Kayqubad I

Kayqubad I or Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykāvūs was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237. He expanded the borders of the sultanate at the expense of his neighbors the Mengujek Beylik and the Ayyubids, established a Seljuq presence on the Mediterranean with his acquisition of the port of Kalon Oros renamed Ala'iyya in his honor; the sultan, sometimes styled "Kayqubad the Great", is remembered today for his rich architectural legacy and the brilliant court culture that flourished under his reign. Kayqubad's reign represented the apogee of Seljuq power and influence in Anatolia, Kayqubad himself was considered the most illustrious prince of the dynasty. In the period following the mid-13th century Mongol invasion, inhabitants of Anatolia looked back on his reign as a golden age, while the new rulers of the Anatolian beyliks sought to justify their own authority through pedigrees traced to him. Kayqubad was the second son of Sultan Kaykhusraw I, who bestowed upon him at an early age the title malik and the governorship of the important central Anatolian town of Tokat.

When the sultan died following the battle of Alaşehir in 1211, both Kayqubad and his elder brother Kaykaus struggled for the throne. Kayqubad garnered some allies among the neighbors of the sultanate: Leo I, the king of Cilician Armenia and Tughrilshah, the brothers' uncle and the independent ruler of Erzurum. Most of the emirs, as the powerful landed aristocracy of the sultanate, supported Kaykaus. Kayqubad was forced to flee to the fortress at Ankara, where he sought aid from the Turkman tribes of Kastamonu, he was soon imprisoned by his brother in a fortress in western Anatolia. Upon Kaykaus' unexpected death in 1219, released from captivity, succeeded to the throne of the sultanate. In 1227/1228, Kayqubad advanced into Anatolia, where the arrival of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, fleeing the destruction of his Khwarezmian Empire by the Mongols, had created an unstable political situation; the sultan settled Turcomans along the Taurus Mountains frontier, in a region called İçel. At the end of the 13th century, these Turcomans established the Karamanids.

The sultan defeated the Artuqids and the Ayyubids and absorbed the Mengujek emirate into the sultanate, capturing the fortresses of Hısn Mansur, Çemişgezek along his march. He put down a revolt by the Empire of Trebizond and, although he fell short of capturing their capital, forced the Komnenos dynasty family to renew their pledges of vassalage. At first Kayqubad sought an alliance with his Turkish kinsman Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu against the Mongol threat; the alliance could not be achieved, afterwards Jalal ad-Din took the important fortress at Ahlat. Kayqubad defeated him at the Battle of Yassıçimen between Sivas and Erzincan in 1230. After his victory, he advanced further east, establishing Seljuq rule over Erzurum and the region of Lake Van; the Artuqids of Diyarbakır and the Ayyubids of Syria recognized his sovereignty. He captured a number of fortresses in Georgia, whose queen sued for peace and gave her daughter Tamar in marriage to Kayqubad's son, Kaykhusraw II. Mindful of the increasing presence and power of the Mongols on the borders of the Sultanate of Rum, he strengthened the defenses and fortresses in his eastern provinces.

He died at an early age in the last of his line to die in independence. According to Rustam Shukurov, it is probably that Kayqubad and his brother Kaykaus I, who both spent considerable time in Constantinople with their father, had the same dual confessional and dual ethnic identity as Kaykhusraw I, Kaykaus II, Masud II. Kayqubad had three sons: Kaykhusraw II, eldest and son of his Greek wife Mah Pari Khatun, and'Izz al-Din and Rukn al-Din, sons of his Ayyubid princess wife Ghaziya Khatun. Kayqubad had his subjects swear allegiance to his son Izz al-Din, but the emirs preferred to rally behind the more powerful Kaykhusraw. With no clear successor, conflict broke out between the various factions upon Kayqubad's death. Kayqubad sponsored a large scale building campaign across Anatolia. Apart from reconstructing towns and fortresses, he built many mosques, caravanserais and hospitals, many of which are preserved to this day. Besides completing the construction of the Seljuq Palace in Konya, he built the Kubadabad Palace on the shore of Lake Beyşehir and Keykubadiye Palace near Kayseri.

Limited preview Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis; the Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29135-6. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Cahen, Claude. Pre-Ottoman Turkey: A general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c. 1071-1330. New York: Taplinger. P. +. Hdl:2027/heb.00871. ISBN 1-59740-456-X. Crane, H.. "Notes on Saldjūq Architectural Patronage in Thirteenth Century Anatolia". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Leiden: Brill. 36: 1–57. Doi:10.1163/156852093X00010. ISSN 0022-4995. JSTOR 3632470. Peacock, A. C. S.. "The Saljūq Campaign against the Crimea and the Expansionist Policy of the Early Reign of'Alā' al-Dīn Kayqubād". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 16: 133–149. Doi:10.1017/S1356186306005979. ISSN 1356-1863. Peacock, A. C. S.. The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0857733467. Redford, Scott. "The Alaeddin Mosque in Konya Reconsidered".

