In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Dhritarashtra is the King of Kuru Kingdom with its capital Hastinapur. He was born to Vichitravirya's first wife Ambika, was fathered by Veda Vyasa. Dhritarashtra was blind from birth, became father to one hundred sons and one daughter by his wife Gandhari, another son Yuyutsu by Sughada, his wife's maid; these children, including the eldest son Duryodhana, came to be known as the Kauravas. A historical Kuru King named Dhritarashtra Vaichitravirya is mentioned in the Kathaka Samhita of the Yajurveda as a descendant of the Rigvedic-era king Sudas, his cattle were destroyed as a result of conflict with the vratya ascetics. With Vichitravirya having died of sickness, Bhishma unable to take the throne because of his vow, Bahlika's line unwilling to leave Bahlika Kingdom, there was a succession crisis in Hastinapur. Satyavati invites her son Vyasa to impregnate the queens Ambika and Ambalika under the Niyoga practice; when Vyasa went to impregnate Ambika, she got frightened due to his scary appearance and closed her eyes during their union.
Dhritarashtra, along with his younger half-brother Pandu is trained in the military arts by Bhishma and Kripacharya. Hindered by his handicap, Dhritarashtra is unable to wield weapons, but is having the strength one hundred thousand elephants due to boon of Vyasa and is said to be so strong that he can crush iron with his hand; when it came time to nominate an heir, Vidura suggested that Pandu would be a better fit because he wasn't blind. Though bitter at the result, Dhritarashtra willingly conceded the crown, though this act would flower into the protectiveness he would have over his crown in life. Dhritarashtra marries Gandhari of Hastinapur's lowly vassal Ghandar, he and Gandhari had one hundred sons, called one daughter Dushala. He had a son named Yuyutsu with Sauvali. Lord Krishna as a peace emissary of Pandavas traveled to Hastinapura persuading Kauravas to avoid bloodshed of their own kin. However, Duryodhana conspired to arrest him. After Krishna's peace mission failed and the war seemed inevitable, Vyasa approached Dhritarashtra and offered to grant him divine vision, so that Dhritarashtra could see the war.
However, not willing to see his kin slaughtered, Dhritarashtra asked that the boon be given to Sanjaya his charioteer. Sanjaya dutifully narrates the war to his liege. Sanjaya would console the blind king while challenging the king with his own morals; when Lord Krishna displayed his Vishvarupa to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, Dhritarashtra regretted not possessing the divine sight. Dhritarashtra was confident that Bhishma, Drona and other invincible warriors would make the Kaurava camp victorious, he rejoiced. However, the results of the war devastated him. All of his trueborn sons were killed in the carnage. Dhritarashtra's only daughter Duhsala was widowed. Yuyutsu had defected to Pandava side at the onset of war and was the only son of Dhritrashtra who had managed to survive Kurukshetra War. Dhritarashtra was furious with Bhima for mercilessly slaying all his sons Duryodhana. After the war ended, the victorious Pandavas arrived at Hastinapur for the formal transfer of power; the Pandavas go to give their respects.
Dhritarashtra hugged Yudhishthira heartily. When Dhritarashtra turned to Bhima, Lord Krishna sensed the danger and asked Bhima to move Duryodhana's iron statue of Bhima in his place. Dhritarashtra crushed the statue with into pieces, broke down crying, his anger leaving him. Broken and defeated, Dhritarashtra apologized for his folly and wholeheartedly embraced Bhima and the other Pandavas. After the great war of Mahabharat, the grief-stricken blind king along with his wife Gandhari, sister-in-law Kunti, half brother Vidura left Hastinapur for penance, it is believed that all of them perished in attained Moksha. 2017
The Drona Parva, or the Book of Drona, is the seventh of eighteen books of the Indian epic Mahabharata. Drona Parva traditionally has 204 chapters; the critical edition of Drona Parva has 173 chapters. Drona Parva describes the appointment of Drona as commander-in-chief of the Kaurava alliance, on the 11th day of the Kurukshetra War, the next four days of battles, his death on the 15th day of the 18-day war; the parva recites how the war became more brutal with each passing day, how agreed rules of a just war began to be ignored by both sides as loved ones on each side were slain, how the war extended into the night, how millions of more soldiers and major characters of the story - Abhimanyu, Drona, Ghatotkacha - died during the war. This Parva traditionally has 204 adhyayas; the following are the sub-parvas: 1. Dronābhisheka parva With Bhishma fatally injured and on his death bed of arrows, Karna meets Bhishma and asks his permission to join the war. Karna meets Kauravas and consoles them on the loss of Bhishma advises Duryodhana to appoint Drona - their teacher - as replacement commander-in-chief for the war.
