National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Aleutians West Census Area, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 15 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the census area, including 10 National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
National Register of Historic Places listings in Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 29 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the census area, including 3 National Historic Landmarks. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Eskimo or Eskimos are the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia to across Alaska and Greenland. The two main peoples known as "Eskimo" are: the Alaskan Iñupiat peoples, Greenlandic Inuit, the mass-grouping Inuit peoples of Canada, the Yupik of eastern Siberia and Alaska; the Yupik comprise speakers of four distinct Yupik languages: one used in the Russian Far East and the others among people of Western Alaska, Southcentral Alaska and along the Gulf of Alaska coast. A third northern group, the Aleut, is related to these two, they share a recent common ancestor, a language group. The word Eskimo derives from phrases; the Inuit and Yupik peoples consider the word "Eskimo" to be offensive and do not use it to refer to themselves, preferring to refer to themselves as "Inuit". The governments in Canada and Greenland have ceased using it in official documents. In its linguistic origins, the word Eskimo comes from Innu-aimun'ayas̆kimew' meaning "a person who laces a snowshoe" and is related to "husky".
In Canada and Greenland, the term "Eskimo" is predominately seen as pejorative and has been replaced by the term "Inuit" or terms specific to a particular group or community. This has resulted in a trend whereby some Canadians and Americans believe that they should not use the word "Eskimo" and use the Canadian word "Inuit" instead for Yupik speakers. In section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and section 35 of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982, recognized the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Under U. S. and Alaskan law, "Alaska Native" refers to all indigenous peoples of Alaska. This includes not only the Iñupiat and the Yupik, but groups such as the Aleut, who share a recent ancestor, as well as the unrelated indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Alaskan Athabaskans; as a result, the term Eskimo is still in use in Alaska. Alternative terms, such as Inuit-Yupik, have been proposed, but none has gained widespread acceptance.
Several earlier indigenous peoples existed in the region. The earliest positively identified Paleo-Eskimo cultures date to 5,000 years ago, they appear to have developed in Alaska from people related to the Arctic small tool tradition in eastern Asia, whose ancestors had migrated to Alaska at least 3,000 to 5,000 years earlier. Similar artifacts have been found in Siberia that date to 18,000 years ago; the Yupik languages and cultures in Alaska evolved in place, beginning with the original pre-Dorset indigenous culture developed in Alaska. 4000 years ago, the Unangan culture of the Aleut became distinct. It is not considered an Eskimo culture. 1,500–2,000 years ago in northwestern Alaska, two other distinct variations appeared. Inuit language became distinct and, over a period of several centuries, its speakers migrated across northern Alaska, through Canada and into Greenland; the distinct culture of the Thule people developed in northwestern Alaska and quickly spread over the entire area occupied by Eskimo people, though it was not adopted by all of them.
Two principal competing etymologies have been proposed for the name "Eskimo", both derived from the Innu-aimun language, an Algonquian language of the Atlantic Ocean coast. The most accepted today appears to be the proposal of Ives Goddard at the Smithsonian Institution, who derives the term from the Montagnais word meaning "snowshoe-netter" or "to net snowshoes." The word assime. Montagnais speakers refer to the neighbouring Mi ` kmaq people using words. In 1978, Jose Mailhot, a Quebec anthropologist who speaks Montagnais, published a paper suggesting that Eskimo meant "people who speak a different language". French traders who encountered the Montagnais in the eastern areas, adopted their word for the more western peoples and spelled it as Esquimau in a transliteration; some people consider Eskimo derogatory because it is perceived to mean "eaters of raw meat" in Algonquian languages common to people along the Atlantic coast. One Cree speaker suggested the original word that became corrupted to Eskimo might have been askamiciw.
The first printed use of the word'Esquimaux' comes from Samuel Hearne's A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean in the Years 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772 first published in 1795. Hearne, an Englishman employed by the Hudson Bay Company, traveled to Fort Prince of Wales at present day Churchill via ship, not overland, he is unlikely to have encountered French traders or their allies in his travels to have picked up a word for the present-day Inuit from them, as the fall of Quebec and the end of French activity in North America was just 6 years prior to his arrival. On the contrary, trade at Fort Prince of Wales was conducted with the Cree and the Chipewyans, conducted at the shores of Hudson Bay at that time. Trade, by ship, with the Esquimaux was one of Hearne's first assignments, it would be on Hearne's watch. It was in the company of Matonabbee on his third attempt to find the sources of the copper in use by indigenous peoples that Hearne encountered the Inuit as described in Massacre at Bloody Falls.
That the word'esqui
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Lake and Peninsula Borough, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 21 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the borough, including 2 National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska
National Register of Historic Places listings in Bethel Census Area, Alaska
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Bethel Census Area, Alaska. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Bethel Census Area, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 7 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the census area; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska