrotherhoodSovereignty and Muslimhood Sovereignty and MuslimhoodLong life with peace, long life with peace Somaliland Long life with peace, long life with peace Somaliland Long life with peace, long life with peace Somaliland Long life with peace, long life with peace Somaliland Redsea-online - Anthem Redsea Online YouTube