Drona is crowned as the new chief of the Kauravas army. The sub-parva describes various battles, brutal destruction on both sides. 2. Samsaptakabadha parva Arjuna wins a series of battle, destroys Samsaptakas, kills Sudhanwa. Drona kills Satyajit. Bhima kills king Anga. Both sides suffer a series of losses, including the deaths of Naraka and three brothers of Karna. 3. Abhimanyu-vadha parva Abhimanyu starts the day with a series of victories, slaughtering numerous fronts of Kauravas alliance, he defeats Jayadhrata, kills Rukhmaratha. His sweep attracts the focus of Kauravas. Drona collects six warriors and together they attack Abhimanyu, killed by Duhshassana's son; the death of Abhimanyu - the son of Arjuna, shocks Pandavas. 4. Pratijna parva This sub-parva recites the story of Akampana, a tale to console someone who has lost a dear one. Arjuna and Subhadra cry after learning about their son's death. Krishna consoles. 5. Jayadratha-vadha parva Arjuna returns to the battlefield, unleashes destruction to Kauravas side.
Pandavas side suffers losses as well. Jayadratha is killed by Arjuna. 6. Ghatotkacha-vadha parva Duryodhana uses all means of war and unfair, heroic and barbaric, breaks rules of just war when necessary, causes havoc and major losses on Pandavas side. Drona kills Sivi. Satyaki kills Somadatta. Bhima kills Dhruva, Durmada, Valhika, seven brothers of Shakuni, ten brothers of Duryodhana, five princes of Gandhari, many more warriors. Ghatotkacha, the son of Bhima kills a vast array of Kauravas army formations. Karna and Kauravas focus on Ghatotkacha. Bhima cries over his son's death. Both sides harden in their stance to destroy the other side. 7. Drona-vadha parvha This sub-book describes how Drona - the teacher who taught both Kauravas and Pandavas brothers - died on the battlefield. Drona mistakenly believes his son. Drona in grief becomes vulnerable. Drona's death sends Kauravas army into panic. 8. Narayanastra-mokshana parva Ashwatthama who just lost his father is upset and angry at the unjust death of his father.
He slaughters Pandava army. He uses weapons of so-called the Narayana weapon, in anger; the Narayana weapon has the power to kill everyone, armed. Krishna realizes the scale of the Narayana weapon, he uses his god powers to tell everyone to throw down their weapons, thus saving the Pandavas brothers and their army. Ashwatthama tries to use other weapons of mass destruction as revenge for his father's death, but fails. Sage Vyasa appears and explains to Ashwatthama that he can no longer fight because he is abusing his powers and unjustly using weapons. Ashwatthama retires from the battle field, an action that saves him from the destruction in days of war ahead. Ashwatthama reappears after the war ends, takes his revenge in Sauptika Parva. Drona Parva was composed in Sanskrit. Several translations of the book in English are available. Two translations from 19th century, now in public domain, are those by Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Manmatha Nath Dutt; the translations vary with each translator's interpretations.
Clay Sanskrit Library has published a 15 volume set of the Mahabharata which includes a translation of Drona Parva by Vaughan Pilikian. This translation uses an old manuscript of the Epic; the translation does not remove verses and chapters now believed to be spurious and smuggled into the Epic in 1st or 2nd millennium AD. Debroy, in 2011, notes that updated critical edition of Drona Parva, after removing verses and chapters accepted so far as spurious and inserted with prejudice, has 8 sub-books, 173 adhyayas and 8,069 shlokas, he has published a translated version of the critical edition of Drona Parva in Volume 6 of his series. Dronābhisheka Parva, Chapter 4: May you be the refuge of your friends, as the ocean is the refuge of the rivers, the sun of the planets, the pious of the truth, fertile soil of the seeds, Parjannya of the created beings. Dronābhisheka Parva, Chapter 4: Dronābhisheka Parva, Chapter 5: Jayadratha-badha Parva, Chapter 148: Ghatotkacha-badha Parva, Chapter 154: Previous book of Mahabharata: Bhishma Parva Next book of Mahabharata: Karna Parva Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli
In Hindu mythology, Bhima is the second born of the Pandavas. The Mahabharata relates many events. Bhima is responsible for slaying all hundred Kaurava brothers in the Kurukshetra War; the word Bhima in Sanskrit means'big' or'tall'. His other names are – Bhimasena – he, equivalent to a formidable army Vrikodara – wolf bellied or voracious eater Gadadhara – mace-wielder Vayuputra / Bayu Tanaya – son of Vayu – God of Wind Jarasandhajit – he who won over Jarasandha Hidimbabhid – he who pierced Hidimba Kichakajit – he who defeated Kichaka Jihmayodhin – fighter against falsehood Ballava – cook Hanyalaurya – creator. Arya Bratasena Along with other Pandava brothers, Bhima was trained in religion, science and military arts by the Kuru preceptors and Drona, he became a master in using the mace. Bhima's strong point throughout the epic remains his towering strength, he was so wrathful and strong that it was impossible for Indra to subdue him in a battle. Bhima was renowned for his giant appetite – at times, half of the total food consumed by the Pandavas was eaten by him.
Bhima, being as powerful as his father, was a natural bully. He used to play practical jokes on the Kaurava brothers, his repeated failures and fecklessness against Bhima angered Duryodhana so much that he wanted him dead. He hatched a cunning plot where he drowned him in River Ganga. Thankfully, the Naga king Vasuki saved Bhima and apprised him of Duryodana's hatred for him, it is Vasuki who bestowed him the immense strength of ten thousand elephants. Duryodana with his counsellor Purochana hatched a plan to burn the Pandavas alive at a lac palace Lakshagraha at Varnavrata that Duryodhana had built there. Thanks to prior notice from Vidura, the Pandavas managed to escape out from the palace with Bhima played a major role in carrying all five of them and escaping to safety. Bhima barricaded the palace of Purochana and set fire to it, thereby ensuring Purochana became a victim of his own evil plot. Kunti and the Pandavas were living in agnyatavaasa. During their stay at Ekachakra or kaiwara, they came to know of a demon, who troubled people by eating members of their village and their provisions.
The powerful Bhima brought his might to the fore and killed Bakasura, much to the delight of the villagers. At the time Bhima kills the demon Hidimba, king of demons of forest Kamyaka, he meets his sister Hidimbi. Hidimbi promises Kunti that she and Ghatotkacha will stay out of the Pandavas' lives and away from the luxuries of court; when Bhima killed the demon Hidimba, he became the King of Kamyaka for 5 years. In Mahabharata, the demon army from Kamyaka fought the war alongside Pandavas. After death of Ghatotkacha Bhima again became king of Kamyaka; the Pandavas attended the Swayamvara of Drupada princess, Draupadi. The Pandavas, led by Arjuna, were successful at the Swayamvara. With his brothers, he was married to Draupadi. At a stage, Bhima married Valandhara, the daughter of the king of Kasi, had a son named Savarga. Among Bhima's three sons, Sarvaga did not participate in the Kurukshetra war, Sutasoma was killed by Ashwatthama and Ghatotkacha was killed by Karna; when Yudhishthira became emperor of Indraprastha he sent his four younger brothers out in different directions to subjugate kingdoms for the Rajasuya sacrifice.
Bhima was sent out to the East, since Bhishma thought the easterners were skilled in fighting from the backs of elephants and in fighting with bare arms. He deemed Bhima to be the most ideal person to wage wars in that region; the Mahabharata mentions several kingdoms to the east of Indraprastha. Key victories include his fights with: Jarasandha of the Magadha empire; this was the most important win, as Jarasandha had several allies in the region, including Shishupala and Bhagadatta. Krishna tricked Jarasandha into having a wrestling bout with Bhima; this was an agonizing battle. At the end, Bhima tore apart his body into two. Dasarnas, where the king called Sudharman with his bare arms fought a fierce battle with Bhima, who appointed the mighty Sudharman as the first-in-command of his forces. Sishupala of Chedi Kingdom, Matsya and the country called Madahara and the Somadheyas and the king of the Bhargas, as the ruler of the Nishadas and Manimat Southern Mallas and the Bhagauanta mountain. Sarmakas and the Varmakas After Yudhishthira succumbed to Shakuni's challenge in the game of dice, the Pandavas were forced into exile for 13 years, one of, in anonymity.
