Eschweiler is a municipality in the district of Aachen in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany on the river Inde, near the German-Belgian-Dutch frontier, about 15 kilometres east of Aachen and 50 kilometres west of Cologne. Celts and Romans. 828 First mentioned by the biographer of Charlemagne. 1394 Coal mining first mentioned. For some centuries part of the Duchy of Jülich. 1678 Completely destroyed except one house and the valuable leather Pietà. 1794 To France. 1800 French municipal rights and capital of the Canton of Eschweiler in the French Département de la Roer. 1816 To Prussia. The French Cantons of Burtscheid and Eschweiler are put together to form the Prussian Kreis Aachen. 1838 Foundation of the first joint stock company in the Kingdom of Prussia: Eschweiler Bergwerksverein EBV. 1858 Prussian municipal rights. Its quarters Hehlrath, Kinzweiler and St. Jöris are released in order to form the new municipality of Kinzweiler. 1932 Hastenrath and Nothberg become a part of Eschweiler. 1944 Heavily destroyed in World War II, the last coal mine was flooded during the war and never been re-opened.
Part of the federal land of North Rhine-Westphalia. 1960s Complete modernization of Eschweiler's downtown and regulation of the Inde in order to prevent the regular inundations. 1972 Reorganization of administration in North Rhine-Westphalia: Eschweiler increases overnight from some 38,000 inhabitants to about 55,000 by receiving the villages Dürwiß, Laurenzberg and Weisweiler. Kinzweiler, after 114 years, comes back. 1970s Eschweiler loses seven quarters because of the brown-coal opencast mining: Erberich, Langendorf, Lohn, Lürken and Pützlohn. Eschweiler main sights include: Artificial lake Blausteinsee the Old Townhall two pilgrim churches main parish church of St. Peter und Paul with the Leather Pietà from 1360 the chapel dwelling house of the former Cistercians nunnery of St. Jöris, skull relic in St. Jöris' church, baroque altar in Hehlrath's church Old Mill of Gressenich. Present is a series of castle and manors: Castle of Eschweiler Castle of Kambach Castle of Kinzweiler Castle of Nothberg Castle of Palant Castle of Röthgen Castle of Weisweiler Manor of Broich Manor of Drimborn Manor of Nothberg Eschweiler has three municipal halls, a cinema, a municipal art collection and the so-called Culture Centre Talbahnhof for cabaret and music events.
Every summer the Eschweiler Music Festival EMF takes place. People go to the numerous pubs around the Market Place and in the old-town alley Schnellengasse as well as to the large-scale discothèque Klejbor's. Eschweiler is a center of Rhineland carnival, it has more than 20 active carnival clubs, every Monday before Lent it has the third of Germany's longest carnival processions. Sauerbraten Potato fritters with black bread, apple syrup, sugar beet syrup or stewed apples Blood sausage crude or fried Hemmel on Äed mashed potatoes with stewed apples and fried blood pudding Rice pies, apricot pies, pear pies - 20 cm in diameter; every year, there are 25,000 out-patients. The Euregio Breast Centre is part of the hospital. Soccer, ice hockey, open-air swimming pool, indoor swimming pool, horse sports, handball. Eschweiler isn't too remarkable with industries. Chemicals and goods are the main products, while it has a lignite-powered power plant rated at 2.8 GW. The lignite deposits in the region are former Miocene swamp forest dominated by Castanopsis, a type of chinkapin.
Such plants do not occur in Europe. A type of fossil wood has been described from logs found in Eschweiler mines, it was named Castanoxylon eschweilerense in reference to the town. Eschweiler has six railway stations: Eschweiler Hauptbahnhof, Eschweiler-Aue, Eschweiler-West, Eschweiler-Talbahnhof, Eschweiler-Nothberg, Eschweiler-Weisweiler and Nothberg. Eschweiler-St. Jöris is planned. Eschweiler has two bus terminals and bus lines in its whole vicinity. Autobahn exits on the A 4 include Eschweiler-Ost and Weisweiler; the city can be reached by three exits on the A 44: Aldenhoven and Broichweiden. József Ács, conductor, director of the Franz Liszt Society of Eschweiler Theo Altmeyer, tenor Heinrich Boere, German-Dutch war criminal Götz Briefs, national economist and social philosopher Willibert Kauhsen, racing driver Johannes Bündgens, auxiliary bishop of Aachen Markus Daun, soccer player Gerhard Fieseler Andreas Gielchen, soccer player Susanne Kasperczyk, soccer player Claus Killing-Günkel, esperantologist Sascha Klein, water jumper Kevin Kratz, footballer Wilhelm Lexis, national economist and statistician Franz Reuleaux Michaela Schaffrath, porn actress and actress Karl-Heinz Smuda, ghostwriter and publisher in Berlin and Norfolk / Virginia Ralf Souquet (born
Henri Jacques William Pescarolo is a former racing driver from France. He competed in the 24 Hours of Le Mans a record 33 times, winning on four occasions, won a number of other major sports car events including the 24 Hours of Daytona, he participated in 64 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium and 12 championship points. Pescarolo drove in the Dakar Rally in the 1990s, before retiring from racing at the age of 57. In 2000 he set up his eponymous racing team, Pescarolo Sport, which competed in Le Mans until 2013, he wore a distinctive green helmet, wears a full-face beard that covers burns suffered in a crash. Pescarolo began his career in 1965 with a Lotus Seven, he was successful enough to be offered a third car in the Matra Formula 3 team for 1966, but the car was not ready until mid-season. However, in 1967 he won the European Championship with Matra and was promoted to Formula 2 for 1968; that season he was team-mate to Jean-Pierre Beltoise and achieved several second places and a win at Albi, which led to him being given a drive in Matra's Formula One team for the last three races of 1968.
