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Kazimir Malevich

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century. Born in Kyiv to an ethnic Polish family, his concept of Suprematism sought to develop a form of expression that moved as far as possible from the world of natural forms and subject matter in order to access "the supremacy of pure feeling" and spirituality. Malevich is considered to be part of the Ukrainian avant-garde, shaped by Ukrainian-born artists who worked first in Ukraine and over a geographical span between Europe and America. Early on, Malevich worked in a variety of styles assimilating the movements of Impressionism and Fauvism, after visiting Paris in 1912, Cubism. Simplifying his style, he developed an approach with key works consisting of pure geometric forms and their relationships to one another, set against minimal grounds, his Black Square, a black square on white, represented the most radically abstract painting known to have been created so far and drew "an uncrossable line between old art and new art".

In addition to his paintings, Malevich laid down his theories in writing, such as "From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism" and The Non-Objective World: The Manifesto of Suprematism. Malevich's trajectory in many ways mirrored the tumult of the decades surrounding the October Revolution in 1917. In its immediate aftermath, vanguard movements such as Suprematism and Vladimir Tatlin's Constructivism were encouraged by Trotskyite factions in the government. Malevich held several prominent teaching positions and received a solo show at the Sixteenth State Exhibition in Moscow in 1919, his recognition spread to the West with solo exhibitions in Warsaw and Berlin in 1927. From 1928 to 1930 he taught at the Kyiv Art Institute, with Alexander Bogomazov, Victor Palmov, Vladimir Tatlin and published his articles in a Kharkiv magazine Nova Generatsia, but the start of repression in Ukraine against the intelligentsia forced Malevich return to modern-day Saint Petersburg. From the beginning of the 1930s, modern art was falling out of favor with the new government of Joseph Stalin.

Malevich soon lost his teaching position and manuscripts were confiscated, he was banned from making art. In 1930, he was imprisoned for two months due to suspicions raised by his trip to Poland and Germany. Forced to abandon abstraction, he painted in a representational style in the years before his death from cancer in 1935, at the age of 56. Nonetheless, his art and his writing influenced contemporaries such as El Lissitzky, Lyubov Popova and Alexander Rodchenko, as well as generations of abstract artists, such as Ad Reinhardt and the Minimalists, he was celebrated posthumously in major exhibits at the Museum of Modern Art, the Guggenheim Museum and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, which has a large collection of his work. In the 1990s, the ownership claims of museums to many Malevich works began to be disputed by his heirs. Kazimir Malevich was born Kazimierz Malewicz to a Polish family, who settled near Kiev in Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire during the partitions of Poland, his parents and Seweryn Malewicz, were Roman Catholic like most ethnic Poles, though his father attended Orthodox services as well.

They both had fled from the former eastern territories of the Commonwealth to Kyiv in the aftermath of the failed Polish January Uprising of 1863 against the tsarist army. His native language was Polish, but he spoke Russian, as well as Ukrainian due to his childhood surroundings. Malevich would write a series of articles in Ukrainian about art. Kazimir's father managed a sugar factory. Kazimir was the first of fourteen children, his family moved and he spent most of his childhood in the villages of modern-day Ukraine, amidst sugar-beet plantations, far from centers of culture. Until age twelve he knew nothing of professional artists, although art had surrounded him in childhood, he delighted in peasant embroidery, in decorated walls and stoves. He was able to paint in the peasant style, he studied drawing in Kyiv from 1895 to 1896. From 1896 to 1904 Kazimir Malevich lived in Kursk. In 1904, after the death of his father, he moved to Moscow, he studied at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture from 1904 to 1910 and in the studio of Fedor Rerberg in Moscow.

In 1911 he participated in the second exhibition of the group, Soyuz Molodyozhi in St. Petersburg, together with Vladimir Tatlin and, in 1912, the group held its third exhibition, which included works by Aleksandra Ekster and others. In the same year he participated in an exhibition by Donkey's Tail in Moscow. By that time his works were influenced by Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, Russian avant-garde painters, who were interested in Russian folk art called lubok. Malevich described himself as painting in a "Cubo-Futuristic" style in 1912. In March 1913 a major exhibition of Aristarkh Lentulov's paintings opened in Moscow; the effect of this exhibition was comparable with that of Paul Cézanne in Paris in 1907, as all the main Russian avant-garde artists of the time absorbed the cubist principles and began using them

Hilliard, Florida

Hilliard is a town in Nassau County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,086. In 2003, Hilliard was chosen as the "2003 Rural Community of the Year" by Florida governor Jeb Bush, because of its collaboration with the YMCA to establish a local chapter, which includes a large swimming pool and exercise facilities. Hilliard is located at 30°41′16″N 81°55′30″W. Hilliard is near the Florida-Georgia border, within the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,702 people, 966 households, 705 families residing in the town; the population density was 491.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,066 housing units at an average density of 194.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 84.09% White, 13.10% African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population.