The exile period in the forests, saw the Pandavas come face to face with many rakshasas and Bhima played a crucial role in the epic in rescuing his brothers every time. Right at the start of the exile, in the woods of Kamyaka, the Pandavas encountered the demon Kirmira, the brother of Bakasura and a friend of Hidimba. A fierce battle ensued between Bhima and the demon, where the two matched fighters hurled rocks and trees at each other. Bhima emerged victorious. Once in Badarikasrama forest, Draupadi
Kuru was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana and the western part of Uttar Pradesh, which appeared in the Middle Vedic period and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent. The Kuru kingdom decisively changed the Vedic heritage of the early Vedic period, arranging the Vedic hymns into collections, developing new rituals which gained their position in Indian civilization as the srauta rituals, which contributed to the so-called "classical synthesis" or "Hindu synthesis", it became the dominant political and cultural center of the middle Vedic Period during the reigns of Parikshit and Janamejaya, but it declined in importance during the late Vedic period, had become "something of a backwater" by the Mahajanapada period in the 5th century BCE. However and legends about the Kurus continued into the post-Vedic period, providing the basis for the Mahabharata epic; the main contemporary sources for understanding the Kuru kingdom are ancient religious texts, containing details of life during this period and allusions to historical persons and events.
The time-frame and geographical extent of the Kuru kingdom suggest its correspondence with the archaeological Painted Grey Ware culture. The Kurus figure prominently in Vedic literature after the time of the Rigveda; the Kurus here appear as a branch of the early Indo-Aryans, ruling the Ganga-Yamuna Doab and modern Haryana. The focus in the Vedic period shifted out of Punjab, into the Haryana and the Doab, thus to the Kuru clan; this trend corresponds to the increasing number and size of Painted Grey Ware settlements in the Haryana and Doab area. Archaeological surveys of the Kurukshetra District have a revealed a more complex three-tiered hierarchy for the period of period from 1000 to 600 BCE, suggesting a complex chiefdom or emerging early state, contrasting with the two-tiered settlement pattern in the rest of the Ganges Valley. Although most PGW sites were small farming villages, several PGW sites emerged as large settlements that can be characterized as towns; the Kuru tribe was formed in the Middle Vedic period as a result of the alliance and merger between the Bharata and Puru tribes, in the aftermath of the Battle of the Ten Kings.
With their center of power in the Kurukshetra region, the Kurus formed the first political center of the Vedic period, were dominant from 1200 to 800 BCE. The first Kuru capital was at Āsandīvat, identified with modern Assandh in Haryana. Literature refers to Indraprastha and Hastinapura as the main Kuru cities; the Atharvaveda praises Parikshit, the "King of the Kurus", as the great ruler of a thriving, prosperous realm. Other late Vedic texts, such as the Shatapatha Brahmana, commemorate Parikshit's son Janamejaya as a great conqueror who performed the ashvamedha; these two Kuru kings played a decisive role in the consolidation of the Kuru state and the development of the srauta rituals, they appear as important figures in legends and traditions. The Kurus declined after being defeated by the non-Vedic Salva tribe, the center of Vedic culture shifted east, into the Panchala realm, in Uttar Pradesh. According to post-Vedic Sanskrit literature, the capital of the Kurus was transferred to Kaushambi, in the lower Doab, after Hastinapur was destroyed by floods as well as because of upheavals in the Kuru family itself.
In the post Vedic period, the Kuru dynasty evolved into Kuru and Vatsa janapadas, ruling over Upper Doab/Delhi/Haryana and lower Doab, respectively. The Vatsa branch of the Kuru dynasty further divided into branches at Mathura; the tribes that consolidated into the Kuru Kingdom or'Kuru Pradesh' were semi-nomadic, pastoral tribes. However, as settlement shifted into the western Ganges Plain, settled farming of rice and barley became more important. Vedic literature of this time period indicates the growth of surplus production and the emergence of specialized artisans and craftsmen. Iron was first mentioned as śyāma ayas in a text of this era. Another important development was the fourfold varna system, which replaced the twofold system of arya and dasa from the Rigvedic times; the Brahmin priesthood and Kshatriya aristocracy, who dominated the arya commoners and the dasa labourers, were designated as separate classes. Kuru kings ruled with the assistance of a rudimentary administration, including purohita, village headman, army chief, food distributor, emissary and spies.
