Oʻahu, known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. The state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahu's southeast coast. Including small associated islands such as Ford Island and the islands in Kāneʻohe Bay and off the eastern coast, its area is 596.7 square miles, making it the 20th-largest island in the United States. Oʻahu is 44 miles long and 30 miles across, its shoreline is 227 miles long. The island is composed of two separate shield volcanoes: the Waiʻanae and Koʻolau Ranges, with a broad "valley" or saddle between them; the highest point is Kaʻala in the Waiʻanae Range, rising to 4,003 feet above sea level. The island was home to 953,207 people in 2010. Oʻahu has for a long time been known as the "Gathering Place"; the term Oʻahu has no confirmed meaning in Hawaiian, other than that of the place itself. Ancient Hawaiian tradition attributes the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands.
The story relates. Residents of Oʻahu refer to themselves as no matter their ancestry; the city of Honolulu—largest city, state capital, main deepwater marine port for the State of Hawaiʻi—is located here. As a jurisdictional unit, the entire island of Oʻahu is in the Honolulu County, although as a place name, Honolulu occupies only a portion of the southeast end of the island. Well-known features found on Oʻahu include Waikīkī, Pearl Harbor, Diamond Head, Hanauma Bay, Kāneʻohe Bay, Kailua Bay, North Shore. While the entire island is the City and County of Honolulu, locals identify settlements using town names (generally those of the Census Designated Places, consider the island to be divided into various areas, which may overlap; the most accepted areas are the "City", "Town" or "Town side", the urbanized area from Halawa to the area below Diamond Head, "West Oʻahu," which goes from Pearl Harbor to Kapolei, ʻEwa and may include the Mākaha and Waiʻanae areas. These terms are somewhat flexible, depending on the area in which the user lives, are used in a general way, but residents of each area identify with their part of the island those outside of widely-known towns.
For instance, if locals are asked where they live, they would reply "Windward Oʻahu" rather than "Lāʻie". Being diamond-shaped, surrounded by ocean and divided by mountain ranges, directions on Oʻahu are not described with the compass directions found throughout the world. Locals instead use directions using Honolulu as the central point. To go ʻewa means traveling toward the western tip of the island, "Diamond Head" is toward the eastern tip, mauka is inland and makai toward the sea; when these directions became common, Diamond Head was the eastern edge of the primary populated area. Today, with a much larger populace and extensive development, the mountain itself is not to the east when directions are given, is not to be used as a literal point of reference—to go "Diamond Head" is to go to the east from anywhere on the island. Oʻahu is known for having the longest rain shower in history, which lasted for 200 consecutive days. Kāneʻohe Ranch, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi reported 247 straight days with rain from August 27, 1993 to April 30, 1994.
The island has many nicknames one of them being "rainbow state." This is. The average temperature in Oʻahu is around 70–85 °F and the island is the warmest in June through October; the weather during the winter is cooler, but still warm with an average temperature of 68–78 °F. The windward side is known for some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Lanikai Beach on the windward coast of Oʻahu has been ranked among the best beaches in the world; the island has been inhabited since at least 3rd century A. D; the 304-year-old Kingdom of Oʻahu was once ruled by the most ancient aliʻi in all of the Hawaiian Islands. The first great king of Oʻahu was Maʻilikūkahi, the lawmaker, followed by many generation of monarchs. Kualiʻi was the first of the warlike kings. In 1773, the throne fell upon the son of Elani of Ewa. In 1783, Kahekili II, King of Maui, conquered Oʻahu and deposed the reigning family and made his son, Kalanikūpule, king of Oʻahu. Kamehameha the Great would conquer in the mountain Kalanikūpule's force in the Battle of Nuʻuanu.
Kamehameha founded the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi with the conquest of Oʻahu in 1795. Hawaiʻi would not be unified until the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau surrendered under King Kaumualiʻi in 1810. Kamehameha III moved his capital from Lāhainā, Maui to Honolulu, Oʻahu in 1845. ʻIolani Palace, built by other members of the royal family, is still standing, is the only royal palace on American soil. Oʻahu was apparent
Toyota is a city in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 420,076 and a population density of 457 persons per km²; the total area was 918.32 square kilometres. It is located about 35 minutes from Nagoya by way of the Meitetsu Toyota Line. Several of Toyota Motor Corporation's manufacturing plants, including the Tsutsumi plant, are located here; the longstanding ties between the Toyota Motor Corporation and the town of Toyota-shi known as Koromo, gave the town its current name. Toyota is located in north-central Aichi Prefecture, is the largest city in the prefecture in terms of area; the city area is mountainous to the north, with peaks averaging around 1000 meters in height along its northern border with Nagano and Gifu Prefectures. Much of the mountainous northern portion of the city is within the Aichi Kōgen Quasi-National Park; the central and southern portions of the city have agricultural flatlands. Toyota is within a two-hour drive of Nagoya. Aichi Prefecture Anjō Okazaki Kariya Shinshiro Seto Chiryu Nisshin Nagakute Miyoshi Shitara Gifu Prefecture Toki Mizunami Ena Nagano Prefecture Neba The area of present-day Toyota City has been inhabited since prehistoric times, archaeologists have found a continuous record of artifacts from the Japanese paleolithic period onwards.
In early proto-historic times, the area was under the control of the Mononobe clan, who built numerous kofun burial mounds. The local place name "Koromo" is mentioned in other early Japanese documents. During the Edo period, parts of the area of the current city were under the control of Koromo Domain, a feudal han under the Tokugawa shogunate; the village of “Tokugawa”, from which Tokugawa Ieyasu took his clan name, was located within what is now the city of Toyota. After the Meiji restoration, the area was organized into the towns of Asuke and Koromo and numerous villages under Higashikamo District and Nishikamo District; the area was a major producer of silk and prospered from the Meiji period through the Taishō periods. As the demand for raw silk declined in Japan and abroad, Koromo entered a period of gradual decline after 1930; the decline encouraged Kiichiro Toyoda, cousin of Eiji Toyoda, to look for alternatives to the family's automatic loom manufacturing business. The search led to the founding of.
Toyota built the first manufacturing facility, known as Toyota Honsha plant in November 1938, breaking ground in December 1935. On March 1, 1951, Koromo gained city status, absorbed the village of Takahashi from Nishikamo District on September 30, 1956. Due to the fame and economic importance of its major employer, the city of Koromo changed its name to Toyota on January 1, 1959. Toyota became a sister city with Detroit, United States in 1960, it continued to expand by annexing the towns of Kamigo on March 1, 1964, Takaoka on September 1, 1965, Sanage on April 1, 1967, as well as the village of Matsudaira on April 1, 1970. In 1979 the Nagoya Railroad opened the Toyota New Line, in 1988: The Aichi Loop Line was opened, thus improving access to the city via rail transport. Toyota became a Core City in 1998, with increased local autonomy. On March 25, 2005, Expo 2005 opened with its main site in Nagakute and additional activity in Seto and Toyota; the Expo continued until September 25, 2005. On April 1, 2005, Toyota absorbed the town of Fujioka, the village of Obara, the towns of Asuke and Inabu, the village of Shimoyama to create the new and expanded city of Toyota.
Mitsuru Obe and Eric Pfanner of The Wall Street Journal stated that by 2015 Toyota was recovering from an economic depression "so deep that some were comparing it to Detroit." Toyota, as the home city of Toyota Motors is well-served by national highways. However, it is the largest city in Japan, not served by the Japanese National Railways, or its successor, JR Central; the closest Shinkansen station is Mikawa-Anjō Station in the city of Anjō, although the limited-stop Nozomi and Hikari services do not stop there. Meitetsu – Toyota Line Umetsubo – Kamitoyota –Jōsui Meitetsu – Mikawa Line Sanage – Hiratobashi –Koshido –Umetsubo –Toyotashi –Uwagoromo –Tsuchihashi –Takemura – Wakabayashi – Mikawa Yatsuhashi Aichi Loop Railway – Aichi Loop Line Mikawa-Kamigō –Ekaku –Suenohara –Mikawa-Toyota –Shin-Uwagoromo –Shin-Toyota –Aikan-Umetsubo –Shigō –Kaizu –Homi –Sasabara –Yakusa Aichi High-Speed Transit Tōji-shiryōkan-minami –Yakusa Tōmei Expressway New Tōmei Expressway Isewangan Expressway Tōkai-Kanjō Expressway National Route 153 National Route 155 National Route 248 National Route 301 National Route 419 National Route 420 National Route 257 National Route 473 The main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 14-story building in Toyota.
As of 2006 the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor". The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, the original Honsha plant, Toyota's first plant engaging in mass production and named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013 company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in Toyota. Aichi Gakusen University Aichi Institute of Technology Toyota National
Awa is a city located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. The modern city of Awa was established on April 1, 2005, from the merger of the former town of Awa, absorbing the town of Ichiba, the towns of Donari and Yoshino, it is located in the former Awa Province. As of 2016, the city has an estimated population of 36,668 and a population density of 190 persons per km²; the total area is 190.97 km². Awa City official website Awa Town website Kitaro Shikoku Peace Bell Project
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, a core philosophy in Hinduism and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement, its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the civil rights movement. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force, rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, opposition to violence under any circumstance defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare". Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the main form of pacifism as "anti-warism", the rejection of all forms of warfare. Teichman's beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as "... A pacifist believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists reject theories of Just War; some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.
Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection; the interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are complex. An absolute pacifist is described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted in self-defense.