There were 966 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.17. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,531, the median income for a family was $37,227. Males had a median income of $34,554 versus $23,713 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,683. About 11.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 18.6% of those age 65 or over.

Along with Callahan, Hilliard is one of the major economic centers of western Nassau County. Its location on the railroad and at the intersection of several major roads have contributed to economic growth; the area has significant stands of lumber used in the manufacture of paper as well as wood products. Much of the area land for tree farming is owned by The Moyer Company. Hilliard is home to a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Center, which coordinates most commercial and civilian air traffic for the southeastern United States; the FAA center is a major employer in Hilliard and there are many retired FAA employees who live in the area and enjoy the relaxed rural lifestyle. Hilliard is one of many towns along US 1. Logging is a major industry in the area surrounding Hilliard; because of specific soil conditions and a great deal of open rural land in the area, Hilliard was at one time considered by the Department of Energy as a possible site for the Superconducting Super Collider.

There are 25.1 % of the total population, who are enrolled in some type of school. 7.9% of those school-age individuals are in nursery or pre-school, 9.0% attend kindergarten, 44.6 are in elementary school, 30.4% are in high school, 8.1% are enrolled in college or graduate school. Hilliard has 1,651 residents who are older. 8.8% have less than a 9th grade education, 23.9% have between a 9th and 12th grade education, but no diploma. 38.3% have a high school diploma or GED, 18.8% have some college but no degree, 4.3% have an Associate's degree, 3.8% have a Bachelor's degree, 2.0% have a Master's degree. It is a part of the Nassau County School District. Hilliard Elementary School serves grades K-5, Hilliard Middle-Senior High School is a consolidated institution which holds grades 6-12. Nassau County Public Library operates the Hilliard Branch Library. Hilliard lies at the intersection of County Road 108 and US 1, part of US 301 and US 23 as it runs south from the St. Mary's River to Callahan. CR 108 is known as Second Street while passing through Hilliard.

There is a blinking yellow light two miles south, at the intersection of Old Dixie Highway and US 1. US 1 / US 23 / US 301 CR 108 CR 115 CR 115A The Hilliard Airpark is a small, unpaved airstrip available for personal aircraft; this is a municipal facility, has hangars available for those who want them. The Airpark can be used as a landing site for helicopters to transport patients in urgent situations; the complex is located across the street from Eastwood Oaks Apartments. Mayor: Cris W. McConnell Town Clerk: Lisa Purvis Council Members John P. Beasley Kenny Sims Lee Pickett Jared Wollitz Lucian "Jack" Bailey Nassau County Fire Rescue operates Station 40 in Hilliard, as well as Station 90 River Road. Howie Kendrick, Major League Baseball player for the Anaheim Angels Daniel Thomas, National Football League player for the Miami Dolphins Mike Alessi, Professional Motocross/Supercross Hilliard Middle-Senior High School permanent dead link] Hilliard Elementary School

Christopher Needham

Sir Christopher Thomas Needham was a British businessman and Liberal politician. Needham was educated at the University of Manchester, he was to maintain a link with the university throughout his life, becoming a governor in 1908, a chairman of the council from 1936 to 1941. He became a partner in the family company, John Needham and Sons of Manchester and steel merchants, he stood as Liberal candidate for the constituency of Manchester South West at the January 1910 general election, but was defeated by the Conservative, Arthur Colefax. The position was reversed at the ensuing election in December, when Needham unseated Colefax to become a member of parliament, he held the seat until 1918. After leaving parliament, Needham was knighted in 1919, expanded his business interests, he became chairman of the Manchester and Liverpool District Banking Company in 1922. He remained chairman of the company until 1936, he was chairman of the National Boiler and General Insurance Company and was a director of the London and North Eastern Railway, the Manchester Ship Canal and the Alliance Assurance company.

Outside of business, he was chairman of Lancashire County Cricket Club from 1941 to 1943. He married Florence White in 1902, they had one daughter before her death in 1905. Sir Christopher Needham died at his home in West Didsbury in 1944, aged 77. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Christopher Needham