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2009 Mackay Cutters season

The 2009 Mackay Cutters season was the second in the club's history. Coached by Shane Muspratt and captained by Jardine Bobongie, they competed in the QRL's Wizard Cup; the club finished the season in last place, winning the wooden spoon. The 2009 season started for the Cutters, with three straight wins before a run of nine straight losses sunk them to the bottom of the table. A 10–34 loss to the Tweed Heads Seagulls in the final game of the regular season saw them finish last on points differential. Local junior Jardine Bobongie joined the club in 2009 and won their Player of the Year award after spending the 2008 season playing for the St George Illawarra Dragons' New South Wales Cup side, he would go on to play an influential role in their maiden premiership four years captaining the side in the Grand Final victory. 2009 saw the Cutters have their first Queensland Residents representative, with North Queensland Cowboys contracted prop Dayne Weston being selected in the side. Round 3: The club recorded their sixth straight win, the club's longest winning streak.

The following players contracted to the North Queensland Cowboys played for the Cutters in 2009: Mitchell Achurch, Ben Farrar, Ben Harris, Shannon Hegarty, Antonio Kaufusi, Donald Malone, Anthony Perkins, Steve Rapira, Grant Rovelli, Anthony Watts and Dayne Weston. Player of the Year: Jardine Bobongie Sponsor's Player of the Year: Jardine Bobongie Rookie of the Year: Darren Griffiths Club Person of the Year: Tony Gambie

2019 Circle K Firecracker 250

The 2019 Circle K Firecracker 250 was a NASCAR Xfinity Series race held on July 5, 2019, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. Contested over 100 laps on the 2.5-mile superspeedway, it was the 16th race of the 2019 NASCAR Xfinity Series season. The race was held at Daytona International Speedway, a race track located in Daytona Beach, United States. Since opening in 1959, the track is the home of the Daytona 500, the most prestigious race in NASCAR. In addition to NASCAR, the track hosts races of ARCA, AMA Superbike, USCC, SCCA, Motocross, it features multiple layouts including the primary 2.5 miles high speed tri-oval, a 3.56 miles sports car course, a 2.95 miles motorcycle course, a.25 miles karting and motorcycle flat-track. The track's 180-acre infield includes the 29-acre Lake Lloyd; the speedway is operated by International Speedway Corporation. A. J. Allmendinger was the fastest in the first practice session with a time of 46.177 seconds and a speed of 194.902 mph.

Tyler Reddick scored the pole for the race with a speed of 187.743 mph. Tyler Reddick began on pole; the first caution occurred when Caesar Bacarella lost control of his car and spun, causing seven other drivers to be involved. Landon Cassill was the only driver taken out in this caution due to a bent track bar; as the first stage neared its end, Ross Chastain blocked Reddick and narrowly missed the wall, but Reddick made contact with it. The stack-up from the two drivers resulted in Sheldon Creed and John Hunter Nemechek spinning from contact, bringing out the second caution. Chastain won Stage 1. On the final lap of the first stage, Justin Haley blocked several drivers from making a run, causing them to pass him from underneath, but NASCAR deemed he forced them below the double-yellow line, sent him to the rear of the field. Reddick collected Chase Briscoe, ending his day. A. J. Allmendinger blocked Chastain to win Stage 2; the first “Big One” occurred in the middle of the field on and collected ten drivers.

Riley Herbst spun with 21 laps remaining. Another “Big One” 7 laps took out fifteen drivers, including Michael Annett and Cole Custer, brought out a red flag. On the final restart, Shane Lee and Justin Allgaier both spun out on separate occasions, but no caution was thrown for either instance; the trio of Kaulig Racing drivers proved too fast for any other driver to contend them. Chastain would win the race and was followed by teammates Haley and Allmendinger, Allmendinger would soon be disqualified after failing post race inspection. Stage One Laps: 30 Stage Two Laps: 30 Stage Three Laps: 40 A. J. Allmendinger was disqualified from his third-place finish after his car failed post-race inspection; this was the third consecutive week. Allmendinger's car failed an engine vacuum test, dialling back the initial 1-2-3 finish for Kaulig Racing to a 1-2 finish. Allmendinger was stripped of his stage points after being relegated to last place