Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Province No. 3
Province No. 3 is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the country's new constitution of 20 September 2015. Home to the country's capital Kathmandu, it is hilly and mountainous, home to peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang and Ganesh; the province covers an area of 20,300 km2, about 14% of the country's total area, has an altitude low enough to support deciduous and alpine forest and woodland. Temperature varies with altitude. Rainfall takes place during the summer; the Province borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Gandaki Pradesh to the west, both Province No. 2 and the Indian state of Bihar to the south. As per a 17 January 2018 Federal cabinet meeting, Hetauda has been declared the interim state capital; the most populous province of Nepal, it possesses rich cultural diversity, with resident communities and castes including Newar, Sherpa, Chepang, Brahmin, Tharu, Chepang and more. It hosted the highest number of voters in the last election for the House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly, which took place in 2017.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Patan High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Anuradha Koirala, Dormani Poudel and Tek Bahadur Moktan respectively. The province has 110 provincial assembly constituencies and 35 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 3 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Province No. 3 is temporarily housed at the Regional Education Directorate in Hetauda. Province No. 3 is divided into 13 districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further divided into rural municipalities. The municipalities include three metropolitan cities, one sub-metropolitan city and 41 municipalities.
There are 74 rural municipalities in the province. Bhaktapur District Chitwan District Dhading District Dolakha District Kathmandu District Kavrepalanchok District Lalitpur District Makwanpur District Nuwakot District Ramechhap District Rasuwa District Sindhuli District Sindhupalchok District List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Ilam district is one of 14 districts of Kirat of eastern Nepal. It is a Hill district and covers 1,703 km2; the 2011 census counted 290,254 population. The municipality of Ilam is about 600 km from Kathmandu. Ilam attracts many researchers who come to study the Red Panda. Ilam stretches from the Terai belt to the upper hilly belt of this Himalayan nation; the name Ilam is derived from the Limbu language. Illam was one of the ten self ruling states of Limbuwan before the reunification of Nepal, its ruler King Hangshu Phuba Lingdom of Lingdom dynasty ruled Illam as a confederate state of Limbuwan until 1813 AD. The treaty between the other Limbuwan states and the King of Gorkha and the conflict of Gorkha and Sikkim led to the unification of Illam with Gorkha. Illam was the last of the ten kingdoms of Limbuwan to be reunified into Nepal; the King of Gorkha gave the ruler of Illam the right of Kipat. Illam was an independent Limbu kingdom until 1813 CE/1869 BS. Ilam is today one of the most developed places in Nepal.
Its ILAM TEA is famous and is exported to many parts of Europe. The main source of income in this district is tea, milk, potato and broom production on a large scale; this place has a religious importance. The devi temples have a great importance attached to them and many people come here just for pilgrimage; the major attraction of Ilam is the 9-cornered Mai Pokhari lake. Known as the abode of the goddess lots of tourists as well as Nepalese people come to visit this place. Gajurmukhi is the religious spot for pilgrimages from Nepal and India. Mai river and its four tributaries emerge in Ilam district; the famous Mane Bhanjyang connects Ilam with Darjeeling district of India. Ilam was much in the news in the past during the Maoist insurgency, from here the Maoists launched massive attacks frequently. Tourists going to Ilam can expect to pay around 7000 rupees a week for food. Ilam is divided into 6 rural municipalities. Zones of Nepal danabari "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Bhojpur District, Nepal
Bhojpur District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district's area is 1,507 km² with a population of 182,459; the administrative center is Bhojpur. Traditionally, the inhabitants of this area have been the indigenous Rai ethnic group. In the northern part of this district lies the beautiful small city of Dingla. Various hill castes, Brahmin and ethnic groups like Rai reside within this beautiful area; this is the place where rudraksha trees grow in the forest as well as individually on people's land. The religious leader, women's rights activist and poet Yogmaya Neupane was born in 1860 in Dingla. Champe is the other small town where people from surrounding villages sell their products; this is called Hatiya. Balankha is one of the growing towns in the southwest area of Bhojpur. Another town Ghoretar, southeast of Bhojpur, has been a center point of trade and administration for a long time, it is famous as Hatuwa Gadi "a powerful fort of Kirat king Sunahang" in Kirat history.
