The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload, they are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, usable on any chassis. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, were mounted on ordinary trucks; this mobility gave the Katyusha, other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire. Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, heavy BM-31. Today, the nickname is applied to newer truck-mounted post-Soviet – in addition to non-Soviet – multiple rocket launchers, notably the common BM-21 Grad and its derivatives. Although this type of weapon has existed since the 15th century, the design of the Katyusha may have been influenced by Giuseppe Fieschi's Machine infernale - Fieschi was honored in a religious service at a Moscow church at the prompting of Soviet General Kotskov, the inventor of the Katyusha rocket launcher.
Concerns for secrecy kept the military designation of the Katyushas from being known by the soldiers who operated them. They were called by code names such as Kostikov guns, after the head of the RNII, the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute, classed as Guards Mortars; the name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, remained classified until after the war. Because they were marked with the letter K, Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky's popular wartime song, "Katyusha", about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who has gone away on military service. Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha. German troops coined the nickname "Stalin's organ", after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, comparing the visual resemblance of the launch array to a pipe organ, the sound of the weapon's rocket motors, a distinctive howling sound which terrified the German troops, adding a psychological warfare aspect to their use.
Weapons of this type are known by the same name in Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Belgium, Hungary and other Spanish-speaking countries as well as in Sweden. The heavy BM-31 launcher was referred to as Andryusha. Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. Soviet engineers mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat; the design was simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had 14 to 48 launchers; the M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system 13.2 cm in diameter and weighed 42 kg. The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is effective in saturation bombardment, was feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a 400,000-square-metre impact zone, making its power equivalent to that of 72 conventional artillery guns.
With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were massed in large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces; the weapon's disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire. In June 1938, the Soviet Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute in Moscow was authorized by the Main Artillery Directorate to develop a multiple rocket launcher for the RS-132 aircraft rocket. I. Gvay led a design team in Chelyabinsk, which built several prototype launchers firing the modified 132 mm M-132 rockets over the sides of ZiS-5 trucks; these proved unstable, V. N. Galkovskiy proposed mounting the launch rails longitudinally. In August 1939, the result was the BM-13; the first large-scale testing of the rocket launchers took place at the end of 1938, when 233 rounds of various types were used. A salvo of rockets could straddle a target at a range of 5,500 metres.
But the artillery branch was not fond of the Katyusha, because it took up to 50 minutes to load and fire 24 rounds, while a conventional howitzer could fire 95 to 150 rounds in the same time. Testing with various rockets was conducted through 1940, the BM-13-16 with launch rails for sixteen rockets was authorized for production. Only forty launchers were built before Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. After their success in the first month of the war, mass production was ordered and the development of other models p
Felimare californiensis, common name the California blue dorid, is a species of colourful sea slug or dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Chromodorididae that eats dysideid sponges. This nudibranch is found in the Eastern Pacific Ocean along the Californian coast from Monterey Bay through Baja California, it became regionally extinct in the northern part of its range, disappearing from California by 1984. It is now found in a few isolated places in California, it has been shown to be synonymous with Felimare ghiselini. Felimare californiensis has a blue foot with moderately large yellow-orange spots; the body grows to a length of 90 mm. Photos of Felimare californiensis on Sealife Collection
ZS Associates is a consulting and professional services firm focusing on consulting and technology, headquartered in Evanston, Illinois that provides services for clients in private equity and technology. ZS was founded in 1983 by Prabhakant Sinha and Andris Zoltners, who worked together as professors of marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern UniversityThe firm employs more than 7,067 employees in 24 offices in North America, South America and Asia. ZS works with corporations within the consumer products, financial services, industrial products, telecommunications, transportation industries. ZS was founded in 1983 by Andris Zoltners the Frederic Esser Nemmers Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management, Prabhakant Sinha an associate professor of marketing at the Kellogg School of Management. While at the University of Massachusetts, they conducted research together into the knapsack problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, used to determine the number of items that fit in a collection so that the total weight of those items together is less than or equal to a given limit.
They realized that their research could be applied not only to planning and distributing meals for astronauts and members of U. S. military, but to consumer industry issues related to sales force sizing and resource allocation. In 1982, Zoltners and Sinha presented their sales force sizing and territory alignment models to their academic colleagues, demonstrating the world’s first personal-computer-aided territory mapping system. In 1983, Sinha joined Zoltners at Northwestern, the pair founded ZS Associates in their off hours, offering companies increased sales force efficiency using their now-proven territory mapping software. In its first three years, ZS had helped eight of the 10 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, including Pfizer, align territories and resize their sales forces. By that time, the 25-member team worked on 100 or more projects in a dozen countries—including the United States and many European countries. In 1987, a large American company hired ZS to reorganize and reallocate their US-based sales force.
In addition to deploying their sales territory alignment solution, ZS supported the company in change management, built tools like incentive compensation programs to support the human resources of the company’s marketing and sales division. Through the 1990s, ZS continued to develop its capabilities, adding data warehousing, market forecasting, market research and analytical services for their clients; the firm broke into sales force incentive compensation program auditing and implementation during these years. In 2002, ZS added a marketing research practice to the company that would soon expand and evolve into a marketing solution area. 2004 saw Zoltners and Sinha win the Marketing Science Practice Prize from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for their paper, Sales Territory Design: 30 Years of Modeling and Implementation, which explored the “models, systems and wisdom have evolved over 1,500 project implementations for 500 companies with 500,000 sales territories.”
From 2003 to 2011, the firm tripled its revenue by expanding practice areas and solution areas from eight areas to 20, by enlarging ZS’s focus from pharmaceutical sales force sizing and territory alignment to a business-to-business sales, marketing and capability-building global business. In the same period, ZS went from 10 offices around the world to 19 offices, establishing its presence around the globe. In 2007, the company reached a headcount of 1,000 with 2,000 projects completed in a single year for 300 different clients in 28 industries and 38 different countries; the company marketed its consultants as “experts in our issue areas, not generalists.” By 2011, ZS worked with 49 of the 50 largest drugmakers in healthcare and 17 of the 20 largest medical device makers. ZS celebrated its 35th anniversary in 2018 with a 6,000-employee headcount and 22 offices around the world; that same year, Vault ranked ZS #7 on its list of 2018 Best Consulting Firms for Health Care Consulting. ZS would go on to rank #6 on the same list in 2019.
Zoltners and Sinha founded ZS on three core values: Treat people right, do the right thing and get it right. The founders and subsequent ZS leaders continue to emphasize integrity and respect in business and interoffice relationships; the company has been awarded for its company culture on many occasions, receiving the following recognitions and awards: Earned 100 Percent on the Human Rights Campaign Foundation’s 2019 LGBTQ Corporate Equality Index. “100 Best Companies for Women in India” by Working Mother and AVTAR. ZS has been recognized with several award related to its work environment, its employees and its success in the consulting industry. Named one of Consulting magazine's 2017 and 2018 "Best Firms to Work For". Ranked by Vault on several 2019 best-of-list, including "Consulting 50", "Most prestigious Consulting firms" and "Best consulting firms". Ranked by Forbes as among the top 25 companies which are the most difficult to interview for. Official website
Novelty is a requirement for a patent claim to be patentable. An invention is not new and therefore not patentable if it was known to the public before the filing date of the patent application, or before its date of priority if the applicant claims priority of an earlier patent application; the purpose of the novelty requirement is to prevent prior art from being patented again. Novelty is requirement for a patent claim to be patentable. In contrast, if an invention was known to the public before filing a patent application, or before its date of priority, if the priority of an earlier patent application is claimed, the invention is not considered new and therefore not patentable. To assess the novelty of an invention, a search through what is called the prior art is performed, the term "art" referring to the relevant technical field. A prior art search is performed with a view to proving that the invention is "not new" or old. No search can cover every single publication or use on earth, therefore cannot prove that an invention is "new".