His career suffered a setback, in 1969, when he crashed on the Mulsanne Straight at Le Mans whilst testing the Matra sports car. Pescarolo did not compete again until mid-season, he returned at the German GP where he drove a Formula 2 Matra into fifth place winning the small capacity class, in his only Grand Prix race that season. For 1970 Pescarolo was signed full-time by Matra for their Formula One team and once again as team-mate to Beltoise, put in a solid season with a third place at the Monaco Grand Prix being the high point, he won the Paris 1000 km and Buenos Aires 1000 km sports car races partnered with Beltoise. Pescarolo was not retained by Matra, in 1971, 1972, 1973 with Motul sponsorship, he drove for the fledgling Formula One team run by the young Frank Williams, but with little success. In 1974, Pescarolo drove for BRM, again with Motul backing, but the team's best days were gone and a ninth place in Argentina was his best result in a season with many retirements. Pescarolo did not compete in Formula One in 1975 but returned to the championship in 1976 with a Surtees entered by BS Fabrications.
Although neither car nor driver was considered to be competitive, failing to qualify for 2 of 9 Grands Prix entered, Pescarolo did begin to show speed in the final 5 races scoring a season's best finish of 9th at the 1976 Austrian Grand Prix. After Pescarolo's retirement from Formula One, he went on to start his own team, which competed until 2012 in the Le Mans Endurance Series and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which he won as a driver four times, his team, Pescarolo Sport, was notably sponsored by Sony's PlayStation 2 and by Gran Turismo 4. During the five years that Pescarolo has campaigned Courage C60 prototypes, so many modifications have been made to the model that Courage allowed the team to name the car after themselves, such was the differences between their model and the standard C60. In 2005, it was developed further still to meet the "hybrid" regulations, before the change to LMP1/2 format. In 1977, 1978 and 1979 Pescarolo drove in Australia's most famous motor race, the Bathurst 1000 for touring cars held at the Mount Panorama Circuit, driving on all three occasions with 1974 race winner John Goss.
All races resulted in a DNF for the Goss built Ford XC Falcon GS500 Hardtops, completing only 113 laps in 1977, 68 in 1978 and 118 in 1979. The 1977 race saw Pescarolo's Le Mans rival Jacky Ickx win the race in a semi-works Falcon driving with Allan Moffat. Pescarolo holds the record for Le Mans starts with 33 and has won the race on four occasions as a driver, he has yet to win the race as a team owner, coming close in 2005 with the Pescarolo C60H. His team did manage to win the LMES championship in the same year, his team was second at Le Mans in 2006, followed by a third in 2007 behind a pair of diesel-powered prototypes. Pescarolo drove the Dakar Rally in the 1990s, is a keen helicopter pilot. ‡ Graded drivers not eligible for European Formula Two Championship points Pescarolo Sport
The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left ample s
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
The Hockenheimring Baden-Württemberg is a motor racing circuit situated in the Rhine valley near the town of Hockenheim in Baden-Württemberg, located on the Bertha Benz Memorial Route. Amongst other motor racing events, it biennially hosts the German Grand Prix, with the most recent being in 2018; the circuit has little change in elevation. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. Called "Dreieckskurs", the Hockenheimring was built in 1932; the man behind it is Ernst Christ, a young timekeeper who felt that a racing track should be built in his hometown of Hockenheim. He submitted the plans to the mayor and they were approved on Christmas day, in 1931; this first layout of the track was around twelve kilometres long and consisted of a large triangle like section, a hairpin in the city and two straights connecting them. In 1938, the circuit shortened, from twelve kilometres down to just over seven and a half, the famous Ostkurve corner, which lasted until 2001, was introduced for the first time. In that year, the track was renamed to "Kurpfalzring".
The track was damaged by tanks during World War II. After the war, the track was repaired, renamed to "Hockenheimring". Former DKW and NSU factory rider and world record setter Wilhelm Herz became the manager of the track in 1954 and promoted the track successfully; this version of the circuit was just over seven and a half kilometres long and consisted of the original two long straights, with the Ostkurve in the forest and the original hairpin inside Hockenheim joining them together. In 1965, when the new Autobahn A 6 separated the village from the main part of the track, a new version of Hockenheim circuit was built, with the "Motodrom" stadium section. After Jim Clark was killed on 7 April 1968 in a Formula 2 racing accident, two fast chicanes were added and the track was lined with crash barriers in 1970. A small memorial was placed at the site of his accident. In 1982, another chicane was added at the Ostkurve, after Patrick Depailler was killed there in 1980, the first chicane was made slower as well.