The principle is described as difficult to abide by due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person, being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. For instance, during the American Civil War, both the American Peace Society and some former members of the Non-Resistance Society supported the Union's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a "police action" against the Confederacy, whose act of Secession they regarded as criminal. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic. Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the Republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
In the 1960s, some pacifists associated with the New Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the Viet Cong and the Algerian FLN, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, war was thus the only option. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in literature. During the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states, they took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; the Taoist scripture "Classic of Great Peace" foretells "the coming Age of Great Peace". The Taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace"; the Lemba religion of southern Frenc
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
War bonds are debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war. In practice, modern governments finance war by putting additional money into circulation, the function of the bonds is to remove money from circulation and help to control inflation. War bonds are either retail bonds marketed directly to the public or wholesale bonds traded on a stock market. Exhortations to buy war bonds are accompanied by appeals to patriotism and conscience. Retail war bonds, like other retail bonds, tend to have a yield, below that offered by the market and are made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable for all citizens. Governments throughout history have needed to borrow money to fight wars. Traditionally they dealt with a small group of rich financiers such as Jakob Fugger and Nathan Rothschild, but no particular distinction was made between debt incurred in war or peace. An early use of the term "war bond" was for the $11 million raised by the US Congress in an Act of 14 March 1812, to fund the War of 1812, but this was not aimed at the general public.
Until July 2015 the oldest bonds still outstanding as a result of war were the British Consols, some of which were the result of the refinancing of incurring debts during the Napoleonic Wars, but these were redeemed following the passing of the Finance Act 2015. The government of Austria-Hungary knew from the early days of the First World War that it could not count on advances from its principal banking institutions to meet the growing costs of the war. Instead, it implemented a war finance policy modeled upon that of Germany: in November 1914, the first funded loan was issued; as in Germany, the Austro-Hungarian loans followed a prearranged plan and were issued at half yearly intervals every November and May. The first Austrian bonds had a five-year term; the smallest bond denomination available was 100 kronen. Hungary issued loans separately from Austria in 1919, after the war and after it had separated from Austria, in the form of stocks that permitted the subscriber to demand repayment after a year's notice.
Interest was fixed at 6%, the smallest denomination was 50 korona. Subscriptions to the first Austrian bond issue amounted to the equivalent of $440 million; the limited financial resources of children were tapped through campaigns in schools. The initial minimum Austrian bond denomination of 100 kronen still exceeded the means of most children, so the third bond issue, in 1915, introduced a scheme whereby children could donate a small amount and take out a bank loan to cover the rest of the 100 kronen; the initiative was immensely successful, eliciting funds and encouraging loyalty to the state and its future among Austro-Hungarian youth. Over 13 million kronen was collected in the first three "child bond" issues. Canada's involvement in the First World War began in 1914, with Canadian war bonds called "Victory Bonds" after 1917; the first domestic war loan was raised in November 1915, but not until the fourth campaign of November 1917 was the term Victory Loan applied. The First Victory Loan was a 5.5% issue of 5, 10 and 20 year gold bonds in denominations as small as $50.
It was oversubscribed, collecting $398 million or about $50 per capita. The Second and Third Victory Loans were floated in 1919, bringing another $1.34 billion. For those who could not afford to buy Victory Bonds, the government issued War Savings Certificates; the government awarded communities. Unlike France and Britain, at the outbreak of the First World War Germany found itself excluded from international financial markets; this became most apparent after an attempt to float a major loan on Wall Street failed in 1914. As such, Germany was limited to domestic borrowing, induced by a series of war credit bills passing the Reichstag; this took place in many forms. Nine bond drives were conducted over the length of the war and, as in Austria-Hungary, the loans were issued at six-month intervals; the drives themselves would last several weeks, during which there was extensive use of propaganda via all possible media. Most bonds had a rate of return of 5% and were redeemable over a ten-year period, in semi-annual payments.
Like war bonds in other countries, the German war bonds drives were designed to be extravagant displays of patriotism and the bonds were sold through banks, post offices and other financial institutions. As in other countries, the majority investors were not individuals but institutions and large corporations. Industries, university endowments, local banks and city governments were the prime investors in the war bonds. In part because of intense public pressure and in part due to patriotic commitment the bond drives proved successful, raising 10 billion marks in funds. Although successful the war bond drives only covered two-thirds of war-related expenditures. Meanwhile, the interest payable on the bonds represented a growing expense which required further resources to pay it. In August 1914 the gold reserves of the Bank of England, of all banking institutions in Great Britain, amounted to £9 million; the banks feared the declaration of war would trigger a run on the banks, so the Chancellor David Lloyd George extended the August bank holiday for three days to allow time for the passing of the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1914, by which Britain left the gold standard.
Under this Act the Treasury issued £300 million of paper banknotes