Balankha borders with neighboring Khotang district's Bopung village. Balankha is emerging as another hub of education, communication and trade; the most distinctive thing about Balankha is its famous Chhongkha Sakela celebration. It is the Kirat Rai festival when Rais go to'Sakewa Than' at Dammarkhu village of Khotang, pray for good harvest and rain, they flock back to the open space of Chandi bazar to dance and celebrate with great joy. Classified as a Hill District, Bhojpur spans five of Nepal's eight climate zones. 3% of the district's area is below 300 meters elevation in the Lower Tropical zone and 31% is Upper Tropical from 300 to 1,000 meters. 50% of the land area belongs to the Subtropical Zone between 1,000 and 2,000 meters and 15% is Temperate. 2% rises higher into the Subalpine Zone. Bhojpur is divided into two urban and seven rural municipalities: According to the census of Nepal 2011, the population of the district is 182,459, in which 53% comprises female. Major ethnicities in the district are Rai, Tamang, Newar and others.
The literacy rate is 69 percent. Most spoken language in the district is Nepali, 49% people speak Nepali. 20 % people speak 8 % speak Tamang language. The district was affected by an earthquake on 25 April 2015. Zones of Nepal
Dhankuta District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district covers an area of 891 Km² and has a population of 163,412. Dhankuta is the district headquarters of Dhankuta District. Dhankuta was a part of Limbuwan and Kirata Kingdom before unification of those parts into Kingdom of Nepal. After 1816 there were 10 districts in Nepal and Dhankuta-chainpur district was one of them. All land from east of Dudhkosi river to the Mechi river was one district Dhankuta-chainpur. From 1885 to 1962 Nepal remained divided into 32 districts and there were six districts in eastern-hill region: East No. 1, East No. 2, East No. 3, East No. 4, Ilam and Dhankuta. Dhankuta was center of these districts; that time dhankuta was a large district. Current Sankhuwasabha, Taplejung and Dhankuta districts were Incorporated under one district; the total area of the former Dhankuta district was 3,448 square miles. In 1962, Nepal divided into 75 districts and 16 districts of eastern Nepal grouped to form Eastern Development Region and Dhankuta became the headquarter of it.
Dhankuta is a mid-hill district of eastern hill region of Nepal. It is situated between 26 ° 53' to 87 ° 8' to 88 ° 33' east longitude. Total area of the district is 888.7 square kilometres and it is located at 243 metres to 629 metres of elevation above sea level. The vegetation zones in the district range from sub-tropical Sal forest along the Tamor and Arun rivers, cooler temperate forests on some of the high ridges that mark the watershed between the two catchments; the altitude ranges from around 300m to 2500m. The majority of the population are involved in agriculture and crops include maize and millet. Important cash crops include citrus fruits, cabbage, in recent years, tea. A well-preserved forest spreads along a ridge line on the northwest side of the village, with well-developed mature stands of rhododendron and sallo trees. Dhankuta is divided into 4 rural municipalities. Dhankuta was divided into 2 municipalities and many Village development committees. Dhankuta District has singal Parliamentary constituency and 2 Provincial constituencies: Dhankuta, the headquarter of Dhankuta District is connected with NH-08, which connects Dhankuta with NH-01 at Itahari.
Itahari is 69 KM at distance from Dhankuta. The NH-08 connects Dhankuta to northern hill and mountainous area. Pakhribas Bhedetar Namaste Waterfall Zones of Nepal District Development Committee, Dhankuta "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Jhākri is the Nepali word for shaman. It is sometimes reserved for practitioners of Nepali shamanism, such as that practiced among the Tamang people and the Magars. Jhākri shamanism is practiced among numerous ethnic groups of Nepal and Northeast India, including the Limbu, Sunwar, Kami, Gurung, Magars and Khas. Belief in spirits is prevalent, hence the fear of spirit possession; some vernacular words for jhākri are phedangbo in the Limbu language, maangpa or nakchyong in Khambu, boongthing in Lepcha. Jhākris perform rituals during weddings and harvests, they cure diseases. Their practices are influenced by Hinduism, Tibetan Buddhism, Bön rites. Banjhakri and Banjhakrini, shaman deities of Nepal Banjhakri Falls and Energy Park, a tourist attraction in Northeast India, with statues of jhākri Gulia, Kuldip Singh. Human Ecology of Sikkim: A Case Study of Upper Rangit Basin. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 81-7835-325-3