For the 1992 German Grand Prix, the Ostkurve was changed yet again, from a quick left turn into a more complex right-left-right chicane, after Érik Comas crashed there in 1991. The second chicane was renamed after Ayrton Senna, after his death at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix This version used to be quite large, with a long and fast section going through forests consisting of four straights of 1.3 km, separated by a chicane sequence, followed by a more tight and twisty "stadium" section named Motodrom. This made the setting up of racing cars difficult, since a choice had to be made – whether to run low downforce to optimize speed through the straights and compromise grip in the stadium section, or vice versa; the long track length meant that a typical Formula One race had only 45 laps, limiting the spectators' experience of the race to only that many passes through the stadium. During the mid-1980s "turbo era" of Formula One where fuel was restricted to either 220, 195 or 150 litres for races for the turbo powered cars, Hockenheim saw drivers, including World Champion Alain Prost, at times fail to finish due to running out of fuel near the end of the race.
Prost ran out at the end of the 1986 race. He was placed 3rd when he ran dry and was classified 6th, gaining a valuable championship point that would help him with his second World Championship. Many problems came to light during the 2000 German Grand Prix, where Brazilian driver Rubens Barrichello won from having started 18th on the grid, in changeable weather conditions. All the overtaking moves that took place during the race were in the chicanes of the forest sector, meaning hardly any spectators saw most of the best action. French driver Jean Alesi had a massive accident at the 3rd chicane after a collision in the braking zone with Pedro Diniz, which saw Alesi's car spin uncontrollably down the track, causing him to suffer dizziness for 3 days. A former Mercedes-Benz employee, dismissed, breached the track's security barriers on the first main straight, showing vulnerable security facilities in the forest and bringing out a safety car that slowed down the Mercedes-powered McLarens; these events prompted much protest from the FIA to improve spectator viewing and security at the track, as it had become clear that the track was no longer suited to modern Formula One racing.
During the television coverage of the qualifying session of the 2002 German Grand Prix held on the new circuit, former F1 driver and current lead TV commentator for Sky Sports Formula One coverage Martin Brundle stated that he, along with other drivers of his era, did not enjoy racing at the old Hockenheim as the long straights saw only seven or eight finishers from twenty-six starters, with most dropping out through engine or transmission failure caused by the long periods at high speed on the forest straights. In the early 2000s, F1 officials demanded the 6.823 km track be shortened and threatened to discontinue racing there, due to competition from other tracks such as the EuroSpeedway Lausitz and sites in Asia. The state government of Baden-Württemberg secured the financing for the redesign by Hermann Tilke for the 2002 German Grand Prix; the stadium section remained intact, despite a new surface and a tighter Turn 1. However, the c
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Klaus Ludwig is a German racing driver. He known as König Ludwig for his success in touring cars and in sports car racing. In the 1970s, Ludwig drove for Ford in the Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, winning in 1979 with a Kremer Racing-Porsche 935. With this car, based on the 15-year-old Porsche 911 road car design, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans overall in the wet, an unprecedented win against the faster pure sports car racing prototypes. In 1984 and 1985, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans for Joest Racing in their #7 Porsche 956. Considering Le Mans and sportcars too dangerous after the deaths of Manfred Winkelhock and Stefan Bellof, he was recruited for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship for Ford only to finish runner-up by a single point to BMW driver Roberto Ravaglia after a post-season disqualification, he moved to the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, became champion in 1988 in a Ford Sierra RS500. Ludwig represented IMSA in the 1986 International Race of Champions, finishing 8th.
He repeated the success at Mercedes-Benz in 1992 and 1994, before moving back to sports cars racing for them in 1997 to become the 1998 FIA GT Champion. He retired, he soon returned in June 1999, to win the 24 Hours Nürburgring on the Nordschleife for the third time driving a Zakspeed Viper. When the DTM resumed as Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2000, he returned to the series, winning at the age of 50 years at the Sachsenring circuit, only to retire once again. Ludwig returned as a "hobby pilot" to the Nürburgring Nordschleife when given the opportunity to drive a high power vehicle; the years 2004 and 2005 saw him enter the 24 Hours Nürburgring with Uwe Alzen on the Jürgen Alzen Porsche 996 GT2 Bi-Turbo. With a aspirated Porsche 997 GT3 of the Alzen brothers and Christian Abt managed to beat the old distance record in the 2006 edition of the 24h, yet finished only second, 1 lap behind the winners. Ludwig has worked as a TV commentator on DTM races. Winner 24 Hours of Le Mans: 1979, 1984, 1985 Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft champion 1979, 1981 Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft champion 1988, 1992, 1994 FIA GT World Champion 1998 * Overall positions shown.
WTCC points paying positions may be different † — Retired, but was classified as he completed 90% of the winner's race distance