They extracted mandatory tribute from their population of commoners as well as from weaker neighboring tribes. They led frequent raids and conquests against their neighbors to the east and south. To aid in governing, the kings and their Brahmin priests arranged Vedic hymns into collections and developed a new set of rituals to uphold social order and strengthen the class hierarchy. High-ranked nobles could perform elaborate sacrifices, many rituals exalted the st
Ghee, is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India. It is used in Middle Eastern cuisine, cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asian cuisine, traditional medicine, religious rituals. Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, churned from cream, skimming any impurities from the surface pouring and retaining the clear liquid fat while discarding the solid residue that has settled to the bottom. Spices can be added for flavor; the texture and taste of ghee depends on the quality of the butter, the milk source used in the process and the duration of time spent boiling. The word ghee comes from Sanskrit: घृत'clarified butter', from ghṛ-'to sprinkle'. Traditionally, ghee is always made from bovine milk, as cows are considered sacred, it is a sacred requirement in Vedic yajña and homa, through the medium of Agni to offer oblations to various deities.. Fire ritual have been performed dating back over 5,000 years, they are thought to be auspicious for ceremonies such as marriage, etc.
Ghee is necessary in Vedic worship of mūrtis, with aarti called diyā or dīpa and for Pañcāmṛta where ghee along with mishri, honey and dahi is used for bathing the deities on the appearance day of Krishna on Janmashtami, Śiva on Mahā-śivarātrī. There is a hymn to ghee. In the Mahabharata, the kaurava were born from pots of ghee. Finding ghee pure enough to use for sacred purposes is a problem these days for devout Hindus, since many large-scale producers add salt to their product. Ghee is used in bhang in order to heat the cannabis to cause decarboxylation, making the drink psychoactive. Ghee is common in cuisines including traditional rice preparations. In Maharashtra, polis or Indian breads are accompanied with ghee. For example,'Puranpoli', a typical Maharashtrian dish is eaten with lots of ghee. In Rajasthan, ghee accompanies baati. All over north India, ghee tops roti. In Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, ghee tops dosa, kesari bhath. In Bengal and Gujarat, khichdi is a traditional evening meal of rice with lentils, cooked in curry made from dahi, cumin seeds, curry leaves, turmeric, garlic and ghee.
It is an ingredient in kadhi and Indian sweets, such as Mysore pak and varieties of halva and laddu. Pakistani and Punjabi restaurants incorporate large amounts of ghee, sometimes brushing naan and roti with it, either during preparation or just before serving. In the state of Odisha ghee is used in regional Odia cusines such as'Khechedi' and'Dalma'; the satwik type of food prepared in temples in Odisha use a ghee as a major ingredient for their culnary skills. Ghee is used in South Indian cuisine for tempering curries, in preparation of rice dishes and sweets. South Indians have a habit of adding ghee to their rice before eating it with curries. South Indians are one of the biggest consumers of ghee; the people from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh use ghee for preparation of savoury and sweet dishes alike. Ghee is important to traditional Punjabi cuisine, with parathas and curries using ghee instead of oil for a richer taste; the type of ghee, in terms of animal source, tends to vary with the dish.
Ghee is an ideal fat for deep frying because its smoke point is 250 °C, well above typical cooking temperatures of around 200 °C and above that of most vegetable oils. The main flavor components of ghee are carbonyls, free fatty acids and alcohols. Along with the flavor of milk fat, the ripening of the butter and temperature at which it is clarified affect the flavor. For example, ghee produced by the clarification of butter at 100 °C or less results in a mild flavor, whereas batches produced at 120 °C produce a strong flavor. Ghee differs in its production; the process of creating traditional clarified butter is complete once the water is evaporated and the fat is separated from the milk solids. However, the production of ghee includes simmering the butter, which makes it nutty-tasting and aromatic. A traditional Ayurvedic recipe for ghee is to boil raw milk, let it cool to 110 °F. After letting it sit covered at room temperature for around 12 hours, add a bit of dahi to it and let it sit overnight.
This makes more yogurt. This is churned with water, to obtain cultured butter, used to simmer into ghee. Ayurveda considers pure ghee to be sattva-guṇi, when used as food, it is the main ingredient in some of the Ayurvedic medicines, is included under catuh mahā sneha along with sesame oil, muscle fat, bone marrow. Though eight types of ghee are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, ghee made of human breast milk and cow's ghee are favored. Ghee is used in Ayurvedas for constipation and ulcers. In Sri Lankan indigenous medical traditions, ghee is included in pas tel. Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats, it is rich in oxidized cholesterol
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic text, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri, the princess of Madra. Their names are Yudhishthira, Arjuna and Sahadeva. All five brothers were married to Draupadi. Together the brothers fought and won the great war against their cousins the Kauravas, which came to be known as the Kurukshetra War; the word Pandava is derived from their father's name and means "descendants of Pandu". The other epithets of the Pandava group are: Pāṇḍuputra - sons of Pandu Pāṇḍavakumāra - young Pandavas Kaunteya - sons of Kunti Mādreya - sons of Madri Yudhishthira: The eldest Pandava brother, his name means "one, steadfast during war". His parents were Kunti and pandu, god of virtue and morality. Though he lacked the characteristic combat prowess of a Kshatriya, Yudhishthira was one of the most virtuous men, skilled in the duties of a king and steadfast in the path of dharma, he was a good king. In consequence of Krishna's machinations and by his brothers' conquest of the world, Yudhishthira became the emperor of the world.
He performed one Rajasuya sacrifice. Yudhishthira became good at playing chess, his other names are Dharmaraja. Bhima: The second Pandava brother, his name means "of terrible might". His parents were Kunti and Vayu, the god of air and wind, known for his might. Bhima has the physical strength and prowess equal to a hundred elephants and was athletic, he was prone to anger. Of all the brothers, he alone opposed Yudhishthira, although loyal to him, for his questionable decisions opposing common sense in the name of dharma. Bhima was their natural protector, he was a master in wielding the mace. He was a powerful archer, having fought Drona and Ashwatthama and Karna on several occasions. Bhima was very skilled in diverse areas of warfare, including wrestling, riding elephants and sword fighting. Along with Arjuna, he went on expeditions to conquer the kingdoms to the south. During the Rajasuya Yagna, Bhima subjugated the kingdoms of the eastern direction completely, he slew Krishna's most dangerous enemy, Jarasandha, in a wrestling bout, slew the Matsya commander, for molesting Draupadi.
During the war, Bhima was most famous for slaying one hundred Kauravas and Duryodhana himself. He was skilled in chopping wood, culinary arts and sciences. Bhima's other name was Vrikodara. However, he was selfish as well, he married a rakshashi Hidimba during their hiding in the forest in addition to Draupadi and had a son Ghatotkachh. Arjuna: The third Pandava brother, his name relates to "arjana" or earning. His parents were king of the gods and the god of the sky and war, he was virtuous and avoided unjust acts. He was known for his singleminded concentration and his devotion to Krishna, he was the only person. Arjuna was more fortunate than his brothers as he was the favourite of Bhishma, popular among the people, famous among the gods and attractive to women, he was the favorite disciple of his guru Drona. Arjuna was ambidextrous and the greatest of archers, having mastered archery to the highest possible level, he was rivalled by Bhishma and Karna. In those days, archery was considered to be the foremost of all fighting disciplines, Arjuna's mastery over it contributed to his popularity.
Arjuna was a complete master archer, a supreme chariot warrior and had obtained near-perfect mastery over all divine and esoteric weapons, along with the secrets of invoking and recalling them. He spent five years mastering divine weapons from Indra and the other gods, he acquired the mastery over the rarest and the most powerful weapon, the Pashupatastra, from Lord Shiva himself. He had command over devastating weapons like the Brahmastra. Nakula: The fourth Pandava brother, his name means "without kula". His parents were the Ashwin twin Nasatya, he was attractive, humble and helpful. During the Rajasuya Yagna, Nakula conquered the western direction. During the Kurukshetra War, he slew many warriors including many sons of Karna and son of shakuni, Uluka. Nakula and his younger twin brother, were excellent sword fighters. Nakula was a master of equestrian arts and sciences, skilled in wielding unusual weapons, in chariotry and in riding horses, he was known for special ways with horses. Sahadeva: The fifth and the youngest brother of the Pandavas.