A prior art search may for instance be performed using a keyword search of large patent databases, scientific papers and publications, on any web search engine. However, it is impossible to guarantee the novelty of an invention once a patent has been granted, since some obscure little known publication may have disclosed the claimed invention. A patent grants an inventor a enforceable monopoly over their invention; this means that others can be restrained from exploiting the invention. It is not the intention of the patent system to deny anyone what they have been free to do before someone claims an invention. For example, one cannot patent the wheel, as that would exclude others from doing what they had been free to do; the legal test is that the invention must be something new, i.e. it must possess "novelty". The invention of the wheel is not new, because the wheel forms part of the prior art. In some countries, such as the Australia, China, Russia, United States, a grace period exists for protecting an inventor or their successor in title from authorised or unauthorised disclosure of the invention before the filing date.
That is, if the inventor or the successor in title publishes the invention, an application can still be validly filed which will be considered novel despite the publication, provided that the filing is made during the grace period following the publication. The grace period is 6 or 12 months. In China, the grace period is 6 months. In Russia, the grace period is 6 months. In USA, the grace period is 12 months In other countries, including European countries, any act that makes an invention available to the public, no matter where in the world, before the filing date or priority date has the effect of barring the invention from being patented. Examples of acts that can make an invention available to the public are written publications, public oral disclosures and public demonstrations or use; the grace period should not be confused with the priority year defined by Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. The priority year starts when the first filing in a contracting state of the Paris Convention is made, while the grace period starts from the pre-filing publication.
Local novelty only regards publications, uses or sales that have taken place within that jurisdiction to be novelty destroying. Point of novelty is a term used in patent law to distinguish those elements or limitations in a patent claim that are conventional or known from those elements or limitations that are novel, i.e. not conventional or known. That part of the invention may be termed its "point of departure from the prior art." The term is applied to a patentability test--the point of novelty test--which determines patentability by considering the point of novelty after dissecting out the conventional part. In a Jepson claim, the conventional parts of the claim elements are placed in a preamble, such as "In a grease gun comprising a cylinder enclosing a piston longitudinally movable in said cylinder, said cylinder having a nozzle at a distal end thereof,", followed by a transitional phrase such as "the improvement comprising,", followed by a recitation of the element or elements constituting the point of novelty, such as "said nozzle having a fluted opening at a distal end thereof."A conceptual problem may arise in applying the point of novelty method of analysis when the elements at the point of novelty cooperate or co-act with the conventional elements or part of them in a novel way.
The novel co-action is properly considered part of the point of novelty of the invention and should therefore properly be recited after the transitional phrase. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit used the point of novelty test for design patents as the basis of a patent infringement analysis, but the court abandoned that test in Egyptian Goddess, Inc. v. Swisa, Inc; the Federal Circuit has at times criticized use of the point of novelty test in obviousness analysis, but the Supreme Court has continued to use a point of novelty test for obviousness. In Parker v. Flook the Supreme Court analyzed patent-eligibility under a point of novelty test, citing Neilson v. Harford and O'Reilly v. Morse as authority, but in Diamond v. Diehr, the Court used the opposite approach. In Mayo v. Prometheus and Alice v. CLS Bank the Supreme Court went back to the test of the Flook case. Present-day American patent law still acknowledges that some parts of a patent claim may constitute "insignificant post-solution activity".
This is regarded as a kind of "point of novelty" approach, di
Good Leader Tavis is a fictional character in the American television series The Purge. Portrayed by Fiona Dourif, she is a zealous cult leader whose followers sacrifice themselves during a night of anarchy, believing that the act will benefit them and others. Throughout the show's first season, a man named Miguel Guerrero pursues Tavis's bus while attempting to save his sister from the group. Producers sought a male actor for the role, but allowed women to audition as well. Dourif was cast after she read for the part. Tavis has received positive reviews from television critics; as with other works in its franchise, The Purge takes place during an annual night when crime in America is legalized for 12 hours. The series introduces a cult led by Good Leader Tavis, who has convinced her followers to allow themselves to be killed on Purge Night, claiming that their sacrifice will save others and lead to a pleasant afterlife. Throughout the evening, some of her students begin to question their decision, creating occasional conflicts.
