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Kayenta Formation

Kayenta, Arizona is a settlement in the Navajo reservation. The Kayenta Formation is a geologic layer in the Glen Canyon Group, spread across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona, northwest Colorado and Utah; this rock formation is prominent in southeastern Utah, where it is seen in the main attractions of a number of national parks and monuments. These include Zion National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, the San Rafael Swell, Canyonlands National Park; the Kayenta Formation appears as a thinner dark broken layer below Navajo Sandstone and above Wingate Sandstone. Together, these three formations can result in immense vertical cliffs of 2,000 feet or more. Kayenta layers are red to brown in color, forming broken ledges. In most sections that include all three geologic formations of the Glen Canyon group the Kayenta is recognized. At a distance it appears as a dark-red, maroon, or lavender band of thin-bedded material between two thick, cross bedded strata of buff, tan, or light-red color.

Its position is generally marked by a topographic break. Its weak beds form a bench or platform developed by stripping the Navajo sandstone back from the face of the Wingate cliffs; the Kayenta is made up of beds of sandstone and limestone, all lenticular, uneven at their tops, discontinuous within short distances. They suggest deposits made by shifting streams of fluctuating volume; the sandstone beds, from less than 1-inch to more than 10 feet thick, are composed of coarse, well-rounded quartz grains cemented by lime and iron. The thicker beds are indefinitely cross bedded; the shales are fine-grained thin sandstones that include lime concretions and balls of consolidated mud. The limestone appears as solid gray-blue beds, a few inches to a few feet thick, as lenses of limestone conglomerate. Most of the limestone lenses are less than 25 feet long, but two were traced for nearly 500 feet and one for 1,650 feet. Viewed as a whole, the Kayenta is distinguished from the geologic formations above and below it.

It is unlike them in composition, manner of bedding, sedimentary history. The conditions of sedimentation changed in passing from the Wingate Sandstone formation to the Kayenta and from the Kayenta to the Navajo sandstone, but the nature and regional significance of the changes have not been determined. In some measured sections the transition from Wingate to Kayenta is gradual, but in many sections the contact between the two formations is unconformable. In Moqui Canyon near Red Cone Spring nearly 10 feet of Kayenta limestone conglomerate rests in a long meandering valley cut in Wingate; the contact between the Kayenta and the Navajo in places seems to be gradational, but a thin jumbled mass of sandstone and shales, chunks of shale and limestone, mud balls, concretions of lime and iron, lies at the base of the fine-grained, cross bedded Navajo. Mud cracks, a few ripple marks, incipient drainage channels were observed in the topmost bed of the Kayenta on Red Rock Plateau; these features indicate that, in places at least, the Wingate and Kayenta were exposed to erosion before their overlying geologic formations were deposited, are it may be that the range in thickness of the Kayenta thus in part accounted for.

The red and mauve Kayenta siltstones and sandstones that form the slopes at base of the Navajo Sandstone cliffs record the record of low to moderate energy streams. Poole has shown that the streams still flowed toward the east depositing from 150 to 210 m of sediment here; the sedimentary structures showing the channel and flood plain deposits of streams are well exposed on switchbacks below the tunnel in Pine Creek Canyon. In the southeastern part of Zion National Park a stratum of cross bedded sandstone is found halfway between the top and bottom of the Kayenta Formation, it is a "tongue" of sandstone that merges with the Navajo formation east of Kanab, it shows that desert conditions occurred in this area during Kayenta time. This tongue is the ledge that shades the lower portion of the Emerald Pool Trail, it is properly called Navajo, not Kayenta. Fossil mudcracks attest to occasional seasonal climate, thin limestones and fossilized trails of aquatic snails or worms mark the existence of ponds and lakes.

The most interesting fossils, are the dinosaur tracks that are common in Kayenta mudstone. These vary in size, but all seem to be the tracks of three-toed reptiles that walked upright, leaving their tracks in the muds on the flood plains. So far no bone materials have been found in Washington County that would enable more specific identification. During Kayenta time Zion was situated in a climatic belt like that of Senegal with rainy summers and dry winters at the southern edge of a great desert; the influence of the desert was about to predominate, however, as North America drifted northward into the arid desert belt. The Kayenta Formation is 400 feet thick and consists of a fine-grained sandstone interbedded with layers of siltstone; the alternation of these units produces a series of ledges and slopes between the cliffs of the Navajo and Moenave formation

Chang An-lo

Chang An-lo known as the White Wolf, is a Taiwanese ultra-nationalist, organized crime figure and politician. He is supportive of Chinese unification. A reputed former leader of the Bamboo Union crime brotherhood, Chang fled Taiwan in 1996 after being placed on the wanted list by authorities in Taipei for involvement in organised crime, leading him to live in exile in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. Chang is credited with giving the Bamboo Union a political mission and a touch of romantic character which has made it more appealing to gain members from rival criminal gangs. During his time in China, the Chinese Unity Promotion Party was founded in 2004, he started a Taiwan-based branch of the party in 2005. He returned to Taiwan in June 2013 and was arrested by Taiwanese police on arrival at Songshan Airport and released on bail. President Ma Ying-jeou received criticism for his lax treatment of Chang. Upon his return to Taiwan, Chang opened a campaign headquarters affiliated with the "Chinese Unification Promotion Party" in downtown Tainan in order to prepare for elections in 2016.

Following a police raid of one of the party's headquarters in November 2013, police stated their concerns about the political party's links to organized crime to the press. Police alleged that the political party was being used as a front for membership in the Bamboo Union gang in New Taipei City. In 2013, his party claims that it has a membership of 20,000 persons, 75 branch-offices. In August 2019 Chang was arrested by Taiwanese police and prosecutors charged him and five party workers with taking illicit political donations and tax evasion. Chin, Ko-lin. Heijin: Organized Crime and Politics in Taiwan. Armonk, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1220-8

Ptah, the El Daoud

Ptah, the El Daoud recorded and released in 1970 is the third solo album by Alice Coltrane. This was Coltrane's first album with horns. Sanders is recorded on Joe Henderson on the left channel throughout. All the compositions were written by Alice Coltrane; the title track is named for an Egyptian god, Ptah, "the El Daoud" meaning "the beloved". "Turiya", according to the liner notes, "was defined by Coltrane as "a state of consciousness — the high state of Nirvana, the goal of human life", while "Ramakrishna" was a 19th-century Bengali religious figure and denotes a movement founded by his disciples. On "Blue Nile", Coltrane switches from piano to harp, Sanders and Henderson from tenor saxophones to alto flutes; the album's cover design was by Jim Evans. "Ptah, the El Daoud" – 13:58 "Turiya and Ramakrishna" – 8:19 "Blue Nile" – 6:58 "Mantra" – 16:33All tracks composed by Alice Coltrane, recorded at the Coltrane home studio in Dix Hills, New York on 26 January 1970. Alice Coltrane — harp, piano Pharoah Sanders — tenor sax, alto flute, bells Joe Henderson — tenor sax, alto flute Ron Carterbass Ben Rileydrums Ptah, the El Daoud — Impulse!

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