His name means "along gods" or "with gods". His parents were the Ashwin twin Dasra. Sahadeva was the wisest of all the Pandava brothers, the most mysterious and introverted. Like Nakula, Sahadeva was a master of sword fighting, he was skilled in fighting and taming wild bulls. Additionally, he was a skilled cowherd, capable of maintaining cattle, treating their diseases, assessing their health, milking them and in producing milk products. Sahadeva acquired mastery over
Vana Parva or Aranya Parva known as the “Book of the Forest”, is the third of eighteen parvas of the Indian epic Mahabharata. Aranya Parva traditionally has 324 chapters; the critical edition of Aranya Parva has 299 chapters. It is one of the longest books in the Epic, it discusses the twelve-year sojourn of the Pandavas in the forest, the lessons they learn there and how it builds their character. It is one of the longest of the 18 books in the Mahabharata, contains numerous discussions on virtues and ethics, along with myths of Arjuna, Bhima tales of “Nahusha the snake and Yudhishthira” as well as “Ushinara and the hawk”, love stories of “Nala and Damayanti”, as well as “Savitri and Satyavan”; this book traditionally has 324 sections. The following are the sub-parva: 1. Aranyak Parva Pandavs go into exile to the forest of Kamyaka. Sage Vidura advises Dhritarashtra to give him back his kingdom. Dhritarashtra refuses, Vidura joins Pandav brothers. Vyas, as well as Maitrey counsel Dhritarashtra to conclude peace with the Pandav.
Dhritarashtra refuses. 2. Kirmirabadh Parva The battle between man-eating demon Kirmira and the giant Pandava brother, Bhima. Kirmira is killed. 3. Arjunabhigamana Parva The parva introduces his accomplishments in the past. Krishna criticizes gambling as one of four sins that ruins a man, laments he was absent when Yudhishthira accepted the game of dice. Yudhishthira expresses anguish for his gambling habit. Krishna suggests persuasion, followed by force if necessary, is appropriate to prevent one's friend before he commits a sinful act such as gambling. Draupadi appeals to Yudhishthira to wreak vengeance on Kaurava brothers. In Chapters 27 through 36, the theory of forgiveness is debated between various characters - should one always forgive, never forgive, forgive sometimes; the chapters discuss anger, how it is destructive to a person and to society at large. Draupadi offers arguments of cause and effect of actions, suggests free will, questions whether forgiveness defeats the principle of consequences.
Yudhishthira disagrees with Draupadi, presents the theory that virtue is its own reward. Draupadi praises those who believe in free will and shape the future, she censures those who believe in chance or destiny. Bhima questions. Yudhishthira disagrees with Bhima, argues; the arguments are left open ended, with no consensus conclusion presented, the characters retire from the debate pensively. Vyasa arrives, shares the theory and knowledge of Pratismriti with the Pandavas. 4. Kirata Parva Arjuna lives like an austere Rishi in the forest, to gain knowledge. Due to his fierce penances, all Rishis went to god of gods Sthanu to relieve them. Knowing Arjuna desire, that god of Pinaka visits Arjuna, disguised as Kirata, accompanied by Uma and women in thousands. At that time, a boar is about to attack Arjuna, but was struck down by two shafts. They both quarrled, they battle each other, in which Arjuna get amused that all shafts that he fired, either got baffled or consumed by that person remaining unharmed, considering he is not an ordinary person but a divine.
Soon Arjuna's shafts were exhausted, so he started to fight with his bow, but it was snatched by that god. Arjuna struck his golden hilt sword upon the head of that Kirata, but as soon as it touched his crown, broke into pieces, they both wrestled and fistfighted in which at last Kairata press Arjuna with his chest and Arjuna became deprived of his senses. Regaining senses, Arjuna started to worshipped Mahadeva offering floral garlands. However, he finds the garland that he offered, decking the crown of the Kairata he understands the whole situation. Shiva blesses Arjuna with the knowledge of Pasupata weapon. Indra and other deities provides him their weapon. Yama gives his mace, Varuna his divine noose, Kubera grant his favourite weapon called'Antarddhana'. 5. Indralokagamana Parva Arjuna visits heaven; the parva describes the city of Indra. Gods furnish celestial weapons to Arjuna. Goddess Urvasi seduces Arjuna, enters his bedroom. Married Arjuna declines to mate with her. Urvasi gets angry, curses.
Deity Indra converts the curse into a boon. 6. Nalopakhyana Parva Yudhishthira continues in his anguish that his gambling error has caused, declares himself the most wretched person on earth. Vrihadashwa consoles him with the story of Nala, another prince who erred by gambling, recovered from his mistake. Nalopakhyana parva recites the love story of prince Nala and princess Damayanti, who never met each other, yet fall in love with each other, after learning about each other's character, virtues and beliefs through a hansa; the feathery messenger transmits their love messages. Damayanti's father announces a Swayamvara - a contest between eligible bachelors so that Damayanti can watch and choose the man she wants to marry; the gods arrive to win over Damayanti, the gods pick Nala as their messenger. Nala is in a bind, but tries to convince Damayanti