Tavis's bus is pursued by former marine Miguel Guerrero, who seeks to remove his sister Penelope from the cult. While developing the TV series, Purge creator James DeMonaco envisioned a nontraditional set of characters whose intention was sacrifice, rather than survival, he pictured the leader as a charismatic man whose followers "offer themselves up as martyrs to people who want to Purge." Around this point in the production, Fiona Dourif had gained popularity for her performances in horror-based projects. Producers reconsidered their stance on the character's gender and invited Dourif to audition, she won the part after one reading. In May 2018, Deadline Hollywood announced that Dourif would join the series as a "much-adored, charismatic cult leader" who would command a number of "fawning followers." Dourif's casting drew quick recognition from Entertainment Weekly, Yahoo!, other media outlets, with iHorror praising her "knockout talent as an actress." Though listed as a recurring player, Tavis was featured prominently in promotional material, including the series' first trailer, on USA Network's website.
Having viewed the first two Purge films, Dourif came to see the franchise as a "fun, scary ride makes you think about these bigger issues". When introduced, Tavis is presented as unwavering motivator. "Her charisma just takes everybody over," said Dourif, drawn to the part because of the influence that the character wields. "It just became this experiment of, what it would be like to be so convinced of something, so passionate and righteous that I can command attention like she does. It was just so fun," she said. To prepare for the role, Dourif watched "hours of preaching, inspirational videos," while basing the character in part on her real-life mother, a former psychic. To further immerse herself in the part, she chose not to view Tavis as a villainess. "I play her as someone. There may be some doubt sometimes, like there is with everything. She's like a painter, devoted to her art. She's gonna make the world a better place," she said. Dourif noted that more information on Tavis would be revealed throughout the series, stated that playing the character "was maybe the most fun I've had on a job, ever."
In a review of the opening episodes, Spencer Barrett of TV Source lauded the series, but found the arc of lead character Miguel underwhelming. "More interesting is the cult Penelope has joined thanks to a slyly sinister performance by Dourif. While it seems Tavis has the best intentions for her cult'children,' Dourif's performance lets you know there is more to her character than meets the eye," he said. Mike Walkusky of DirecTV.com labeled Dourif a "majestic" actress, recognized her as "so good" in the role. Nick Venable of CinemaBlend noted Dourif's "undying smile, which becomes more haunting as the show goes on." Den of Geek's Ronald Hogan evaluated Tavis in a review of episode three. "She's making the Purge work for her. It doesn't have to be all about killing and mayhem. For some, it's protecting others. For others, it's all about power, being in charge, controlling others", he said, he declared, "Fiona Dourif is brilliant."Jack O'Keefe wrote an editorial for Bustle.com on Tavis and her cult, noting that the story captured his interest and left him with "a great deal of questions."
The editors of Bloody Disgusting featured an image of Tavis in their annual fall preview article, stating, "It will be interesting to see how the action-horror franchise translates to a slower episodic format, but with recurring stars like Fiona Dourif as a cult leader and William Baldwin, you can bet we’re curious."
Kaviyoor Ponnamma is an Indian film actress who appears in Malayalam films and television. She began her career performing in theatre dramas before foraying into cinema, she has acted in TV serials and commercials and has playback singing credits in few films. Ponnamma is a four-time Kerala State Film Award for Second Best Actress winner, her sister Kaviyoor Renuka was an actress. As a five-year-old, she used to sing in stage shows, she did not see many movies. She started acting in dramas when she was 14 years old, starting off with Mooladhanam of Thoppil Bhasi. After five years, came her first movie Kudumbini, in which she did the title role of the mother of two kids, she was born to T. P. Damodharan and Gauri, as the eldest of seven children, on 4 January 1945 in Kaviyoor, Travancore, she has six siblings in which Kaviyoor Renuka, her younger sister, was an actress. Ponnamma was married to film producer Maniswami; the couple has a daughter Bindhu, settled in the United States. Her husband Maniswami died in 2011.
The roles of Kaviyoor Ponnamma-Mohanlal duo as mother and son are popular in Malayalam movies. Kerala State Film Awards: Second Best Actress – 1971 – Different films Second Best Actress – 1972 – Theertha Yathra Second Best Actress – 1973 – Different films Second Best Actress – 1994 – Thenmavin KombathuFilm City Magazine- Chalachitra Ratnam' Title - 2006 Pappanamkode Lakshmanan Award - 2006 O Madhavan Award - 2009 Bharath Murali Award - 2012 Kala Ratna award - EV Kala Mandalam - 2013 PK Rosy Award - 2015 Good Knight Film and Business Awards - 2017 Gurupranam - Honour by Malayalam Cine Technicians’ Association - 2013 Honour by KSFDC - 2015 Honour by Kerala State Film Awards - 2016 Felicitation by Kerala State Film Awards - 2017 Kausalya Vandanam programme Honour - 2017 Kalaiselvam Award - Government of Tamil Nadu Honour by Kaviyoor Panchayat DLSA Honour 1963 - "Kaavilamme Karinkali" - Kaattumaina 1968 - "Methikkalathile" - Velutha Kathreena 1972 - "Ambike Jagadambike" - Theerthayaathra 1973 - "Mangalaam Kaavile" - Dharmayudham 1982 - "Thushaaramanikal" - Illakkangal 1982 - "Palathum Paranju" - Chiriyo Chiri 1999 - "Unknown" - Pallavur Devanarayanan 2001 - "Unnikkanna - Kakkakuyil Gauri Amme Mahamayee Thatteem Mutteem - Cameo appearance Ramayanam Kathayile Rajakumari Gajarajan Guruvayoor Kesavan Sree Ayappanum Vavarum Vishudha thomasleeha Chandrettanum Shobedathiyum Krishnakripaasaagaram Pakal Mazha Manthrakodi Alilathali Swantham Malootty Manassariyathe Dambathya geethangal Sthree 2 Ponnunjal Black and White Meera Akkarappacha Mandan Kunju Kalanum Kandakashani Guruvayoor Sree Krishna Darsanam - Devotional show Mooladhanam Puthiya Akasham Puthiya Bhoomi Janani Janmbhoomi Doctor "Vellilam Kaattilolichu Kalikkuvan" "Pookkaara Pootharumo" "Onappooviliyil" "Kaalchilambil" "Oru vazhithaarayil" "Pottichirichu" "Mannil Piranna" "Mulchedikkaattil" "Vala Vala" Ente Malayalam Sreeramajapam Makam - Ellam Ente Chottanikkara Amma - Krishna Krishna Hare Hare - Home Sweet Home JB Junction News Hour Movies Comedy Super Nite Comedy Super Nite 2 Kathayillithu Jeevitham Kayyoppu Ponnamma Manssu THurakkunnu Malayalee House On Record Mukhamukham Samagamam FM Rainbow Badayi Bungalow Female Film Festival Women in Action programm Onam Cooking Show Thiranottam Top Talk CN Vlogs Onam 2019 Kayyur Film Nithyaharitham Book release Ee Vazhitharayil Charithram Enniloode International Children’s Film Festival of Kerala Mathrusparsham KSFDC Valthsallyam Mothers’ Day programme K.
G. Jayan Felicitation Aanachamayam Thombil Palace Samrakshana Samiti Programme Lohithadas Award Function 65th Hindu Religious Meet Interview Onam Thoughts Ammakkorumma Amma Ponnamma Cinemayile Amma Ponnamma Mohanam 2016 Limelight Anjaloonjal Attukal festival Oru Vattam Koodi Stall at Desam Children's day Magic Show Prem Nazir film festival Media Award Presentation Swantham Gramam Sundara Gramam Amruthageethangal Film Supporting Artistes’ Welfare Association Good Knight Film and Business Awards 2017 Annorikkal Nere Chovve Lal Salam Madhuram Madhuram Onam Comedy Stars Onathammamar Star Singer Red FM Malayalam Music Awards Thanima Cultural Festival Ormayile Ponnonam JC Daniel Award - Jury Katha Ithuvare Amma Nakshathram Reporter Live Prem Nazir Foundation Award 50 years of Vellithirayile Perunthachan Janaseva Sisu Bhavan Snehaveedu Honour to IV Sasi Minnalai Television Award Night Velicham Intensive Educational Development Project Vishu Interview Run Kerala, Run Golden Jubilee celebrations of the formation of the State Krishna Jayanthi Hiroshima Day Programme Jubilee Fete of the Neeravil Prakash Kala Kendram Bharathan’s 10th death anniversary Kaviyoor Ponnamma on IMDb Kaviyoor Ponnamma at MSI